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Job , viva , interview questions for textile engineers


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Job , viva , interview questions for textile engineers

  1. 1. Job/Viva /Interview Questions For Textile Engineers Job/Viva /Interview Questions For Textile Engineers Job/Viva /Interview Questions For Textile Engineers
  2. 2. Viva Q…YMT 1. What is the first process/ machine in yarn production? Ans. Blow room. 2. What is the second process/ machine in yarn production? Ans. Carding machine. 3. What process / machine is used after carding? Ans. Draw frame. 4. What process is used after draw frame? Ans. Simplex. 5. What process is used after simplex? Ans. Ring frame. 6. Show the flow chart of carded yarn production. Ans. 7. Show the flow chart of combed yarn production. Ans.
  3. 3. 8. What is the production of blow room? Ans. Lap. 9. What is the production of carding machine? Ans. Sliver. 10. What is the production of draw frame? Ans. Sliver/Drawing sliver 11. What is the production of simplex? Ans. Roving. 12. What is the production of ring frame? Ans. Yarn. 13. 1 lb(pound) =? Ans. 840 yds=1 Hank=0.4536 kg=453.6 gm=16 ounce(oz). 14. What is the input of blow room? Ans. Bale.
  4. 4. 15. What is the input of carding machine? Ans. Lap/Now chute feed system is being used. 16. What is the input of combing? Ans. Sliver lap and number of doubling is usually 20-24. 17. What is the input of simplex? Ans. Drawn sliver, Sliver hank 0.12/0.14/0.16,etc. 18. What is the input of ring frame? Ans. Roving/Roving hank may be 0.75/0.80,etc. 19. What is fiber fineness? Ans. Fineness is one of the most important parameter determining the yarn quality (Fine or Coarse). 20. How fineness is specified for cotton? Ans. Fineness is specified by micronaire value for cotton. 21. The maturity of cotton is defined in terms of the development of cell wall (Yes/no). Ans. Yes. 22. A fully mature fibre has a well developed thick cell-wall (Yes/no). Ans. Yes. 23. An immature fibre has a very thin cell-wall (Yes/no). Ans. Yes. 24. In mature fibre, dye absorption is high (yes/no) Ans. Yes 25. In immature fibre, dye absorption is low (yes/no). Ans. Yes 26. What is staple length? Ans. The average length of spinnable fibre is called staple length. 27. If staple length is increase then yarn quality is also increase (yes/no). Ans. Yes 28. Toughness of fibre has a direct effect on yarn and fibre strength (yes/no). Ans. Yes 29. If fibre strength is higher, then yarn and fabric strength is also higher (yes/ no). Ans. Yes 30. Short fibres deteriorate the yarn strength and uniformity (true/false).
  5. 5. Ans. True. 31. What is the minimum strength for a textile fibre? Ans. Approximately 6 CN/tex (about 6km breaking length) 32. What do you know about Presley index =? Ans. Breaking load in Ibs/Bundle weight in mg. 33. What is fibre elongation? Ans. Elongation is specified as a percentage of the starting length. 34. What is bale management? Ans. Testing, sorting and mixing bales according to the properties of fibre for producing specific good quality yarn at minimum cost is called bale management. 35. When bale mixing is done? Ans. Before the blow room/Before the bales going into blow room. 36. What are the basic operations in the blow room? Ans. I) Opening II) Cleaning III) Mixing & blending IV) Even feed of material to the card. 37. What is carding? Ans. Carding may be defined as the reduction of an entangled mass of fibre to a filmy web by working them between two closely spaced, relatively moving surface clothed with sharp wire points. 38. Objective of carding. Ans. - To open up the cotton in to single fibre state. - To reduce the number of neps, short fibres. - To produce a thick untwisted rope of fibre called sliver. 39. Carding is called the heart/mother of spinning (true/ false). Ans. True. 40. What are the main objectives of draw frame? Ans. - Straightening & parallelization of fibres by drafting & drawing. - Minimization of irregularity by doubling. - Blending & mixing of fibres. - To produce a more uniform sliver of definite wt/yds.
  6. 6. 41. What are the faults of blow room? Ans. 1. Soft lap, 2. Conical lap, 3. Barrel shaped, 4. Split lap, 5. Ragged selvedge, 6. Lap licking. 42. Find out the hank of the lap when the weight of the lap is 14 oz/yds. Ans. 14 oz contains = 1 yds, 1 oz contains = 1/14 yds, 16 oz or 1 lb contains = 16/14 yds =16/14×840 hank=0.00136 hank So hank of lap = 0.00136. 43. Find out the wt/yds of the lap when hank of the lap is 0.0014? Ans. Weight of 0.0014×840 yds = 1 lbs or 16 oz 1.176 yds = 16 oz 1 yds = 16/ 1.176 oz = 13.6 oz So weight of lap = 13. 6 oz/yds 44. For cotton, higher the count, finer the yarn (yes/no). Ans. Yes 45. For jute, lower the count, finer the yarn (yes/ no). Ans. Yes. 46. What is the name of combing waste? Ans. Noils. 47. What is the meaning of TPI? Ans. Turns per Inch/Twist per inch 48. What is the ring frame wastage? Ans. Pnewmafil, banda, sweep, hard waste. 49. What is roving? Ans. A roving is a continuous slightly twisted strand of fibres which has not received its final drawing for yarn. Roving hank=0.70 to 0.85, TPI=about 1.15 50. What are the faults of yarn? Ans. (i) Irregular yarn
  7. 7. (ii) Thick & thin places (iii) Slubs (iv) Nepped yarn (v) Spinners double (vi) Crackers (vii) Bad piecing (viii) Hairiness (ix) Soft yarn (x) Hard & non elastic yarn (xi) Rough yarn 51. Over twisted yarn become poor in strength (yes/ no). Ans.Yes 52. What is stress? Ans. Stress is the ratio between the applied force and cross sectional area of the specimen, Stress = applied force/ cross sectional area = F/A. Unit of stress is N/m2 , dyne/cm2 , which is also called Pascal (Pa). 53. What is tenacity? Ans. The tenacity of a fibre is the mass stress at break. Unit – gm/tex, Tenacity = breaking load / mass stress or linear density, Linear density = mass/unit length. 54. What is tensile strength? Ans. Tensile strength = force required to break the specimen/ cross sectional area 55. What is yield point? Ans. The point up to which, a material contains its elasticity is called yield point. 56. What are the basic textile materials? Ans.
  8. 8. 57. More fibre drawing produces more short fibre & resulted weak yarn (yes/no). Ans. Yes 58. What is twist? Ans. Twist is the spirality of bundle of fibres/ filaments. 59. Write down the types of yarn twist. Ans. i. “z” or clock wise & ii. “S” or anti clock wise twist. 60. Twist increases the strength of yarn (true/ false). Ans. True 61. Write down the moisture regain of cotton fibre? Ans. 8.5% 62. What is IPI? Ans. It indicates yarns thick places, thin places and slubs. 63. What is count? Ans. Count is a numerical expression which expresses /indicates coarseness or fineness of yarn. Or, count is a number indicating the mass per unit length or the length per unit mass of yarn. 64. Different types of measurement. Ans. 1 yard = 0.9144 m 1 m =1.0936 yards=7000 grain 1kg = 2.204 lbs, 1lbs(pound) = 453 .6gm = 7000 grains 1gm =15.43 grains 16 oz = 1 lb(pound)
  9. 9. 36 inch = 1 yard 2.54 cm = 1 inch 1 Hank=840 yards=1 pound 65. What is yarn twist? Ans. The spiral disposition of the components of thread which is usually the result of relative rotation of the two ends is called yarn twist. 66. Rotor yarn is “s” twisted (yes/no). Ans. Yes 67. Ring process yarn is “z” twisted (yes/no). Ans. Yes 68. What is strain? Ans. Strain = elongation / initial length 69. What is the unit of Strain? Ans. No unit. 70. What is the meaning of CSP? Ans. Count Strength Product CSP= Count × Strength 71. If yarn is regular then CSP is higher (yes/no). Ans. Yes 72. Different relations. Ans. i) Denier = 9 × Tex ii) Ne × Denier = 5315 iii)Tex × Ne = 590.6 iv) Tex × Metric = 1000 v) Denier × Metric = 9000 73. what are the unusable waste in spinning mill? Ans: (a)dropping-II,(b)flat strips of coarse count,(c)Floor sweeping-II,(d)dust etc. 74. HVI(high volume instrument) is a very important m/c of Q.C lab in spinning mill.(yes/no) Ans. Yes 75. what tests are done by HVI m/c? Ans. (a)fineness,(b)trash,(c)length,(d)strength,(e)Color. 76. How can you determine yarn count in English system? Ans. Count (Ne) =length(yds)/length × weight unit/weight in gm
  10. 10. = (120yds/840yds) × (1lbs or 453.6gm/weight in gm) =64.8/Weight in gm 77.write down the name of count of direct system? Ans. Txe,K tex,D tex,Mili tex,Denier,lb/spyndle, Woolen. 78.write down the name of count of indirect system and with details? Ans. Count unit lengt unit mass uses a. English (Ne) 840yds(hank) lb cotton b.Metric (Nm) Km(hank) Kg cotton c.Worsted 560yds (hank) lb worsted 79. what do you mean by one lea? Ans. one lea=120 yds. 80. what do you mean by WIRA? Ans. Wool international research association. 81.write down the full meaning of some institution? Ans. (a)BSTI = Bangladesh standard and testing institution. (b) ISO = international organization for standardization. (c) BS = British standard (d) AQL = Acceptable quality level. (e) BCIRA = British cotton industries research association. (f) ITET= institute of textile engineers and technologist. (g)AAMA=American apparel manufacturer association. (h)AAQC=American association of quality control. 82. what is the meaning of MIC? Ans. Microgram per inch. 83. In direct system which one is fixed (mass/length)? Ans. Mass 84. In indirect system which one is fixed (mass/length)? Ans. Length 85. English count is denoted by Ne (yas/no)? Ans. Yes. 86. Metric count is denoted by Nm(yes/no)? Ans. Yes 87. Sliver and roving count is expressed by hank(yes/no)? Ans. Yes
  11. 11. 88. In spinning mill, up to roving the count value is expressed by hank then count (true/false)? Ans. True 89. the shape of yarn become round due to twist (yas/no)? Ans. Yas 90. Name the types of fiber? Ans.normal fiber, thin walled fiber, Dead fibers . 91. How can you express fiber fineness? Ans. Weight per unit length. 92. beater are responsible for removing almost all of the impurity extructed in the blow room (yes/no)? Ans. Yes 93. Name the last m/c of blow room? Ans. Scutcher 94. what is the meaning of CV%? Ans. Coefficient of variation percentage. 95. Where sliver is collected and which form? Ans. In can and coiler form. 96. in ring frame where yarn is collected? Ans. Bobbin 97. Name the modern cone winding machine? Ans. Auto-coner machine/Savio orion 98. cotton fiber is dissolved with 70% H2SO4 (yes/no)? Ans. Yes 99.All yarn of ring processing is Z-twist and rotor yarn is S-twist.(yes/no)? Ans. Yes 100. where flyer is used in a spinning mill? Ans. Simplex m/c. 101. what is spinning? Ans. The process by which yarn is made from fiber. 102. what is the raw material in spinning? Ans. Fiber
  12. 12. 103. what is michonair value? Ans. Micro gram per inch. 104. Write down the classification of fiber? Ans. (i) natural, (II) Man made fiber. 105. Different between cotton and viscose? Ans. Cotton = Natural fiber, strength increase in wet condition. Viscose = Man made fiber, strength decrease in we condition. 106. What is the meaning of AFIS? Ans. Advanced fiber information system. 107. what is the ratio between length and width of fiber? Ans. 1000:1 108. Twist and twist direction of yarn affects the fabric structure(True/false)? Ans. True 109. what is UR? Ans. UR = uniformity ratio =(50% Spun length/2.5% span length)×100 110. write down the system of yarn count measurement? Ans. (I) Direct system: Tex,Denier. (II)Indirect system: English, matric. 111. when fiber consider short? Ans. Length shorter than 0.5 inch or 12.8mm. 112. Why yarn preparation is needed? Ans. To increase weaving efficiency. 113. what is drafting? Ans. The process of increasing the length per unit weight of slivers. 114. what is drawing? Ans. It is the regular and uniform elongation of the sliver to make it light. 115. what is doubling? Ans. The process of combining several sliver info one. 116. which one is best ,combed yarn or carded yarn? Ans. Combed yarn. 117. Roving is wind into the bobbin(yes/no) ?
  13. 13. Ans. Yes. 118. write down the other name of simplex? Ans. (I)speed frame,(II)Fly frame,(III)Roving frame. 119.some meaning- Ans. DCP=Draft change pinion LCP= Lifter change pinion PW = poker wheel TCP = Twist change pinion 120. write down the causes of roving breakage? Ans. (I)Tension variation, (II) irregular roving. 121. write down the three types of flyer? Ans.(I) Spindle mounted flyer,(II) top mounted flyer,(III) closed mounted flyer. 122. what is the backbone of the world textile trade? Ans. Cotton. 123. silk fiber readily absorbs water (yes/no)? Ans. Yes 124. jute plant have high CO2 assimilation rate (yes/no)? Ans. Yes 125. what is the output of comber machine? Ans. Combed sliver. 126. what is the output of the ring frame? Ans. Yarn in bobbin form. 127. what is the first operation in blow room? Ans. Opening 128. what is yarn? Ans. It is an assemblage of fibers twisted or laid together to form continuous strand suitable for use In weaving, knitting etc. 129. Manmade fiber are hydrophobic in nature(yes/no)? Ans. Yes. 130. finer fiber produce stronger yarn(yes/no)? Ans. Yes 131. write down the forms of manmade fiber?
  14. 14. Ans. (I) Filament, (II)filament tow , (III)staple. 132. what is the manmade cellulose fiber? Ans. Viscose. 133. write some name of natural cellulose fiber? Ans. Cotton, flax, jute, hemp. 134. what is bi-component fiber? Ans. Bi-component fibers are synthetic fibers which fibers filament contains two types of polymer. 135. what is bi- component yarn? Ans. A yarn having two different staple fiber. 136. If H-bond present in fiber then fiber gets more strength(yes/no)? Ans. Yes. 137. what is the length width ratio of cotton? Ans. 1:350 to 1:6000 138. In staple/spun yarn twist is must(yes/no)? Ans. Yes 139. Cotton is dissolved into 70% H2SO4(yes/no)? Ans. Yes 140. Viscose is dissolved into 35% H2SO4(yes/no)? Ans. Yes 141. Nylon is dissolved into 20% HCL/phenol(yes/no)? Ans. Yes 142. Polyester is dissolved into 100% nitro benzene at 100 ℃(yes/no)? Ans. Yes. 143. Burning smell of cotton is like as burning paper(yes/no)? Ans. Yes. 144. What is lint and linters? Ans. Then cotton which are get after first time ginning to seeds cotton is called lint and for second time ginning of cotton is called linters. 145. What is blow room? Ans. The section or line where the compressed bale are converted into uniform lap of particular length or made suitable for carding by opening, blending or mixing.
  15. 15. 146. What is MR% of jute? Ans. 13.75 147. What is MR% of viscose and silk? Ans. 11.0 148. What is MC % of cotton? Ans. 7.834 149. What is MR% of wool? Ans. 16.0 150. What is MR% of nylon? Ans. 4.0 151. What is MR% of polyester? Ans. 0.4 152. What are the long staple fiber? Ans. Jute, wool, flax, hemp. 153. How fiber is form? Ans. Elements ↓ Monomer/molecules/macromolecules ↓ Polymer chain ↓ Fibrils/micels ↓ Fiber 154. What are the requirement of fabric construction? Ans. (I)EPI,(II)PPI,(III)warp count, (IV)weft count. 155. What are the factors that determine the yarn properties? Ans. Fiber properties, fiber arrangement, twist per inch. 156. What is core spun yarn? Ans. It is a continuous filament polyester core wrapped in cotton fiber. 157. Write down the main part of carding machine? Ans.(I)Doffer,(II)cylinder,(III)taker-in.
  16. 16. 158. What is swelling? Ans. The change in dimension due to absorbing water or moisture of any textile material is termed as swelling. Swelling=(Swollen dimension-Dry dimension)/Dry dimension 159. Write down the formula of production in Lbs per hour of combing m/c? Ans. 160. write down the formula of production per hr of blow room in lbs? Ans. 161. write down the formula of production per hr of speed frame/simplex in lbs? Ans. 162. which countries cotton is the best cotton in the world? Ans. Mishor. 163. what is the botanical name of cotton? Ans. Goosypium Herbacum, Goosypium Hirsutum. 164. what is ginning? Ans. The procedure by which seeds and cottons are separated from seeds cotton is called Ginning.
  17. 17. 165. How much trash% in cotton? Ans. Generally 1% to 10%. 166. what is blow room waste? Ans. Dropping-II,Dust,filter waste. 167. What is carding waste? Ans. Dropping-I, Tacker in waste,Flat strip, motes & flies, sliver waste 168. what is draw frame waste? Ans. Sliver wastage. 169. what is the simplex wastage? Ans. Sliver wastage, roving wastage. 170. what is the ring frame wastage? Ans. Pneumafil, hard waste, bonda waste, etc. 171. what is the comber wastage and waste %? Ans. Noils,(12-18)%. 172. what is cleaning efficiency in blow room? Ans. CE% =( trash cotton - trash in lap/trash in cotton )× 100 173. Step cleaner m/c is placed at 45 degree angle (yes/no)/ Ans. Yes. 174. production of carding m/c? Ans. Production = (Doffer speed × Doffer dia × ∏)/36 (yds/min) 175. Count of direct system? Ans. 176.Count of indirect system?
  18. 18. Ans. Count unit length unit mass English(Ne) 840yds(hank) lb Metric(Nm) Km(hank) kg Worsted 560yds lb 177. what is model length? Ans. It is the length of group of fibers where the most number of fibers have equal length. 178. What is spun length? Ans. It is the term by which we can determined the % of fiber length in case of cotton, wool etc. 179. What is staple length? Ans. The average length of spinable fiber is called staple length. ** staple length = 0.91 × effective length(U.S.A upland cotton) 180. what is effective length? Ans. It is the term defined as the length of the main bulk of the longer fiber. 181. How the amount of twist is expressed? Ans. Twist per inch(TPI) = yarn Twist per meter (TPM) = roving Twist per centimeter (TPCM) 182. what is mass stress? Ans. Mass stress = Applied forse/linear density Unit = CN/tex , gm/tex 183. what is elastic recovery? Ans. Elastic recovery = Elastic extension/total extension. 184. what is the modern testing equipment for spinning mill? Ans.(I)HVI(High volume instrument) (II)AFIS(Advance fiber information system) (III)Shirley analyzer = trash% (IV)Moisture meter = MC% (V)Moisture testing oven = MR% 185. If MIC value is increased what should be the fineness? Ans. Fineness should be decreased. 186. what is pitch? Ans. The distance between adjustment spindles. 187. What is the maximum count to be produce in rotor m/c and ring m/c in spinning? Ans. Rotor m/c = not possible to produce more than 40s count.
  19. 19. Ring m/c = it is possible to produce about 300s count. 188. what is the feed material in ring and rotor m/c? Ans. Ring m/c = roving Rotor m/c = drawing sliver. 189.what is tex? Ans. Count is the tex system in the weight in grams of 1000m or 1km of yarn. 190. How many types of draw frame ? Ans. (I)Breaker draw frame, (II)finisher draw frame. 191. what is the output of winding? Ans. Yarn in cone form. 192. Natural fibres are hydrophilic in nature? (Yes/No) Ans. Yes. 193.What is the types of waste in a spinning mill? Ans: (i) useable waste (ii) unusable waste. 194. the flyer is the essential part of speed frame(yes/no)? Ans. Yes 195.What is neps? Ans. Entanglement protruding fibres or entangled mass of fibres. 196. Write down the some name of yarn testing machine. Ans. I) Uster evenness tester II) Uster classimat III) Uster auto sorter. 197. what is the useable waste in spinning mill? Ans: (a)lap waste,(b) sliver waste,(c)roving waste,(d)bonda waste,(e) pneumafil waste . 198. What is fiber migration? Ans. It means fiber distribution into the yarn. 199. Number of fibres in the yarn cross-section? Ans. 60-70 200. What is the standard staple length of cotton fibre? Ans. Generally 0.5 inch to 2.5 inch. 201. Write some yarn faults which are generally shown? Ans. (I)Thick place, (II) Thin place, (III) Neps, (IV) slub, (V) Hairiness.
  20. 20. 202. How many class or division of yarn preparation? Ans. (I) Warp yarn preparation, (II) Weft yarn preparation. 203. What are the classes of winding machine for package of yarn? Ans. (I) pirn winding m/c, (II) cop winding m/c, (III) spol winding m/c, (IV) Cheese winding m/c, (V) cone winding m/c. 204. What are the action of blow room? Ans. (I) Action of opposing spikes (II) Action of air current (III) Action of beaters, (IV) Regulating action 205. What is crimp? Ans. The wavy shape of thread/yarn is called crimp. 206. How to produce bale? Ans. Seed cotton ↓ Picking ↓———————І———————↓ Manual Mechanical І————————↓——————І Ginning ↓ Bale 207. Standard MR% &MC% of different fibre. Ans. Fibre MR% MC% Cotton 8.5 7.834 Jute 13.75 12.1 Viscose 11.0 9.91 Nylon 4.0 3.1 Polyester 0.4 × Acetate 6.0 × Acrylic 1.5 × Flax & Hamp 12.4 10.4 Silk 11.0 9.91 Wool 16.0 13.8 208. Comber Production (Kg/hr) =
  21. 21. Where, N= Nips per min S= mm per nip LD= Lap density Np= Noil% Nh= No. of head E= Efficiency Td= Tension draft 209. Simplex Production/hr 210. Ring Production/day 211. Total Draft =? Total draft = BD×MD×FD BD=Back draft MD=Middle draft FD=Front draft
  22. 22. Viva Q…GMT 1. What is clothing? Ans. Clothing is one of the three basic needs of human being. Clothing is used for covering human body or other bodies to fulfill or satisfy the requirements of those bodies with the object of protection, decoration and identification. 2. Why woolen garments used in cooler climate? Ans. The general configuration of wool fibre is helical and this configuration works as a wall for passing of cold or warm. 3. What is design or sketch? Ans. In clothing industry design means determining the shape and cutting patterns of garments according to it. 4. What id basic block or block pattern? Ans. Block patterns are the main or basic patterns which are constructed with definite and standard body measurement, but they do not possess any style or extra attractiveness or any type of allowances. 5. What is a pattern? Ans. It is the model of all components of garments on a hard paper board. 6. Why pattern is produced? Ans. (I) To make a set of templates of different components of garments. (II) To make a large amount of production at a time. (III) To minimize wastage and cost of garments. 7. what is working pattern or production pattern? Ans. These are made on the basic of block pattern or basic block. Each block pattern is drawn or sketched on the hard paper board with the help of pencil. Then the following allowances and positions are added- (I) sewing allowance (II) Trimming allowance (III) CBL (IV)CFL (V) Button attaching position (VI) Button holing position (VII) Plate etc. 8. What is invoice? Ans. It is one kind of documents which contains the information’s about selling items. Normally there are two types of invoice- (I) Proforma invoice- preliminary, (II) Commercial invoice-finally. 9. Seam line/attaching point is marked by U or V notch? (yes/no)
  23. 23. Ans. Yes 10. How grain line is indicated/mentioned in patterns? Ans. By arrow mark. 11. What is grain line? Ans. It is the line, which is marked on the patterns of a garment and the line indicates the warp yarn, as a result, when the pattern is placed in the marking paper then the Grain line follow the warp yarn of fabric. 12. Grain line of pattern must be parallel of the fabric? (yes/no) Ans. Yes 13. Define category? Ans. In garments export and import business a definite type of garments is specified by a definite number which is called category. 14. What is approved sample? Ans. The sample which is approved by the buyer is called approved sample. 15. What is counter sample? Ans. The manufacturers produce several numbers of samples following the approved sample which is known as counter samples. They facility the bulk production or hung on production floor. 16. What do you mean by allowance? Ans. In case of garments making some additional measurements are added with standard body measurement which is termed as allowances. This allowances is 1cm or 1inch.there are two types of allowance-(I) Trimming allowance. (II) Sewing allowances. 17. What is back taking? Ans. During sewing we need to start or end it prior to 1cm or after 1cm respectively to secure the sewing end. This is termed as back tacking. 18. What is bar tacking? Ans. We continue sewing for several times within a vary short distance to increase the load or strength of that particular portion which is termed as bar taking.e.g- edge of pocket, belt loop, Fly piece etc. 19. What is blind stitch? Ans. A particular type of stitch which is not visible from the face side of the garments. 20. What do you mean by C.B.L and C.F.L? Ans. C.B.L= center back line, C.F.L= center front line
  24. 24. 21. What are disposable garments? Ans. The garments which are used for one time only called disposable garments. e.g. Medical garments. 22. What do you mean by Flap? Ans. It’s the part of pocket which covers the pocket opening. 23. What is interlining? Ans. A layer of fabric which is used between two layer of fabric to give the particular area desired shape and to enhance the strength of that particular position which is called interlining. e.g. collar, cuff. 24.What are the types of interlining? Ans. (I) sewable interlining,(II) fusible interlining. 25. What do you mean by lining? Ans. A layer of fabric which is used in the inner side of garments to increase the comfortability of the garments which is called lining.e.g. suits, coats, ladies and babies wear. 26. What do you mean by FDI? Ans. FDI= Foreign direct investment. These types of investment directly come from foreign country. 27. What is overlocking or neatening? Ans. The sewing process of cutting edge of the fabric. So that the slack yarn cannot be opened. 28. What is seaming? Ans. The attaching procedure of different components of garments. 29. What is stitch? Ans. The unit of sewing or seam. 30. What is seam? Ans. The line of sewing of one or more than one layers of fabric/the line of joining of fabric. 31. What do you mean by trimmings or accessories? Ans. Beside fabric the components which are needed to make a complete garments termed as trimmings. e.g. Button, sewing thread, lining, interning etc. 32. What is ticket number? Ans. It indicates the coarseness or fineness of a sewing thread. 33. What is L/C? Ans. L/C means letter of credit. It is one kind of agreement between buyer and seller.
  25. 25. 34. What is pattern grading? Ans. Grading means the stepwise increase or decrease of a master pattern piece to create large or small size. Grading alters the overall size of a design but not its general shape and appearance. If buyer requires different sizes, we would have to grade the dimension. It may be S.L, X.L and XXL. 35. What are the method of grading? Ans. Grading can be apply two method –(I) manual method,(II) computerized method. 36. Marker as a guideline for cutting?(yes/no) Ans. Yes. 37. What is marker? Ans. Marker is a thin paper which contain all necessary pattern pieces for all sized for a particular style of garments. it’s a representation or drawing of the arrangement of the identified materials. 38. Fabric width and length must be higher than the marker width and length? (yes/no) Ans. Yes. 39. Grain line should be parallel to the warp direction in a woven fabric or the Wales in a knitted fabric? (true/false) Ans. True 40. What is formula of marker efficiency? Ans. Marker efficiency= total area of pattern pieces in a marker/total area of marker × 100% 41. The less the fabric wastage, the higher the marker efficiency?(true/false) Ans. True. 42. The more the marker length, the higher the marker efficiency? (True/false) Ans. True. 43. What do you mean by garments size? Ans. The size of garments can be expressed by two methods- (I) Alphabetical expression e.g. S,M,L,XL,XXL (II) Numerical expression e.g. 38,39,40,41,42(in cm or in inch) 44. Write down the feature of T-shirt? Ans. (I) casual tops, (II) Narrow neck line, (III) Usually short sleeve, (IV) No collar 45. Write down the feature of polo shirt? Ans. (I) Tops, (II) short/long sleeve,(III) collar,(IV) short button placket or neck opening. 46. How can you divide all garments? Ans. All types of garments can be divided mainly two groups –(I) Tops part, (II) Bottom part.
  26. 26. 47. Write down the feature of pull oven / sweater? Ans. (I) warm shirt,(II) long sleeve, (III) waist band, (IV) pull on over head. 48. Write down the feature of Tank-loop? Ans. (I) sleeve less pullover, (II) used over a shirt (III) warm shirt (IV) waist band, (V) pull on over head. 49. Write down the feature of cardigan? Ans. (I) Open front, (II) Fastened with a zip or button, (III) waist band. 50. What do you mean by CAD? Ans. CAD means computer aided design: In apparel industry CAD systems are mainly used for garments design, pattern preparation, pattern grading and marker marking. 51. What do you mean by CAM? Ans. CAM means computer aided manufacturing. It includes computerized sewing machines, fabric spreading machines, cutting systems. 52. Write some important meaning? Ans. CM= Cost of making CMT= Cost of making with trimmings FOB= Freight on boat C & F= Cost and freight CIF= cost, insurance and freight L/C= letter of credit 53. What is cloth spreading/laying? Ans. To spread cloth as determined by needed quantity as per marking/ the smooth laying out of fabric in superimposed layer of specified length. 54. What do you mean by fabric cutting? Ans. To cut the cloth according to marker of patterns for sewing. 55. What are the methods of fabric cutting? Ans. (A) Manual method - Scissor - Round knife - Band knife - Straight knife - Die cutting - Notcher & -Drill (B) Computerized method - Straight knife cutting - Water jet cutting - Leaser beam cutting
  27. 27. - Plasma torch cutting 56. What do you know about fusible interlining? Ans. The interlining which is attaching to the garments component by the application of temperature and pressure is called fusible interlining 57. How fusible interlining is manufactured? Ans. By using a resin coating of thermoplastic materials on a piece of fabric. 58. For symmetrical fabric marker efficiency is high and less efficiency for asymmetrical fabric? (True/false) Ans. True. 59. The more large patterns and less small patterns reduce marker efficiency? (True/false) Ans. True. 60. For more small patterns, marker efficiency will be increased? (True/false) Ans. True. 61. What do you know about symmetrical fabric? Ans. Fabric which can retain the same appearance in case of turning in 180° angle called symmetrical fabric. e.g. solid dyed fabric. 62. What do you know about the asymmetrical fabric? Ans. Asymmetrical fabric is those which can not retain the same appearance while turning in 180° angle. E.g. pile fabric, brushed fabric etc. 63. What are the methods of marker making? Ans. (I) manual, (II) computerized. 64. What are the wastage of marker? Ans. (I) inside wastage (II) Outside wastage -Ends of ply losses (2-4) inch -Loss of fabric ends -Selvedge losses -Purchase losses 65. What is sample? Ans. The garment which is needed for bulk production is called sample garment. 66. What is sewing? Ans. The process of joining of fabric by the use of needle and sewing thread is called sewing. 67. What are the basic components of sewing? Ans.
  28. 28.  Needle  Throat plate  Pressure foot  Feed dogs  Sewing thread and fabric. 68. Write some name of sewing defects? Ans.  Seam pucker  Broken or open stitch  Staggered stitch  Slipped or skipped stitch  Vertical stitch density. 69. What do you mean by seam puckering? Ans. Stitching with unwanted gathering. 70. What do you mean by pressing and Finishing? Ans. The process by which the unwanted crease and winkles are removed from the garments and the outlook of the garments is improved as well. 71. Which iron is used for industrial purposes? Ans. Steam irons. 72. What do you mean by label? Ans. Label is an attached component of garment on which important information regarding the garment are written or printed. 73. What do you mean by WWSC and RSWD? Ans. WWSC = wash with similar color RSWD = Re shape whilst damp. 74. Which inspection system widely used in garment industry? Ans. 4-points system. 75. What do you mean by TAP and AQL? Ans. TAP = Total acceptable product in a lot AQL = Acceptable quality limit. 76. What do you mean by core spun thread/yarn? Ans. This thread /yarn has continuous filament polyester wrapped in cotton fibres. 77. What do you mean by OE & CE zipper? Ans. OE zipper = open end zipper - use in jacket CE zipper = closed end zipper - use in baggage.
  29. 29. 78. How many types of accessories? Ans. Two types (i) Visible accessories e.g. button, sewing thread etc (ii)Invisible accessories e.g. interlining 79. What do you know about synthetic thread/yarn? Ans. This is large group of thread/yarn made mainly from nylon, polyester, rayon and polyamide filaments or fibres. 80. What do you know about lings? Ans. Lings is the measuring unit of button diameter. To measure the outer diameter of button we use lings number. 1 ling = 1/40 inch = 0.025 inch = 0.636 mm 81. How many types of label? Ans. There are mainly three types of label (I) Main label, (II) size label, (III) care label. The all other of label are called sub label. 82. What do you know about motif? Ans. The special component which is attached outside of the garment for decorative purpose called motif. e.g. company name, trade mark or other symbols can be written on the motif. 83. What do you know about dart and pleat ? Ans. (I) dart = part of cloth is folded and stitched to slenderize it (II) A pleat is a type of fold formed by doubling fabric back upon itself and securing it in place or the pleat shows the form being folded and stitched. 84. How many types of woven fabric? Ans. Three types – (I) yarn dyed (II) solid dyed(s/d) (III) Denim 85. Desizing is mandatory or obvious before washing (True/False) Ans. True. 86. Why hot ash is necessary? Ans. To clean the desize chemicals (introduction to cold water re-solidify the fat and wax) 87. Why M:L is important? Ans. Without m:l we can not determine the required amount of dyes, chemicals and water during dyeing, washing and other wet processing. That’s why m:l is important. 88. What is the mechanism of producing fading effect in garments manufacturing? Ans. Three process of fading mechanism – (I) Chemical action. (II) Mechanical action (III) Biological action.
  30. 30. 89. How many types of mechanical abrasion in garments washing? Ans. Three types – (I) Garment to garment. (II) Garment to m/c (III) Garment to solid material (e.g. stone) 90. How many types of chemical action in garment washing? Ans. Three types- (I) Regular(Bleach wash) (II) Irregular(Acid wash) (III) Local(p.p.spray, p.p.sponge) 91. What is the factor depends on action of washing? Ans. (I) Time (II) Temperature (III) Mechanical abrasion (IV) Chemical action 92. What do you mean by costing and pricing/? Ans. Costing = Total consumption of garments without profit Pricing = costing with profit. 93. What do you know about back to back L/C opening? Ans. For purchasing fabric and accessories against main L/C. 94. What is lead time in garments? Ans. Time start from L/C opening or order receive to garments delivery is called lead time. Lead time — local market = 45 days Foreign market = 90-120 days 95. What is stock lot? Ans. When goods are made for buyer but not possible to shipping as a result goods are stain at store. This goods are called stock lot . 96. How many parts of jacket? Ans. Three parts (I) Upper part is called shell (II) Inner part is called lining (III) Middle part is called interlining. 97. Write down the other commercial name of interlining? Ans. Padding / wedding/ Bedding / polyfil. 98. What types of garments are made from feather? Ans. Overcoats,jackets,pillow,blanket etc.
  31. 31. 99. What types of feather are used for making garments? Ans. Duck chest feathers. 100. What do you mean by quality? Ans. Quality is the difference between the products or It is the goodness or badness in a product or the feather of a product which satisfy customers or end users. 101. If 40 or more than 40 defects are present in 100 square yards then the fabric is considered as rejected in four point system (True/false)? Ans. True. 102. When established garments industry in Bangladesh? Ans. In 1960, REAZ garments. 103. What do you mean by garments final inspection? Ans. Garments final inspection is to take decision whether the lot will be passed for shipment or it will be rejected. 104. What are the different types of sampling inspection of garments? Ans. (I) without inspection, (II) 100% inspection, (III) spot inspection, (IV) Arbitary inspection, (V) Acceptance inspection. 105. Write down the section of shirt making? Ans. (I) Collar section, (II) Cuff section, (III) Body section. 106. What do you mean by PD, WR, WP, and TC? Ans. PD= Plain dyed, WR= Water repellent, WP= Water proof, TC= Tetron & cotton, SD= solid dyed, YD= Yarn dyed. 107. What is pattern? Ans. The pieces of thick paper are required in the form necessary to make or style of garments is called pattern. 108. What do you mean by marking? Ans. Drawing as patterns on the as per style. 109. What is consumption?
  32. 32. Ans. Needed quantity of cloth as per dz according to marker. 110. What do you mean by assortment? Ans. To determine the quantity of garments according to size and colour. 111. What types of style of collar? Ans. (I) One piece (Banded) collar, (II) two piece (banded) collar, (III) Sport open (no bended) collar. 112. How many types of cuff according to style? Ans. Four types — (I) Notched, (II) Squared, (III) Rounded, (IV) Pointed. 113. How many types of cuff according to construction? Ans. Two types— (I) one piece cuff (The cuff which includes both front & back in one piece of cloth), (II) Two piece cuff (two piece of cloth). 114. Write down the types of front of a shirt? Ans. (I) Plain, (II) Top center, (III) French front. 115. How many types of sleeve? Ans. (I) Long genbol, (II)Sleeve placket, (III) Hemmed sleeve. 116. How many types of yoke ? Ans. (I) one piece plain yoke (yoke and back are one piece of cloth), (II) Two piece single yoke (yoke is separated from the back but yoke is one piece) (III) Two piece double yoke (yoke is separated from the back but yoke are two piece of yokes) 117. How many types of pocket style? Ans. (I) plain, (II) Hexagon, (III) Rounded, (IV) squared, (V) Hemmed.
  33. 33. 118. How many types of bottom style of a shirt? Ans. (I) Straight bottom, (II) Tailed bottom. 119. What are the styles or types of packing and folding of shirt? Ans. (I) Stand up (collar is folded to remain at 90° angle from the floor level) (II) Semi stand up (collar is folded to remain at 45° angle from the floor level) (III) Flat pack (collar is laid to the floor level at 0° angle) (IV) Hanger pack (collar is folded for a hanger). 120. What are the styles of shirt? Ans. (I) Basic/regular, (II) Casual/Irregular, (III) Sport shirt, (IV) Blouse 121. What do you mean by numbering in garments? Ans. This process is to put a number on the each part of a garment after cutting. So that the same numbers of each part might be combined at the time of sewing. 122. What is sorting? Ans. This process is to sort by size and color after cutting. 123. Write down the attention point when marking (I) Jumping & bias should not occur (II) Position marking (III) Must fit the end of the net (one side) line (IV) Must check the quantity whether all the parts are marked as directed. 124. When dies cutting is used? Ans. For interlining cutting 125. What is inlay/sewing allowance? Ans. The fabric which is kept excess of the seam line at the time of sewing is called inlay/sewing allowance.
  34. 34. 126. Inlay is sewing allowance but sewing allowance is not inlay? (Yes/No) Ans. Yes. 127. What do you mean by Gusset (Front facing)? Ans. The part which is folded into the inside of the front. This is two types— (I) Upper front gusset, (II) Lower front gusset. 128. What do you know about inlay (sewing allowance)? Ans. The part which is folded into the inside during sewing. 129. What is back stitching? Ans. It is stitching to back after finishing the stitch length; it is normally 3-5 stitches. 130. What is error part? Ans. When left and right are attached being interchanged with each other or both right or left are attached in case of cuffs and sleeves is called error part. 131. Stitching and sewing, which is visible and invisible? Stitching—visible Sewing—invisible 132. What is double stitching? Ans. The stitching which has two lines keeping constant distance is called double stitching. 133. What do you know about slip out? Ans. When the interlocking stitching stitches do not lock with each other along the sewing line then it is called slip out. 134. What do you mean by floating? Ans. few stitches, which are not passed through the cloth of proper interval during sewing is known as floating.
  35. 35. 135. Write down the classification of assortment/packing? Ans. (I) Solid size, solid color, (II) Solid size, assort color, (III) Assort size, solid color, (IV) Assort size, assort color. 136. What do you mean by Y-shirt? Ans. Basic shirt/regular shirt/Dress shirt. 137. What do you mean by casual/irregular shirt? Ans. various types of style. 138. What do you mean by sport shirt? Ans. The shirt which is sporty and needs no neck tie. 139. What are the function of clothing? Ans. 1. Protection 2. Decoration 3. Identification 140. What is the requirement of clothing? Ans. 1. Suitability , 2. Appearance, 3. Comfort,4. Aftercare , 5. stability 141. How can we difference between a ladies shirt and a Gents shirt? Ans. Buttons are on the opposite side to that of gents shirt, i.e., Ladies shirt: Upper front part is right side. Gents shirt: Upper front part is left side. → Ladies pant: Fly piece is right side. Gents pant: fly piece is left side. 142. What is E-Textiles? Ans. E-textile also known as electronic textiles are fabrics that enable computing, digital components and electronics to be embedded in them.
  36. 36. The emphasis of e-textile will be on creating a women textile with embedded copper which will provide the usual wear comfort and at the same time it will have a circuit with a few chips sunning at few megahertz. Example: In the field of medical prevention and rehabilitation it becomes highly necessary to continuously monitor the patient’s health condition by keeping sensing devices close to the body and e-textile can successfully accomplish senior functionality. 143. What is the reason for clothing? Ans: (a) Modesty (b) Protection against adverse climate conditions (c) Adornment (d) Identification (e) Aristocratic reason 144. Size of Human? Ans. 1. Men-(i). Short- 5’ 3” to 5’ 7” (ii). Regular- 5’8” to 6’ (iii). Tall- above 6’ 2. Women-(i). Short 4’11” to 5’3” (ii). 5’4” to 5’7” (iii). Tall above 5’7” 145. What is Production pattern/Garments pattern? Ans. When necessary allowances are added to the working patterns, then they are called production pattern. 146.What is Working pattern? Ans. The patterns which are made with net dimension of a particular style called working patterns. 147. What methods are used to make Block patterns? Ans. i. Flat method ii. Modeling method 148. What are the methods of pattern grading? Ans. (i).Manual grading, (ii). Computer aided grading.
  37. 37. 149. What is half part grading? Ans. If the increasing or decreasing is done in every sides of a pattern, then it is called half part grading. 150. What is ¼th part grading? Ans. If the increasing or decreasing is done in either lengthwise or widthwise or in any two sides of a pattern then it is called ¼th part grading. 151. What is C.B.L (Center back line)? Ans. Middle point of back neck up to the bottom end in the back part of a shirt. 152. What is C.F.L (Center front line)? Ans. Line from the top button to the bottom end in the face side of a shirt. 153. What is collar stand or collar band? Ans. It’s the part of a collar in which collar stands in upward direction. Collar stands in upward direction. 154. What is cuff? Ans. It is the end point of sleeve of a shirt laying around the wrist. 155. What is Ticket number? Ans. It indicates the coarseness or fineness of a sewing thread. e.g. 3/60, 2/80 etc. 156. What is Hemming? Ans. The process of sewing of an edge or border on a piece of cloth, especially a finished edge, as for a garment or curtain, made by folding an edge under and stitching it down. e.g. Bottom edge of a shirt. 157. What is lead-time?
  38. 38. Ans. The time interval between the initiation and the completion of a production process. 158. How design can be developed? Ans. 1. Sketching (Two dimension method): Usually developed on paper 2. Modeling (Three dimension method): Usually developed dummy or live model 3. Computer aided design (CAD): Usually developed using design related software. 159. T-shirt Feature. Ans. i. Refers as casual ii. Garments with narrow neckline, iii. Garments with short or long sleeves, iv. No collar/Cuff, and v. Usually made of cotton. 160. Polo-shirt feature.  Used to cover the upper body part (Tops),  Garments with short/long sleeves,  Garments with collar and cuffs,  Short button placket or short chest opening, and  Made of either 100% cotton or CVC or PC. 161. Tank Top feature.  It is a sleeveless pull over,  It is used over a shirt,  Used as warm shirt,  Garments with waist band, and  It is put on over head. 162. Pull over/Sweater feature.  Used as warm shirts,  Garments with long sleeves,
  39. 39.  Garments with waist band, and  Put on over head. 163. Cardigan feature.  Open front and fastened with a zipper or button,  Garments with waist band,  Used as warm shirts, and  Usually made of wool/acrylic. 164. Shirt feature.  Upper-body garment with a collar, cuffs and pocket,  A full vertical opening and fastened with buttons,  With short or long sleeves, and  Men’s shirt having lower front part at right hand side and for women it is exactly opposite. 165. Sportswear feature.  Auto motorcycle racing wear  Bike wear  Golf apparel  Ski wear (winter garments)  Sports jersey and track tops  Sports shorts and trousers  Swim wear and beach wear  Training and jogging wear 166. What is the function of CAD in apparel industries? 1. Garments design. 2. Pattern design & pattern preparation. 3. Pattern grading 4. Marker making
  40. 40. 167. What is the function of CAM in apparel industries? Ans. 1. Fabric spreading. 2. Cutting systems. 3. Mover systems. 4. Sewing systems. 168. What is grading? Ans. Grading means the stepwise increase or decrease of a master pattern piece to create large or small size. Grading alters the overall size of a design but not it̕s general shape & appearance. 169. What is the main objective of marker? Ans. i. To minimize the fabric wastage ii. To improve the quality of garments. 170. What are the main product are produced in garments Industry in Bangladesh? Ans. Woven shirt, T-shirt, trouser, jacket, jogging shuts, sweaters, jersey etc. 171. How much currency earn from garments sector in Bangladesh every year? Ans. Above 75%. 172. What is quota? Ans. Kind of agreement between the exporter country where importer country mention a specific number of garments. 173. When established garments industry in Bangladesh? Ans. In 1960, ”REAZ” garments. 174. What is the difference between the sewing and stitching? Ans. Sewing=Invisible Stitching=Visible 175. What is the difference between the yarn and thread? Ans. Yarn= (i) Yarn is used for producing fabrics (Knit & Woven).
  41. 41. (ii) Normally it is single ply. Thread= (i) Thread is used for garments sewing. (iii) It is normally two or three or four plies. 176. What measurement unit used in America and Europe. Ans. America use=Inch Europe use=Centimeter (cm). 177. What are the sections of sewing used for making a shirt? Ans. There are three sections- 1. Collar section 2. Cuff section 3. Body section 178. What type of woven fabric? Ans. 1. Yarn dyed 2. Solid dyed 3. Denim. 179. What is Line Balancing? Ans. Line Balancing is the allocation of sewing machines according to style and design of garment. It depends on, what type of garments we have to produce. 180. What is Compliance? Ans. Compliance means comply something’s that is yield to the wishes another. The main aim of compliance is to ensuring the all labour rights and facilities according to the Buyer code of conduct. 181. What are the different types of order? Ans. 1. FOB (Free on boat) order 2. FOA (Free on air) order 3. C & F (Cost and freight) order 4. CIF (Cost, insurance and freight) order
  42. 42. 5. CIFC (Cost, insurance, freight and commission) order 6. CMT (Cutting, making and trimmings) order 7. CM (Cost of making) order 8. TT (Telephonic transfer) order 9. Subcontract order 10. Exchange order. 182. What do you mean by FOB (Free on boat) order? Ans. This is the export term of delivery and price quotation. The sellers send the goods for export and delivers them on boat (the ship). The risk is passed from seller to buyer when the goods are loaded in the ship at the port of departure. The buyer payes the freight charges. The seller does not include the freight charge with his costing. 183. What do you mean by FOA (Free on air) order? Ans. The seller delivers the goods to the air carrier at the air port of departure. The buyer bears the risk from that moment and payes the air transport cost. The seller bears the cost of materials and making, does not include air freight. 184. What do you mean by C & F (Cost and freight) order? Ans. The sellers send the goods for export, payes the freight charge and deliver them on boat (the ship). The risk is passes to the buyer when the goods are left the port of departure. 185. What do you mean by CIF (Cost, insurance and freight) order? Ans. This is identical to the C&F term except that in addition, the seller ensures (pay the insurance bill) the goods against loss and damage at his own cost. 186. What do you mean by CIFC (Cost, insurance, freight and commission) order? Ans. At this type of order, the seller includes the cost of insurance, freight and commission for local buying house. 187. What do you mean by CMT (Cutting, making and trimmings) order? Ans. In this case, the buyer fixes the rate of CMT with the factory. So the seller does not add the price of fabric with his costing, but at L/C buyer gives all money to the factory. The factory collects only CMT money from the bank. Balance money return to the fabric supplier. This ordering system is following the tailoring shop. 188. What do you mean by CM (Cost of making) order?
  43. 43. Ans. In this case, the buyer fixes the rate of CM only with the factory. So the seller does not add the price of fabric and trimmings with his costing, but at L/C buyer gives all money to the factory. The factory collects only CM money from the bank. Balance money return to the fabric and accessories supplier. 189. What do you mean by TT (Telephonic transfer) order? Ans. When order quantity is very small and need urgent delivery, in that case, buyer gives purchase contract instead of L/C and sends money to seller bank by TT. After getting money, the seller sends the goods to buyer. 190. What do you mean by Subcontract order? Ans. It is indirect order, the order is received by another factory and when it is not possible for that factory to complete the production within the time, in that case they share the order with other factory by giving subcontract. The subcontract factory only gets the CM charge by local money from the order taker. 191. What do you mean by Exchange order? Ans. In this case, the buyer did not pay any money against buying garments from Bangladesh. Instead of money, they are giving another goods or products, which is surplus in their country but we need it very much. This type of business is very rare. They use L/C for doing this type of business. 192. What do you mean by Proforma invoice? Ans. Proforma invoice is temporary commercial invoice, which is send by exporter to importer. It helps to open a letter of credit (L/C) in favor of exporter by importer. It helps the foreign buyer to obtain an import license if it is necessary. 193. What do you mean by commercial invoice? Ans. Commercial invoice is the final invoice and basic document. It contain all the details like name & address of importer and exporter, description of goods, quantity, rate, value of goods, details of shipment. 194. What do you mean by letter of credit (L/C)? Ans. It is important document, which is used for doing the business, where Bank is responsible for payment in favor of sellers. It is a means/instrument for opening a credit (L/C) in favor of exporter by importer to make payment on fulfillment of conditions within given time. Assortment 195. Give example of Assort size, Assort color for 12 pieces garments? Ans. Red Yellow Blue Small 1 2 1 =4 Medium 1 2 1 =4 Large 1 2 1 =4 =3 =6 =3 =12 pce 196. Give example of Assort size, Solid color for 12 pieces garments?
  44. 44. Ans. Small Medium Large Red 4 4 4 =12 pcs 197. Give example of Solid size, Assort color for 12 pieces garments? Ans. Red Yellow Blue Small 4 4 4 =12 pcs 198. Give example of Solid size, Solid color for 12 pieces garments? Ans. Red Small 12 pcs ------------------------------------------ 199. What is Tag gun? Ans. It is used for attaching the Hang tag, Price ticket etc. 200. What do you mean by Bill of Exchange? Ans. A Bill of Exchange is a legal document and order in writing, requesting the drawee (Factory) to pay within the specified time. The drawer (supplier), drawee and payee (Bank) are involved in this transaction. The Bill of Exchange also known as draft, can be right draft or wsanee draft. 201. What do you mean by Bill of Landing? Ans. Bill of Landing is a document issued by the shipping company acknowledging that the goods have been shipped on board and undertaking that the goods as received will be delivered to the consignee (Buyer). When the export contract is CIF, then the exporter makes payment of the freight and gets “freight paid” Bill of Landing. On the other hand, if the contract is FOB, the freight has to be paid by the importer. In that case, the shipping company will issue a “freight collect” Bill of Landing. 202. What do you mean by Shipping Bill?
  45. 45. Ans. The shipping bill is the main documents required by the customs authority for allowing shipment. It contains description of export goods and other particulars as defined in The Sea Customs Act, name of the vessel in which goods are to be shipped, Country of Destination etc. 203. What do you mean by Shipping Order? Ans. It is a document issued by the shipping line intimating the shipper (Exporter) about the reservation of space for shipment of cargo through a particular vessel from a specified port and on a specified date. 204. What do you mean by Vehicle Ticket/Cart Ticket? Ans. It is a gate pass for port gate .it is prepared for admittance of cargo through the port gate. It contains details of cargo for export, the shipper name, cart, lorry number, gate number, marks on package, quantity and description. 205. What is pattern engineering? Ans. It is the engineering idea which is applied at the time of marking for reducing the consumption of fabric. In this case consumption is reduced by overlapping the patterns or reducing the patterns or dividing the patterns into two parts like cuff, side pocket of pant etc. 206. What is Style? Ans. A style is a type of product that has one or more specific feature or characteristics that distinguish it and make it different from other product of the same type. e.g. A crew neck is one style of neck line and a turtle neck is another style. 207. What is Design? Ans. Within a specific style there can be many variations in trimmings, texture, decoration or other details like embroidery, screen printing etc. The individual interpretation or variations of the same styles are called design. One style can be many designs. 208. What is Fashion?
  46. 46. Ans. Fashion means consumer acceptance, the prevailing or accepted style in dress or personal decoration established or adopted during a particular time or season. The most widely recognize fashion authority, the late Dr. Paul-H-Nystrom (1928) define fashion is similar words as “Nothing more or less than the prevailing style at any given time”. 209. What do you mean by D/P (Document of payment)? Ans. Under this method, the goods are shipped and documents are sent to the importer through the banking channel. The documents are handed over to the clearing (C&F) agent for clearing the goods from the port. 210. What do you mean by D/A (Documents in Acceptance)? Ans. Under this method of payment terms, importer takes delivery of the documents on acceptance of a claim in the form of Bill of Exchange from the bank through whom documents are sent after goods are shipped. In this method there is risk of non-acceptance of bill and non-payment due to bankruptcy. 211. What are the processes for fixation of export prices? Ans. There are three processes- 1. FOB (Free on board) 2. C & F (Cost & Freight) (FOB cost+ Freight = C & F ) and 3. CIF (Cost, insurance & freight) (C&F cost + Insurance = CIF) 212. What is consumption? Ans. In the garments trade, consumption means quantity of raw materials with a view to determine the price of a garment. In order to calculate the above quantity how much fabric, sewing thread, button, label, zipper and other accessories are required to produce a garment up to the exporting is called consumption.
  47. 47. GARMENTS TERMS AND DEFINITION  Arm scye: The arm hole of sleeve in a particular garment is named as arm scye.  Allowance: Additional measurement which added with body measurement in case of garments making.  Aplique: Additional fabric added in the face side of the garments for increasing the beauty of the dress which is called aplique.  Back rise: Distance between CRUTCH TO CENTER BACK WAIST LINE.  Basting: It is the temporary sewing by hand or m/c before doing final stitching for better fitting.  Bust point: Focusing point of the chest is called bust point.  Bodice: The part of ladies dress which stay neck to waist.  Back stitch: A type of hand stitch which is use for garment sewing.  Bodkin: The m/c used for making hole on the fabric is called bodkin.  Cheese: it is cylinder shape thread package in which thread in cross wound.  Closing: It is an operation in which side seam is join in the garment or join lining with fore part.  Collar: It is the part of the garment (shirt, polo-shirt etc) which stay round the neck.  Fork/Crutch/crotch: The part in which inside leg seam of the part is join, this part is called crutch.  Cuff: It is the end point of a sleeve of a shirt laying around the wrist.  Cone: It is a triangle form of thread packages.  Clem: It is a small dart which produced by sewing but not cut the fabric.  Crease: To give crease mark on the fabric or garments/ any kind of creasing or folding in clothes.  Double faced: The fabric which both side is same and both side can be focused, it is called double faced.  Darning/mending: When fabric hole is repaired by needle and yarn.  Dummy: This is a duplicate model of doll similar to human body construction used for garments fittings.  Ends: Wrap direction threads of fabric are called ends.  Fore part: The face side of the garments which use on the upper part of the body is called fore part.
  48. 48.  Front rise: Distance between crutch to face side of waist band of a garment/pant is called front rise.  Fusing: The method by which fusible interlining is joining with the garments is called fusing.  Gusset: To increase the strength or fitting or shape of garments, some extra fabrics are used which is called gusset.  Neatening: The process of sewing in cutting edge of the fabric so that the slack yarn can not be opened.  SMV: Standard minutes value.  TST: Total standard time.  CNT/NT: Computing normal time/Normal time.  SAM: Sum of all minutes.  CST: Computing standard time.  CPM: Cost price per minute.  CMT: Cost of making with trimmings/Cutting, making and Trimmings cost/Cost of making time.  N.S.A: No sewing allowance.  Off Pressing: Final pressing after sewing the garments.  Off Grain: When weft yarn is not maintaining 90° with selvedge.  Cross Pocket; Side pocket of trouser.  Sewing Out: When stitching is done by keeping sewing allowance inside.  Sewing Round: When lining is attached with shell at the edge of all parts of a garments.  Seam Busting; When pressing is done on seam for placing fabric both side equally.  Shirring: When elastic thread is used as looper thread for making gathering stitch.  Straight Line System: Line system production.  Thread Marking: Temporary stitching for testing fitting of a garments.  Templet: It is plastic or metal or hand paper, which is used for making pattern or use as guide for fabric cutting.  Crocking; Colour is fading after rubbing from dry or wet cloth.  Double Faceed: Symmetric fabric, both side same.  Drape; The shape of fabric, after hanging.  Donkey: Pressing board, is used for pressing.
  49. 49.  Drop Loop; When waist band loop is placed 1-2 cm below of top waist line.  Ease or Loose Dress: Keeping excess fabric for comfort using.  Epaulet: Strap on shoulder for a shirt or jacket.  Faced Cloth: When face side of fabric is different from other side. e.g. Flannel fabric.  Fall: Collar fall, back width of collar after folding.  Fofk; Crutch of trouser.  Fullness; Extra fabric is used for getting shape of a part of a dress. e.g. Sleeve head.  Forearm Line: A line from middle of “front arm hole” to the end of sleeve at thumb.  Fagot Stitch; Zigzag stitch by maintaining gap between two fabrics.  Grinning; Sewing by loose thread tensions, as a result gap in sewing line.  Grown-on-Facing: Plain front facing (Facing made by fabric folding inside).  Godet: When interlining is used under embroidery.  Hanger Appeal: The shape of garments when hang on Hanger.  Interfacing: When interlining is used inside facing.  Inset: When extra fabric is used for better fitting.  Jigger: Button, which is attach inside of the garments. e.g. shank button of double brast coat.  Laying-up: Process of fabric laying.  Leaf Edge; The edge of collar which is hanging after folding.  Linking: In sweater Factory, when two fabrics are joined by linking machine.  Lashing: When interlining is attached with facing by using Blind stitch machine.  Make through (Sample man): Who attach all parts of a garments.  Making-up; It is process to make garments from fabric.  Marking-in: Marking, when pencil is moved around the patterns.
  50. 50. VIVA QUESTIONS ----WPT Singeing: Singeing is a process carried out to remove loose hairy fibre protruding from the surface of the cloth/yarn by burning them. Why singeing is necessary?  To obtain smooth surface  To increase luster  Optical levelness of dyeing & clean out of printing design. Types of singeing m/c ( plate, roller, gas) 1. Plate singeing m/c 2. Roller singeing m/c 3. Gas singeing m/c Desizing: Desizing is the first step of textile wet processing finishing technology employed to remove sizing material from the fabric. Why Desizing is necessary?  To remove starch from the fabric.  To increase absorbency of the fabric.  To increase luster of dyed & printed fabric.  For perfect action of scouring & bleaching. Give some example of common sizes 1. Starch: Corn, photo, Sago. 2. Natural gun: Tragacanth, Locust-beam etc. 3. Protein: Glue, gelatin. 4. Synthetic sizing agent: PVA, PAN, CMC (Carboxy methyl cellulose). 5. Additives: Deformer, Tallow, Oil & greases.
  51. 51. 6. Enzyme: Enzyme is one kind of bio-catalyst. Its molecular weight is high & they are living organism. The action of enzyme is controlled by-  Temp  Concentration  Time  PH of the solution Problem by size material-  Stiffens the fabric handle  Reduce the absorbency of fabric  Reduce the absorbency chemical  Size may absorbed by chemical Starch: Made by amylase & amylosepectin. α-amylase: Which attack the chain at random, so degree of polymerization of starch is rapidly reduced. β-amylase: Which successively remove the terminal maltose from reducing ending polymer chain is shortened. Bleaching is not necessary for which type of fabric-  For dark shade fabric such as red, black & navy blue.  Man made fabrics. Bleaching is done for-  White, light & medium shade fabric What % of fabric strength after scouring ?  20-30% Caustic Soda: Neutralize acidic material Saponity glycerides, wax & Oil. Sequestering agent: Deactivate metal ions, reduce hardness of water. Wetting agent & detergent: To reduce surface tension, emulsity oil, fats, waxes. Oxidizing bleaching agent:- O3one (O3)
  52. 52. H2O2 Ca (OCl)2 K2Cr2o7 KMnO4 Reducing bleaching agent:- Zinc dust (Zn) Stannous chloride (SnCl2) Ferrus Sulphate (FeSO4) Sulphur di-oxide (SO2) Hydrozen Sulphate (H2S) Shouring: Treating the fabric with 1% HCl or H2SO4 to remove CaCO3 is known as shouring. Disadvantage of Ca(OCl)2 : Ca(OCl)2 reacts with atmosphere CO2 & H2O to give CaCO3 as white participate CaCO3 deposit on fabric causes harsh feeling & uneven dyeing. But this is not done in case of Na(OCl). Na2CO3: To maintain the pH Why hypochlorite /chlorite bleaching is not used in wool & Silk? Ans. Hypochlorite/chlorite bleaching is not used in wool and silk because Cl of hypochlorite reacts with protein and thus the main bleaching action is not done & fabrics become discolored & hampered. PPM: Per mullion parts of water or mg/l or gm/m3 . How hardness of H2O is expressed? Ans. The hardness of water is expressed by the amount of metal on present in water. Problem causes by hard water-  Reduce cleaning efficiency  Reduce absorbency & lusture.  Reduce dye diffusion  Uneven dyeing Soap: Soap is a metallic salt of a saturated or unsaturated higher fatty acids. Factors for color vision: 1. Light 2. Substrate
  53. 53. 3. Observer Detergent: A detergent is compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning & acts mainly on the oily films that trap dirt particulars. Dyes: Dyes are colored unsaturated organic chemical compounds which are responsible for the color of dyed & printed textile materials. Which agent is known as universal bleaching agent? →Hydrogen per oxide (H2O2) Ideal pH of fibre after neutralization: →5.5-6.5 Light: This is the first element of color perception light is energy. Textile printing: Textile printing is the most important and versatile of the technologies used to add design, color & racialist to textile fabrics. Effects of electrolyte- Electrolyte increases exhaustion of dyeing. Types of vat dyes- There are two types of vat dyes- those are below 1. Indigoid 2. Anthraquinion Classify of hard water: Two types of hard water 1. Temporary 2. Parmament. Source of hardness: 1. water 2. Fabric 3. Chemical What is bleaching powder? Ans. A complex mixtures of calcium hypochlorite & calcium oxide. Why H2O2 is called universal bleaching agent? Ans. All types of fabric are bleaching in this agent. Both sides of fabric is signed in which singeing m/c. →Gas singeing m/c
  54. 54. When signed fabric produce spot? Ans. If fabric contain ZnCl2 or MgCl2 ZnCl2 +H2O = ZnO + HCl HCl + Cellulose = Hydrolysis spot Which fabric is difficult to operate by gas singeing m/c. →Synthetic fabric After Desizing absorbency of the fabric increase or decrease? →Increase What are the methods of desizing? Methods of Desizing Hydrolytic desizing Oxidative desizing 1. Rot steeping 1. Bromite desizing 2. Alkali steeping 2. Chlorite desizing 3. Acid steeping 3. Ammonium per sulphate desizing. What is pancreatic enzyme: The pancreatic enzymes are prepared from the pancreases of the slaughtered animals. Trade name: Vivesal, Novotermosol. What is malt-extract enzyme: These enzymes are obtain by extraction of freshly germinated barley corn. Trade name: Diaster, Papidase. What is bacterial enzyme: Obtain by termination from bacillus substitute which grown on rice and it break down the stretch into water somble dextrin’s. Trade name: Rapider, Biolase After desizing which test is done to ensure the desizing. At first produce 100cc solution with KI. I2 and water. Then some drops of this solution falls into the sizing material randomly. Then the following incident may occur- 1. Deep blue color –Present of starch/Not done desizing
  55. 55. 2. Violet color—Present partially degraded starch/desizing is done partially. 3. Brown – Completely degraded starch/desizing is done complete What are the forms of scouring: (i) Yarn form (ii) Fabric from -Hank form -Rope form (knit) -Package form -Open width form (knit, woven) -Continuous sheets form (woven) What are the types of scouring ? i) Batch process ii) Semi-continuous process iii) Continuous process Stripping: If the textile goods become uneven dyeing and unsuitable for using,the color has to be destroyed. The process is called stripping. Curing: The application of heat, usually to polymerase or set remains applied to textile materials. Degree of polymerization: The number of monomers or repeating units is one polymer. More specially, it is the average molecular weight. Oleophilic: Having a strong affinity for oie; readily absorbs oil, grease, wax etc. Primary additive colors- 1. Red 2. Blue 3. Green Specifying of color- 1. Hue 2. Value 3. Chroma Azoic dyes are also called -  Naphthol dyes  Ice colors  Developed color  Magic color
  56. 56. Whiteness: The attribute by which an object color is judged to approach a preferred white. Buffer: It is a saturated solution of acid salt or alkali-salt mixture. Expression of mixtures: 1. w/w-weight to weight 2. w/v-weight to volume 3. v/v-volume to volume How to prepare 0.1% stock solution: 10 ml or 1 ml of 1% solution need to mix with 90 ml or 9 ml water respectively.
  57. 57. Dyeing Glossary Absorbency: The ability of one material to take up another material. Absorption: The process of gases or liquids being taken up into the pores of a fiber, yarn, or fabric. Acetic acid: An organic acid (CH3COOH) widely used in textile applications. It is used in textile wet processing, dyeing and printing, and in the manufacture of cellulose acetate and cellulose triacetate. Acetic, anhydride: Anhydrous acetic acid [(CH3CO)2O]. It is used in the acetylation process in the manufacture of cellulose acetate. Acetone: Diemthyl ketone (CH3COOH). One of the most powerful organic solvents. Acetone dissolves secondary cellulose acetate and other derivatives of cellulose. It is miscible with water and has a low boiling point(55-56o C) Acid dyes: An anionic dye having substantivity for fibers (e.g. Protein, polyamide) which contain cationic groups usually in acidic or neutral aqueous dyebaths. Acid dyes are often applied to fabric in organic or inorganic acid dyeing solution. Acid-dyeable variants: Polymers modified chemically to make them receptive to acid dyes. Acidic: A term describing a material having a pH of less than 7.0 in water. Activated oxygen bleach: A bleaching system comprising an oxygen bleach and a bleach activator. Add-on: The amount of materials applied to a textile is known add-on; it is calculated as the weight of solids left on a given weight of fabric after impregnation and drying. The percentage add-on is computed by the formula {(w2-w1) ×100}/ w1; where w1 is the initial weight of material before impregnation (wet-out), and w2 is the weight of material after impregnation and drying. Additive: A supplementary material combined with a base material to provide special properties. Adsorption: The attraction of gases, liquids or solids to surface areas of textile fibers, yarns, fabrics or any materials. Aerobic: A biological process active only in the presence of oxygen.
  58. 58. Affinity: Chemical attraction; the tendency of two elements or substances to unite or Combine together, such as fiber and dyestuff. Affinity is usually expressed in units of joules (or calories) per mole. Aftertreatment: Any treatment done after fabric production. In dyeing, it refers to treating dyed material in ways to improve properties; in nonwovens, it refers to finishing processes carried out after a web has been formed and bonded. Examples are embossing, creping, softening, printing and dyeing. Alkaline: A term used to describe a material having a pH greater than 7.0 in water. Anaerobic: A biological process active only in the absence of free oxygen. Aniline dyes: Dyes derived chemically from aniline or other coal tar derivatives. Anionic dye: A dye dissociates in aqueous dyebath and provide negatively charged colored ion. Anthraquinone dyes: Dyes that have Anthraquinone as their base and the carbonyl group (>C=O) as the chromophore. Anthraquinone-based dyes are found in most of the synthetic dye classes. Antichlor: A chemical, such as sodium thiosulfate , used to remove excess chlorine after bleaching. Azo dyes: Dyes characterized by the presence of an azo group (-N=N-) as the chromophore. Azo dyes are found in many of the synthetic dye classes. Azoic dyes: The dyes, produced by interaction of a diazotized amine (azoic diazo component) and a coupling component (azoic coupling component). Bacterial Amylase Unit (BAU): A measure of starch degradation as shown by the quantity of an enzyme that will dextrinize one milligram of starch per minute under the specified experimental conditions. Basic dyes: A class of positive-ion-carrying dyes known for their brilliant hues. Basic dyes are composed of large-molecule, water-soluble salts that have a direct affinity for wool and silk and can be applied to cotton with a mordant. Batch: A group of units of products of the same type, structure, colour and finish, class and composition, manufactured under essentially the same conditions and essentially at the same time, and submitted at any one time for inspection and testing. Similar word ‘Lot’. Bath ratio: Ratio of bath to fiber as 20:1, 10:1 or 1:20, 1:10 Binder: An adhesive applied in pigment application to make a bond between fibers and pigment.
  59. 59. Bleaching: A process of whitening fibers, yarns, or fabrics by removing the natural and artificial impurities to obtain clear whites for finished fabric, or in preparation for dyeing and finishing. The materials may be treated with chemicals or exposed to sun, air, and moisture. Carbonizing: A chemical process for eliminating cellulosic material from, synthetic and wool or other animal fibers. The material is reacted with sulfuric acid or hydrogen chloride gas followed by heating. When the material is dry, the carbonized cellulose material is dust-like and can be removed. Carrier: A product added to a dye-bath to promote the dyeing of hydrophobic manufactured fibers and characterized by affinity for, and ability to swell, the fiber. Cat-ion: A positively charged ion. Cationic dyes: A dye that dissociates in an acidified, aqueous solution to give a positively charged colored ion. Caustic Soda: The common name for sodium hydroxide(NaOH) Chrome dye: A mordant dye capable of forming a chelate complex with a chromium ion. CIE: Commission internationaly de I’Eclairage. CMC: Carboxymethyl cellulose. Synthetic size used in cotton fabric processing. Colorant: A colouring matter, a dye or pigment which can produce colour in a substrate like fiber, yarn or fabric. Coloration: A series of textile operation involved to impart color in textiles. It embraces dyeing, printing, painting, spraying and preparatory treatment as well. Color: 1. (Sensation) that characteristic of the visual sensation which enables the eye to distinguish differences in its quality, such as may be caused by differences in spatial distribution or fluctuation with time. 2. (of an object) the particular visual sensation caused by the light emitted by, transmitted through, or reflected from the object. Colour can be described approximately in terms of Hue, Saturation, and Lightness, or specified numerically by chromaticity coordinates. Alternatively , colour can be specified by reference to visual standards e.g. the Munsell Color Atlas.
  60. 60. Colorfastness: Resistance to fading; i.e the property of a dye to retain its color when the dyed (or printed) textile material is exposed to conditions or agents such as light, perspiration, atmospheric gases, or washing that can remove or destroy the color. Color strength: A measure of the ability of a dye to impart color to other materials. Color strength is evaluated by light absorption in the visible region of the spectrum. Colorist: In textile coloration, a person experienced in developing color formulas, evaluating samples for color and producing colored samples to meet standards. Color index (CI): A listing of dyes and chemical structures published by the Society of Dyers and Colorists. Each structure is assigned a name according to chemical composition. Each dye is assigned a number according to its class and shade. A correlating structure number is given when available. Compatibility:In textile dyeing, propensity of individual dye components in a combination shade to exhaust at similar rates resulting in a buildup of shade that is constant, or nearly constant, in hue throughout the dyeing process. Copper chelating value (CuCV): The milligrams of copper sulfate pentahydrate chelated by one gram of a chelating agent or product containing a chelating agent. Cross dyeing: A process of dyeing textiles containing fibers having different dye affinities to achieve a multicolored effect. Desizing: The process removal of size materials from greige (gray) fabric to prepare for dyeing. Dip: Immersion of a textile material in some processing liquid. The term is usually used in connection with a padding or slashing process. Direct dyes: A class of dyestuffs that are applied directly to the substrate in a neutral or alkaline bath. They produce full shades on cotton and linen without mordanting and can also be applied to rayon, silk and wool. Direct dyes give bright shades but exhibit poor washfastness. Disperse dyes: A class of water-insoluble or slightly soluble dyes originally introduced for dyeing cellulose acetate and usually applied from fine aqueous suspensions. Disperse dyes are widely used for dyeing most of the manufactured fibers.
  61. 61. Dyes/dyestuff: Substances that add color to textiles. They are incorporated into the fiber by chemical reaction, absorption, or dispersion. Dyes may be divided into natural and synthetic types. Natural dyes are extracted from root bark, flowers and marine growth. Synthetic dyes are chemically compounded through many processes from coal tar or other sources of hydrocarbon molecules. On basis of application it is classified as Acid dye, Azoic dye, Basic dye, Direct dye, Disperse dye, Mordant dye, Reactive dye, Sulphur dye, Vat dye etc. Fluorescent whitening agent is also a dye. Dyeing: A process of coloring fibers, yarns, fabrics or garments with either natural or synthetic dyes under specified conditions. Dyeing auxiliaries: Various substances that can be added to the dyebath to aid dyeing. They may necessary to transfer the dye from the bath to the fiber or they may provide improvements in leveling, penetration etc. Also call dyeing assistants. Dye liquor: The liquid that contains the dye and the reagents necessary for dyeing. Ecmc: In color difference evaluation, a single number defining the total color difference in CMC units of a trial from a standard. Emulsion: A suspension of finely divided liquid droplets in a second liquid, i,e., oil in water or vice versa. Exhaustion: During wet processing, the ratio at any time between the amount of dye or substance taken up by the substrate and the amount originally available. Fixation: The process of setting a dye after dyeing of printing, usually by steaming or other heart treatment. Fluorescent: A substance that is added to a textile (uncolored or colored) to increase the apparent light reflectance in the visible region by the conversion of ultraviolet radiation into visible light and so to increase the apparent brightness or whiteness of the textile. Similar words brightener. Florescent whitening agent (FWA): Colorant that absorbs near ultraviolet (UV) radiation and re-emits visible (violet-blue) radiation. This causes a yellowish material to which it has been applied to appear whiter. Foam: Dispersion of gas in a liquid or solid. The gas bubbles may be any size. The term covers a wide range of useful products such as insulating foam, cushions, etc. It also describes the undesirable froth in polymer melts, dye baths, etc.
  62. 62. Hue: The attribute of color perception by means of which an object is judged to be red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet or a combination of these. Hydrolysis: A double decomposition reaction involving the addition of the elements of water and the formation of an acid and a base, an acid and an alcohol, or an acid and phenol. Hydrophilic: Having strong affinity for or the ability to absorb water. Hydrophobic: Lacking affinity for or the ability to absorb water. Indigo: Originally a natural blue vat dye extracted from plants, especially the indigofera tinctoria plant. Most indigo dyes today are synthetic. They are frequently used on dungarees and denims. Ingrain dye: A colorant, which is formed, in situ, in the substrate by the development and coupling of one more intermediate compounds. The term was originally used for colorants obtained from oxidation bases and by azoic techniques, but is now reserved for other types of colorant formed in situ. Inhibitor: A substance that retards or prevents a chemical or physical change. In textiles, a chemical agent that is added to prevent fading, degradation, or other undesirable effects. Isoelectric: Same charge in a certain condition. When positive and negative charges are equal. The isoelectric point is pH value at which the molecule carries no electrical charge or the negative and positive charges are equal. Isotherm: Constant temperature line used on graphs of climatic conditions or thermodynamic relations, such as pressure-volume relations at constant temperature. Jet dyeing machine: A high-temperature piecedyeing machine that circulates the dye liquor through a Venturi jet, thus imparting a driving force to move the fabric. The fabric, in rope form, is sewn together to form a loop. Kier: A large metal tank, capable to being heated uniformly, used for wet processing. Kier boiling: Process of boiling cellulosic materials in alkaline liquors in a kier at or above atmospheric pressure. Laboratory sample: A portion of material taken to represent the lot sample, or the original material and used in the laboratory as a source of test specimens. Leuco dye: A soluble, reduced form of a dye from which the original dye may be regenerated by oxidation. Liquor ratio: In wet processing the ratio of the weight of liquid used to the weight of goods treated.
  63. 63. Lot: A unit of production or a group of other units or packages that is taken for sampling or statistical examination, having one or more common properties and being readily separable from other similar units. Metal-complex dye: A dye having a coordinated metal atom in its molecule. Unless the term metal-complex dye is used in direct association with a particular application class of dye, e.g. metal-complex disperse dye or metal-complex reactive dye, its use is inexact and inadvisable. Migration: Movement of an added substance (e.g. dye or alkali) from one area to textiles to another. Commonly used to express the movement of color from the dyed area to the undyed area of cloth. Mock Dyeing: A heat stabilization process for yarns. The yarns are wound onto packages and subjected to package dyeing conditions (water, pressure, temperature) but without dye an chemicals in the bath. Mordant: A chemical used in some textile fibers to provide affinity for dyes. Or a substance, usually a metallic compound, applied to a substrate to form with a dye a complex which is retained by the substrate more firmly than the dye itself. Mordant dye: A dye that is fixed with a suitable mordant. Optical Brightener: A colorless compounds that, when applied to fabric, absorbs the ultraviolet radiation in light but emits radiation in the visible spectrum. OWB: On the weight of bath. OWF: On the weight of fabric/fibre OWG: On the weight of goods. OWV: On the weight of value. Pad: A machine for impregnating fabrics with chemicals. It consists essentially of a trough followed by two or more pairs of squeeze rolls. pH: Value indicating the acidity or alkalinity of a material. It is the negative logarithm of the effective hydrogen ion concentration. A pH of 7.0 is neutral; less than 7.0 is acidic; and more than 7.0 is basic. Pick-up: % or weight added per unit weight of fabric. Pigment: An insoluble, finely divided substance, such as titanium dioxide, used to deluster or color fibers, yarns or fabrics.
  64. 64. Premetallized acid dye: An acid dye manufactured by reacting an equivalent of a suitable metal ion with one equivalent of a dye, or with two equivalents of the same or different dyes, capable of chelating the metal. Preparation: In textile manufacturing, those processing operations performed on greige fabric, colored fabric, textile yarns or fibers to ready them for dyeing, printing or finishing. For example, typical greige cotton fabric preparation includes singeing, desizing, scouring, bleaching and (optionally) mercerizing. Reactive dye: A dye that, under suitable conditions, is capable of reacting chemically with a substrate to form a covalent dye-substrate linkage. Reduction clearing (RC): The removals of unabsorbed disperse dye from the surface of polyester at the end of the dyeing or printing process by treatment in a sodium hydroxide/sodium hydrosulfite bath. A surface-active agent may be employed in the process. Retarder (Retardants): A chemical that, when added to the dyebath, decreases the rate of dyeing but does not affect the final exhaustion. Saponification: Specifically in relation to manufactured fibers, saponification is the process of removing part or all of the groups from acetate or triacetate fiber, leaving regenerated cellulose. Saturation: The maximum intensity or purity of a color. If the color is as brilliant as possible, it is at saturation; if the color is subdued or grayed, it is dull, weak, and low in intensity. Scouring: In textile processing, treatment of textile materials in aqueous or other solutions to remove nature fats, waxes, proteins and other constituents as well as dirt, oil and other impurities. Shade: A common term loosely used to describe broadly a particular color or depth, e.g. pale shade, 2% shade, mode shade, fashion shade. Shading: In colored textile fabrics, gradual changes in hue, chroma and/or lightness lengthwise or widthwise. When unintended, shading is considered a defect; may be international for styling purposes. Sizing: A generic term for compounds that are applied to warp yarn to bind the fiber together and stiffen the yarn to provide abrasion resistance during weaving, Starch, gelatin, oil, wax and
  65. 65. manufactured polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol, polystyrene, polyacrylic acid, and polyacetates are employed. Softener: 1. A product designed to impart a soft mellowness to the fabric. Examples are glucose, glycerine, tallow, or any one of a number of quaternary ammonium compounds. 2. A substance that reduces the hardness of water by removing or sequestering the calcium and magnesium ions. 3. A substance used to reduce friction during mixing and processing when dry powders are added to polymers. Solubilized sulfur dye: A thiosulfuric acid derivative of a sulfur dye which during dyeing is converted to the substantive alkali-soluble thiol form. Solubilized vat dye: A water-soluble salt of the sulfuric ester of a leuco vat dye. After application to the fiber the parent vat dye is regenerated by hydrolysis and oxidation. Solvent dye: A dye which is soluble in organic solvents, but not in water, and is widely used in lacquers, inks, waxes, plastics, soaps, cosmetics, fuels and colored smokes. Souring: Any treatment of textile materials in dilute acid. Its purpose is the neutralization of any alkali that is present. Substantivity: The attraction, under the precise conditions of test, between a substrate and a dye (or other substance) where the latter is selectively extracted from the application medium by the substrate. Substrate: 1. In textiles, a fiber, fiber assembly, yarn, fabric or garment to which another material is applied. 2. Fabric to which coatings or other fabrics are applied. It can be of woven, knit, nonwovens, or weft-insertion construction. Generally, substrate properties are dependent both on fiber type and fabric construction. Usually the fabric is scoured, heat-set and otherwise finished prior to coating or bonding. Many smooth-surfaced manufactured fiber fabrics require impregnation with a latex prior to coating to ensure adequate adhesion.
  66. 66. Sulfur dye: A dye, containing sulfur both as an integral part of the chromophore and in attached polysulfide chains, normally applied in the alkali-soluble reduced (leuco) form from a sodium sulfide solution and subsequently oxidized to the insoluble form in the fiber. Uneven dyeing: A fabric dyeing that shows variations in shade resulting from incorrect processing or dyeing methods or from use of faulty materials. Union dyeing: A process of dyeing textiles containing fibers having different dye affinities to achieve the appearance of a uniform, homogenous color. Unlevelness: In textile dyeing and finishing, non-uniform distribution of a dye or chemical in or on a substrate. Vat dyes: A water-insoluble dye, usually containing keto groups, which is normally, applied to the fiber from an alkaline aqueous solution of the reduced enol (Leuco) form which is subsequently oxidized in the fiber to the insoluble form. Wet pick-up: In textile processing, the amount of liquid, and material carried by the liquid, applied to a textile. Wet pick-up is usually determined as a percentage of either the dry or conditioned weight of the textile prior to processing. What is stain resistance finish: It is the finish to prevent water & or oils from penetrating the fabric using potential aqueous & oily stain to bead up & roll off. What is soil release finish: Soil release is the term used to describe clean ability of fabrics by the laundering process. What is antimicrobial finished: Antimicrobial finish is one kind of chemical finish which is improve fabric durability on various substrates, impact on people & their environment, they interact with good & bad microorganism. What is textile finishing: Finishing has been defined by textile instate as “Descriptive of processes, physical or chemical, applied to a substrate to produce a desired effect”. It is chemical or mechanical treatments performed on fibre, yarn or fabric to improve appearance, texture, or performance. What is Calender: A machine in which heavy roller rotates in contact under presser, used to smooth & flatten fabric to close the intersections between the yarns & to confer a surface glaze. What do you mean by DP & Curing: DP means Durable Press OR Permanent press, it is a finishing treatment designed to impart to a textile material or garments the retention of specific contours including defined creases & pleats resistant to normal usage, washing or dry.
  67. 67. Curing is a process following application of a finish to textile fabrics in which appropriate conditions are used to effect a chemical reaction. Foam Finishing: The application of one or more liquid chemicals finishes in the form of a foam to a textile material with the advantage of low wet pick-up Wet pick-up: The weight of liquor taken up by a given weight of the fabric after impregnation, spraying, or coating element. Wicking: The passage of liquids along or through a textile material or along the interstices formed by textile element & coating polymer of a coated fabrics. Wrinkle recovery/resistance: A laboratory test to measure angle (degrees) of recovery from wrinkling or creasing. Surfactant: An agent, soluble or dispersible in a liquid, which decreases the surface tension of the liquid contraction of “surface active agent” Dye: A substances usually organic, soluble or dispersed in its medium of application & which is design to be absorbed or adsorbed by, made to react with, or deposited within a substrate in order to impart color with some degree of permanence. Colorant: Any chemical that is colored or can become colored in a particular environment/under certain condition& can be applied/ used to impart the property of color to a team. Pigment: A substance consisting of small particles that is insoluble in the applied medium & is used primarily for its coloring properties. Dyeing: Dyeing is the application of color to the whole textile material with some degree of color fastness. Dyeing is essentially a mass transfer process where the dye diffuses in solution, adsorbs onto the fibre surface & finally within the fibre. Affinity: It is the difference between the chemical potential of dye in its standard state in the fibre & the corresponding chemical potential in the dye bath i.e. tendency of a dye to move from dye bath into a substrate. Substantivity: The attraction between a substrate & a dye or other substrate under precise condition of test whereby the test is selectively extracted from the application medium of substrate. Exhaustion: For a single dye the exhaustion is defined as the mass of the dye taken up by the material divided by the total initial mass of the dye in the bath but for a bath of constant volume. CS= concentration of dye in solution, Cf=concentration of dye in fibre after dyeing
  68. 68. Exhaustion %=Cf/Cs×100 Fixation: Fixation is basically how much the dye reacts with the fabric. It depends on how much dye is fixed onto the fabric after considering all the washes. Fixation %= [{Co – (C1+CW! +CW2+……..)}/Co]×100 Co= Concentration of dye initially C1= Concentration of dye after dying CW1,, CW2 are concentration of the dye in each wash. Textile printing: Printing is the processes by which dyes & pigments are applied locally or discontinuous to produce various design. Styles of printing: Direct style, Discharge style, Resist style, Raised style, Flock style, Cripm style, Burn out style Discharge printing: always sharp in outline, bright in appearance & give perfect & sparking whites due to bleaching effect on the discharge agent. Resist printing: Generally subdued & the color are less bright, the outlines of the printing motifs are less sharp. Methods of Printing: Block printing, Stencil printing, roller printing, screen printing, Transfer printing, Digital Inkjet Printing Pigment printing: In pigment printing insoluble pigments which have no affinity for the fibres are fixed on the textiles with binding agent in the pattern required. Binder: The binder is a film forming substance made up of long chain macromolecules which when applied to textile together with the pigment; produce a three dimensionally linked network. Fabric softener: A softener is a chemical that alters the fabric hand making, it more pleasing to touch. The more pleasing eel is a combination of a smooth sensation, characteristics of silk & of material being less stiff. Surfactants: surfactants lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading & the interfacial tension between two liquids. Wetting agent: it is a chemical substance that increases the spreading & penetrating properties of a liquid by lowering its surface tension that is the tendency of its molecules to adhere to each other. Detergent: A detergent is a compound or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning & acts mainly on the oily films that trap dirt particles.
  69. 69. Emulsifying agent: Emulsifying agent are surfactants that convert water insoluble oils into stable, aqueous suspensions. Dying Kinetics: The rate of transfer of dye in solution from the dye into substrate. Diffusion: Diffusion means penetration/movement of substance owning the existence of conc. Gradient i.e. movement of particles between the two surfaces having different density from higher to lower one. Mineral color: Mineral color contains metallic insoluble precipitates which are deeply colored. These insoluble precipitates have found great application as pigment for paint. For other purposes of dyeing, the precipitates themselves are not used but they actually created in and on the fibers from the soluble substances What is hard water: Water described as "hard" is high in dissolved minerals, specifically calcium and magnesium. Hard water is not a health risk, but a nuisance because of mineral buildup on fixtures and poor soap and/or detergent performance. Soap: soap is a metallic salt of saturated or unsaturated higher fatty acid. There may be pb, Mg, Ca or other metallic salts. Thickener: Thickener is a thick mass which impart stickiness & plasticity to the printing paste so that it may be applied on the fabric surface without bleeding or spreading & be capable of maintaining the design outline. Ageing: Ageing consists of exposing printing goods to more or less prolonged action of steam at atmospheric pressure to assist in the diffusion & fixation of the dyes Color: Color is the result of an interaction between a chromospheres group or color bearing group & light. Light: That aspect of radiant energy which human observer is aware through visual sensation arising from stimulation of the retina by radiant energy. Metamerism: A pair of sample is said to be metameric if their colors match under one light source & not match under different light source, this phenomena is called Metamerism. Foam: Foam is a dispersion of gas in a liquid. The gas may be generally air, otherwise inert gas. Foam is different from emulsion. Emulsion: Emulsion is a mixture of two or more immiscible liquids e.g (water + oil) with emulsification agent. Why foam is used? Ans. In wet processing technology cost is very high mainly due to high consumption of energy which itself is the result of high consumption of water. The idea of replacing water in the use of