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Major Fibers & Their Properties


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Major Fibers & Their Properties

  1. 1. Southeast University Department Of Textile Engineering I/A 251,252 Tejgaon Dhaka Bangladesh
  2. 2. Submitted By Prepared By : Mazadul Hasan sheshir ID: 2010000400008 13th Batch Wet Processing Technology Southeast University
  3. 3. Cotton Molecular Structure: It composed of linear macromolecules having in the chain at least 85% by mass of acrylonitrile repeating units.
  4. 4. Physical Properties: Luster: High Tenacity (strength):Dry: 3.0-5.0 g/d Wet: 3.3-6.0 g/d Resiliency: low Density: 1.54-1.56 g/cm³ Moisture absorption: 15-25% Dimensional stability: Good Chemical Properties: Resistance to acids: Damage, weaken fibers Resistance to alkali: No harmful effects Resistance to organic solvents: High resistance Resistance to sunlight: Prolonged exposure weakens fibers Uses: Shorts Jackets  pants. Carpets
  5. 5. Silk Molecular Structure It Fibrous keratin molecules supercoil to form a very stable, left-handed superhelical motif to multimerise, forming filaments consisting of multiple copies of the keratin monomer.
  6. 6. Physical Properties: Tenacity: Strong (linear, beta-configuration polymers) Reflect light: At many angles Moisture regain: 11%. Elasticity: Moderate to poor: Linear density: 1 denier. Chemical Properties: Effect of acids: Degraded more readily than wool Effect of alkalis : To swell silk filament . Effect of mineral acids: Resistance except for sulfuric acid Effect of sunlight: The environment is not as good Uses: Ties Formal dresses High fashion clothes Dress suits
  7. 7. Wool Molecular Structure It has been estimated that wool contains more than170 different proteins. These are not uniformly distributed throughout the fiber; proteins of different structures are located in specific regions.
  8. 8. Properties: Strength: Weakest. Elasticity: 25 to 30 percent Resilience: High Absorbency: About 20 percent Color/Luster: Dull grey It is lightweight and versatile. Wool does not wrinkle easily. It is resistant to dirt and wear and tear. Uses: Sweaters Dresses Coats Suits Jackets Pants blankets Carpets
  9. 9. Acrylic Molecular Structure Polyacrylonitrile Acrylic copolymers Fiber composed of linear macromolecules having in the chain at least 85% by mass of acrylonitrile repeating units.
  10. 10. Properties: Moisture regain: 1.5-2% at 65%  Tenacity: dry state= 5 gpd wet state=4-8 gpd Breaking elongation: 15 Elastic recovery: 85% after 4% extension Thermal stability: Good Resistance to mineral acids: Good  Resistance to weak alkalies: Fairly good. Moths, Mildew and insects do not attack. Uses: Knit Jersey Sweater Blankets Wrinkle resistant fabrics. Pile and Fleece fabrics Carpets
  11. 11. Aramid Molecular Structure Fiber composed of linear macromolecules made up of aromatic groups joined by amide or imide linkages, at least 85% of the amide imide linkages.
  12. 12. Physical Properties: Thermal expansion: 2 -5 e-6/K Thermal conductivity: 0.05 - 0.05 W/m.K Specific heat: 1250 - 2900 J/kg.K Density: 1390 - 1440 kg/m3 Friction coefficient: 0.4 - 0.5 Water absorption: 3.5 - 6.5% Refraction index: 1.6 – 2 Mechanical Properties Young's modulus: 58000 - 82000 Mpa Tensile strength: 2800 - 3400 Mpa Elongation: 3.3 - 3.7% Compressive strength: 174 - 410 Mpa Creep strength: 2520 - 3060 Mpa Fatigue: 1750 - 2000 Mpa Yield strength: 2800 - 3400 MPa Uses: Flame-resistant clothing Heat protective clothing and helmets Hot air filtration fabrics Tires, newly as Sulfron (sulfur modified Twaron) Rubber goods reinforcement
  13. 13. Introduce to myself Sarker Md. Rafjan Sani ID: 2010000400051 Batch: 13th –II Dept. of Textile Engineering Southeast University My selected topics is chlorofiber &elastodiene .
  14. 14. Chlorofiber Molecular Structure Poly (Vinyl chloride) Fiber composed of linear macromolecules having in the chain more than 50% by mass of vinyl chloride or vinylidene chloride unites
  15. 15. Properties: Long lasting antibacterial effectiveness  Not wash out. An easy care product. comfort & coolness Heat regulation & moisture transfer good. Uses: Bedding Child care articles Underwear Lingerie Socks Hand knitting yarn
  16. 16. Elastodiene Molecular Structure Natural polyisoprene Fiber composed of natural or synthetic polyisoprene, or of one or more dienes polymerized with or without one or more vinyl monomers
  17. 17. Properties: Stretched: More than 500% without breaking Stronger & more durable than rubber Lightweight, soft, smooth It comfort and fit, prevents bagging and sagging Heat-settable Dye able Resistant to deterioration by body oils, perspiration Abrasion resistant Available in clear and opaque luster Uses:  Desired  Hosiery  Swimsuits Aerobic/exercise wear  Ski pants  Golf jackets  Disposable diaper  Waist bands Bra straps
  18. 18. Melamine Molecular Structure Melamine Fiber composed of at least 50% by mass of cross-linked macromolecules made up of melamine methylol polycondensate
  19. 19. Properties:  Average Diameter: 15 µm Average Denier: 2.4 g/9000m Specific Gravity: 1.4 Tensile Strength: 36 ksi Tenacity: 2.0 g/den Modulus: 1.0-55 Msi g/den Elongation at Break: 11% Moisture Regain (23°C, 65% RH): 5% Shrinkage at 200°C (1hr exposure): <1% Maximum Continuous Operating Temperature: 200°C Melting Temperature: Does not melt or drip Resistance to Mildew, Aging, and Sunlight: Excellent Resistance to Solvents, Alkalis: Excellent Uses: Mattresses, Home Furnishings / Nonwovens Specialty flame resistant papers Firefighting apparel Electrical papers Transmission / friction papers Filtration media Engineered materials / Short-fiber composites Adhesives / Fillers
  20. 20. Modacrylic Molecular Structure Acrylic copolymers If X = H & Y = Cl: Poly (acrylonitrile or chloride) IF X = Y = Cl: Poly (acrylonitrile or vinylidene chloride ) Fiber composed of linear macromolecules having in the chain at least 50% & less than 85% by mass of acrylonitrile
  21. 21. Physical Properties: Chemistry: 35% acrylonitrile / 65% vinylidene chloride Size: 3 denier x 51mm cut length. Crimp Level: 3.8 crimps/cm Moisture: 3.5% (typical) Mechanical Properties Strength: 2.6 cN/den (dry) Elongation: 28% (dry) Uses:  Deep-pile coats  Trims and linings  Simulated fur  Wigs  Hair pieces  Children's sleepwear  Career apparel
  22. 22. Introduce to myself Tofayel Ahmed ID: 2010000400053 Batch: 13th –II Dept. of Textile Engineering Southeast University My selected topics is polyaMide (NyloN) & polyester
  23. 23. Polyamide (Nylon) Molecular Structure Polyhexamethylene adipamide (Nylon 6,6) Polycaproamide (Nylon Fiber composed of linear macromolecules having in the chain recurring amide linkages, at least 85% of which are joined to aliphatic cyucloaliphatic units.
  24. 24. Properties: Moisture Absorption: 4.2-4.5% Specific Gravity: 1.14 Resilience: Excellent. Abrasion Resistance: Excellent. Effects of Acids, Alkalis, and Solvents: Resistant to weak acids, but decomposes in strong mineral acids. Dye Methods: Acid; some solution dyed. Resistance to Mildew, Aging, Sunlight: Excellent resistance to mildew and aging. Prolonged sunlight can cause degradation. Color Retention: Very good. Stain Resistance: Poor (5th generation very good). Stains/Soils Attracted to Fiber: Acid dyes, except for 5th generation. Melt Point : Type6-435º F; Type6, 6-490º Uses: Blouses  Dresses Foundation garments  Underwear, Raincoats, Swimwear  Cycle wear
  25. 25. Polyester Molecular Structure Poly(ethylene terephthalater Fiber composed of linear macromolecules having in the chain at least 85% by mass of an ester of a diol & terephthalic acid.
  26. 26. Properties: Denier: 0.5 – 15 Tenacity : dry 3.5 - 7.0 : wet 3.5 - 7.0 Elongation at break : dry 15 - 45 : wet 15 45% Moisture Regain: 0.4 Specific Gravity: 1.36 - 1.41% Elastic Recovery : @2% =98 : @5% = 65 Melting point : 260 - 270 degree C Effect of Sunlight : turns yellow, retains 70 - 80 % tenacity at long exposure Resistance to Weathering: good Rot Resistance: high Alkali Resistance: damaged by CON alkali Acid Resistance: excellent Uses:           Pants Shirts Tops Skirts Suits To manufacture high strength ropes Thread, hoses, Sails, Floppy disk liners Power belting
  27. 27. Polyethylene Molecular Structure Polyethylene Fiber composed of linear macromolecules of unsubstituted saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons
  28. 28. Physical Properties: State at 20ºC: flexible Temperature-dependent form changes: insignificant from +5ºC bis +90ºC Specific weight at 20ºC: approx. 0.92 Shore hardness at 20ºC: approx. 90 Tear strength at 20ºC: approx. 10 N/mm2 Elongation at break at 20ºC: approx. 500% Water absorption: traces Chemical Properties: Resistant against: Non-oxidizing alkalis, organic solvents excl. chlorinated Non-resistant against: Oxidizing acids, oils, fats, chlorinated hydrocarbons Uses:      Medical implants. Cable and marine ropes. Sail cloth. Sports equipment. Fish netting.
  29. 29. Polypropylene Molecular Structure Polypropylene Fiber composed of linear macromolecules made up of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon units in which one carbon atom in two carries a methyl side group, generally an isotactic configuration & without further substitution.
  30. 30. Properties: Uses:        Moisture Regain: < 0.1% Refractive Index: 1.49 Thermal Conductivity: 0.95Btu-in/ft .hr.°F Coefficient of linear thermal expansion: 4.0x10 /°F Heat of fusion: 21 cal/g Specific heat: 0.46 cal/g.c Density of Melt at 180°c: 0.769 g/cc Heat of Combustion: 19,400 Btu/lb Decomposition temperature range: 328-410°C Dielectric constant (0.1 MHz): 2.25 Dissipation factor (0.1 MHz): < 0.0002 Specific volume resistively: > 10 Ω. Cm Top sheet (coverstock) Acquisition and/or transport or distribution layer Absorbent core Backsheet Barrier leg cuffs Elastomeric materials Hot melt glues
  31. 31. Vinylal Molecular Structure Acetalized poly (vinyl alcohol) When n>0 Linear macromolecules if poly (vinyl alcohol) with different levels of accetalization
  32. 32. Elastomultiester Molecular Structure Example of physical arrangement: Part A and B consist of different macromolecules with ester groups Fiber formed by interaction of two or more chemically distinct linear macromolecules in two or more distinct phases (of which none exceeds 85% by mass) & half times its original length &released recovers rapidly & substantially to its initial length.
  33. 33. Elastolefin Molecular Structure Elastolefin Fiber composed of at least 95% (by mass) of macromolecules partially cross-linked, made up from ethylene & at least one other olefin & which, when stretched to one & a half its original length & released, recovers rapidly & substantially to its original length.
  34. 34. Flurofiber Molecular Structure Polytetrafluorethylene Fiber composed of linear macromolecules made from aliphatic fluorocarbon monomers.
  35. 35. Polyimide Molecular Structure Polyimide Fiber of synthetic linear macromolecules having in the chain recurring imide units
  36. 36. Polylactide Molecular Structure Fiber formed of linear macromolecules having in the chain at least 85% (by mass) of lactic acid ester unites derived from naturally occurring sugars & which has a melting temperature of at least 1350C
  37. 37. Elastane Molecular Structure Fiber composed of at least 85% by mass of a segmented polyurethane & which, if stretched to three times its unscratched length, rapidly reverts substantially to the unscratched length when the tension is removed.
  38. 38. Thanks To All