Industrial attachment of naz bangladesh ltd

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Industrial attachment of naz bangladesh ltd

  1. 1. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY Department of Textile Engineering INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd
  2. 2. Acknowledgement A number of people have made significant contributions in preparing this report. Their insights, advice and suggestions helped me a lot. I would like to pay special thanks to Prof. Syed Fakhrul Hassan, C-Text. ATI, the Head of the department of Textile Engineering, Southeast University, for continuously guiding us about the development and preparation of the report. He has enriched us with necessary ideas and concepts for incessant improvement of the report.I would also like to express our heartfelt thanks to Md. Fazley Elahi, Assistant Professor, Department of Textile Engineering, Southeast University for all necessary information for preparing this report. I would like to express our sincere gratitude to Mr. Monju, General Manager, N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd, who has allowed us to work in his organization within a congenial atmosphere during the industrial training period. I recognize Mr. Nipu, Manager (Dyeing) and Md. Shifon AGM (knitting) N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd. for providing sincere help in all administrative and technical matters while working in the organization. I express my heartiest thanks to Deputy Manager & Assistant Manager, Knitting, Dyeing & Fishing, Garment and Accessories for enriching our knowledge on various fabric manufacturing and finishing processes with their excellent professional knowledge. My sincere appreciation goes to the entire N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd. team for extending their hands of cooperation through out the training period.
  3. 3. 1 Name:N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd.
  4. 4. 2 1 CHAPTER : PROJECT DESCRIPTION
  5. 5. 1 1.1. Introduction: Every one knows that learning is the best part of thinking possibility. In human life education is the primary source of learning process. We need to learn for particular points of theoretical parts it should be some lack of looking this function such a fabric making on a circular machine and dyeing and finishing process in practical. It should be looking and knows about the functions, running of this machine, Uses material, and manufacturing materials. It must be need for good practical knowledge and proper handling of the machine. Internship is making this opportunity. Because we have known theoretical knowledge but we have lack of industrial knowledge. It has to fill up for industrial attachment. N.A.Z Bangladesh Ltd. has getting this opportunity for me. NAZ Bangladesh Ltd is a knit composite industry. It is a 100% export oriented industry in Bangladesh. The factory is making about knitting, knit dyeing & finishing and knit garments. Due to the change in environment, the textile sector is facing a great challenge. But NAZ BD Ltd fully prepared to face this situation. The goal of NAZ BD Ltd is to become the preferred partner for sourcing high quality fabrics and clothing from Bangladesh. N.A.Z has highly develop advanced technology and an emphasis on developing local human resources, the Textile Division has the potential to make an important contribution to the nation's growing ready made garments export sector. The rational behind the existing structure and future expansion of the Textile & fiber Division is to capture value-added at each stage of the textile manufacturing process. Despite Bangladesh's lack of indigenous cotton production capability, N.A.Z. has leveraged Bangladesh's labor cost advantage and export competitiveness to the maximum. This factory is fully complained and very much concern about the labor law and compliance. This factory also concerned about environmental issue as they have well established Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). In NAZ Bangladesh Ltd., I have completed 2 months (8 weeks) long industrial training in knitting, dyeing, finishing and garments. During the training period we faced a lot of technical problem, which we solve by consulting with the related persons. Whatever knowledge we have gain during my training period, it will help us to build up our career as a Textile Technologist.
  6. 6. Project Description 2 1.2. Layout of N.A.Z Bangladesh Ltd. ANSER CAMP Gate Dormitory POND Fabric store ACCESSORIES UNITE ETP POND CHEMIffCfAL STORE UNDERCONSTRUC TION 3 STD OFFICE AND GARMENTS Printing KNITTING SECTION Utility Building Chemical store WORKSHO P GATE N E SW
  7. 7. Project Profile Industrial Training 3 | P a g e 1.3.Project Profile Type : 100% Export Oriented Composite Knit Industry. Legal Form of Company : Private Limited Company. Year of Incorporation : 1987 Commencement of Operations : 1987 Project cost : 250 crore Name of the Bank : Exim Bank Company name N. A. Z. BANGLADESH LIMITED. Head Office House #21 , Road # 13, Baridhara, Gulshan, Dhaka-1212 Tel No 880-2-9861831, 9860445, 8854101 Extn: 128 / 156 Fax 880-2-9889078 E-mail nasir@nazbd.com, shamim@nazbd.com; salauddin@nazbd.com; URL www.nazbd.com Factory 5, Bishuya Kuribari Bari, Mirzapur, Rajendrapur, Gazipur-1700 Tel No 880-2-9289054-6 Fax No 880-2-9289053 Location 45~50 minutes drive from HSJI Airport to towards North (Mymansingh) Contacted persons Mr. Nasir Uddin Ahmed (Managing Director) Contact Phone :+88 01711 814 912 Mr. Salauddin Jakir (Merchandising Manger) Contact Phone: +8801714302133 Mr. Shamim Khan ( Sr. Merchandiser – Marketing & Merchandising ) Contact Phone: +88 01711 465 336
  8. 8. Project Profile Industrial Training 4 | P a g e Main Production : T-Shirt, Polo Shirt, Tank tock, Jacket, Trousers, Bottoms, etc. and all kinds of Knit fabric & garments. Factory space : 9, 07,200 sq.ft. Total Employees : 3350 persons No. Of employees : 350 persons No. Of workers : 3000 persons Working Period : 3 (Three) Shift Per Day Production Capacity Knitting : 20 Tons/Day Dyeing & Finishing : 16 Tons/Day Garments : 55,000 Pcs/Day PC Printing : 25,000 Pcs/ Day Embroidery : 50,000,000 Stitches/Day Garments Wash : 25000 Pcs/Day 1.4.Yearly Turn Over Serial No Year Turn Over (Per Year) 01 1996 US $ 7.02 Million 02 1997 US $ 8.20 Million 03 1998 US $ 9.65 Million 04 1999 US $ 10.56 Million 05 2000 US $ 12.76 Million 06 2001 US $ 15.86 Million 07 2002 US $ 17.65 Million 08 2003 US $ 20.00 Million 9 2004 US $ 22.00 Million 10 2005 US $ 25.00 Million 11 2006 US $ 25.00 Million 12 2007 US $ 26.00 Million 13 2008 US $ 28.00 Million
  9. 9. Project Profile Industrial Training 5 | P a g e 1.5.Different Dipertment: Different sections of N.A.Z. Bangladesh Ltd. A. Knit section  Knitting  Inspection B. Dyeing section  Batch section  Dye house  Dyeing lab  Quality control  Finishing C. Garments section  Merchandising  Sample  Cutting section  Sewing section  Finishing section D. Sewing Thread Dyeing E. Printing Unit F. Embroidery Unit G. Accessories Unit H. Maintenance section  Electrical  Mechanical I. Utility:  Electricity  Gas  Water  Boiler  ETP J. Store section K. Administration section L. Security section M. Marketing section N. Production planning &control O. Human Resource & Development section Different sections
  10. 10. Project Profile Industrial Training 6 | P a g e Supporting Department Personnel Administration Procurement Marketing HRD Finance & Accounting MIS (Management Information System) Work Study Complience & Safety Companies of N.A.Z. Group  N.A.Z. Bangladesh Ltd.  N.A.Z. Bangladesh Ltd. (Accessories Unit)  CA Knitwear Ltd.  Needle Touch Garments Ltd. Certifications: ISO Oeko Tex-100 Main Buyers of N.A.Z. Bangladesh LTD: SL BUYER COUNTRY 01 TARGET USA 02 TESCO UK 03 H&M SWEDEN 04 WAL MART USA, CANADA, MEXICO 05 PUNTORAMA SPAIN 06 TRR ITALY
  11. 11. Project Profile Industrial Training 7 | P a g e 1.6.History of the project development After successful operation in N.A.Z. Group, the owner had decided to start a fully information & technology based along with the social accountability and quality controlled modern readymade composite knit garments industry in large scale. It is situated at 5, Bishuya Kuribari, Mirzapur, Gazipur-1700, Bangladesh. In the year 1987 to manufacture knitwear garments for the international market. Right from inception the policy of the company has been to provide total customer satisfaction by offering quality knitwear in time. To meet the commitments of quality and prompt delivery, N.A.Z. Group Decided to integrate the manufacturing process in a planned manner. Over the years the entire process has been integrated by importing sophisticated machinery from world-renowned manufacturers. 1.7.Vision & mission of the project: The mission and vision of N.A.Z. Group is to manufacture and deliver high quality readymade garments (RMG) to its customers. The core objective is to attain and enhance customer satisfaction by providing on time delivery of desired quality readymade garments and also to increase efficiency of workforce. To attain these objectives, the management of N.A.Z. Group has decided to adopt the following-  To increase awareness regarding customers requirements throughout the organization.  By providing training to develop efficiency of the employee.  To collect customer’s feedback regularly to know about their conception about their company and to take timely appropriate action.  To reduce the percentage of wastage / rejection minimum by 2% per annum’s implement and monitor ISO 9001:2000 quality management system within the organization.
  12. 12. Man Power Management Industrial Training 8 | P a g e 2 CHAPTER : MAN POWER MANAGEMENT
  13. 13. Man Power Management Industrial Training 9 | P a g e 2.1.Manpower Organ gram Manpower organ gram of N. A. Z Bangladesh is as follows - Finishing & Q.C Manager Shift In-charge Q.C Technician Knitting Manager Managing Director Executive Director GM (Marketing) GM (Production) Asist. Manager Sr. Production Officer Shift In-charge Production Officer Assist. Production Officer Sr. Operator Operator Dyeing Manager Shift In-charge Production Officer Asist. Manager Deputy Manager Sr. Production Officer Assist. Production Officer Sr. Operator Operator
  14. 14. Man Power Management Industrial Training 10 | P a g e 2.2.Management system  Buyer sample is send to G.M or merchandising manager.  Matching is done under lab manager.  Sample is prepared by asst. dyeing manager.  Sample is send to the buyer for approval.  Approved sample is returned and taken as STD. sample for bulk production.  Dyeing manager gives responsibilities to asst. dyeing manager.  Then shift in-charge with the supervisors start bulk production.  On line and off line quality check is done by lab in-charge and asst. dyeing manager.  After dyeing asst. manager (finishing) controls the finishing process with the supervision of shift in-charge.  Finally G.M checks the result with dyeing manager and decision is taken for delivery. Shifting: In N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd. The whole day production time is divided into 3 shift. Per shift 8 hours. Shift Duration Shift A 6:00 am- 2:00 pm Shift B 2:00pm – 10:00 pm Shift C 10:00 pm- 6:00 am 2.3.Duties & Responsibilities of Different Post General Manager  To deal with the buyer and merchandiser.  To set up price for the product.  To plan apply and control all administrative functions.  To follow up the instruction of managing director and chairman. Manager  To supervise the personal working under him.  To plan the sequence of production.  To arrange necessary raw materials for the production problems.  To find out the possible reasons which are responsible for less production?  To follow up the instruction of Managing Director and Executive Director as well.
  15. 15. Man Power Management Industrial Training 11 | P a g e Deputy General Manager (DGM) production  Overall supervision of dyeing and finishing section.  Check the sensitive parameters of different machines for smooth dyeing.  Check the different log books in different areas and report to management.  Check the plan to control the best output  To trained and motive the subordinates how to improve the quality production.  Control the supervisor, operator, asst. operator and helper of dyeing machine.  Any other work as and when required. Senior Production Officer  Overall supervision of dyeing and finishing section.  Batch preparation and pH check.  Dyes and chemicals requisition issue and check  Write loading/unloading time from machine.  Program making, sample checking color measurement.  Control the supervisor, operator, asst. operator and helper of dyeing machine.  Any other work as and when required. Production officer  To collect the necessary information and infrastructure from the previous shift for the smooth running of the section.  To match production sample with target shade.  To match production sample lot sample matching next production.  To observed dyed fabric during finishing running and also after finishing process.  To identify disputed fabrics and report to PM/GM for necessary action.  To discuss with PM about overall production if necessary.  T sign the store requisition and delivery challenge in the absence of PM.  To execute the overall floor work.  To maintain loading/unloading paper. Shift In charge  To follow the workers movement.  Should discuss with the production Officer about what is happening.  To maintain the production sequence.  To check the sample at certain time interval.
  16. 16. Raw Materials Industrial Training 12 | P a g e 3 CHAPTER: RAW MATERIALS
  17. 17. Raw Materials Industrial Training 13 | P a g e 3.1.Raw Materials Table 3. 1: Source of yarn for knitting Lycra: CREORA Made in Korea Type # H-100 (20D, 40D) Square Spinning mill Basher spinning mill Kamal spinning mill Prime Spinning mill Aman spinning mill RK Spinning mill Fariha spinning mill JK Spinning mill Shohagpur spinning mill AKIJ Spinning mill Amber cotton mill Pahartoli Spinning mill Rising spinning mill Youth Spinning mill Shirin spinning mill Kader Spinning mill NZ spinning mill Silver Spinning mill Karim spinning mill Shemem Spinning mill
  18. 18. Knitting Section 14 | P a g e 3.2.Types of yarn used and their count: Table 3. 2: Types of yarns used in N.A.Z. Bangladesh Ltd Type of yarn Count Cotton 20S ,24S , 26S , 28S , 30S , 32S , 34S , 36S ,40S , 45S Polyester 70D,100D,150D Spandex yarn 20D,40D,70D Grey Mélange (C-90% V-10%) 24S , 26S Ecru Mélange (C-85% V-15%) 24S , 26S , 28S Cotton Mélange (100%) 24S , 26S , 28S PC (65%Polyester & 35% cotton) 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S CVC(60% Polyester & 40% Cotton) 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S 3.3.Cost of Raw Materials: Table 3.3: Cost of yarn Yarn Count Combed Yarn Carded Yarn 40/1 3.65 $/Kg 2.65-2.7$/Kg 36/1 3.00 $/Kg 2.5-2.6 $/Kg 32/1 2.90 $/Kg 2.30 $/Kg 30/1 2.70 $/Kg 2.30 $/Kg 28/1 2.65 $/kg 2.25 $/Kg 26/1 2.60 $/Kg 2.25 $/Kg 24/1 2.55 $/Kg 2.20 $/Kg 20/1 2.50 $/Kg 2.15-2.2$/Kg
  19. 19. Knitting Section 15 | P a g e Lycra Yarn: 20 den - 12.70 $/Kg 40 den - 8.40 $/Kg 70 den - 7.50 $/Kg Cost of knitting Table 3.4: Cost of knitting for different fabrices Fabrics Taka/kg Rib (1x1) 12-13 Rib (2x2) 14-15 Interlock 15-16 Single Jersey 7-8 Lacost 8-9 Pique 8-9 Terry fleece 14-15 Remarks: As the yarn consumption totally depends on production and production depends on order of buyer, so recommendation of yarn type, source, price, requirements may vary.
  20. 20. Knitting Section 16 | P a g e 4 CHAPTER : KNITTING UNIT
  21. 21. Knitting Section 17 | P a g e 4.1.Organ gram of Knitting Department Shift A-4 Shift B-4 Shift C-4 Knitting Master Asst.Master Sr.Fitter Servicing -5 Production Floor In charge Asst.Manager Sr.Production Officer Shift A Production Officer Shift B Production Officer Production Officer Shift C Shift In Charge APO Operator-40 Shift In Charge APO Operator-40 Shift In Charge APO Operator-40 Asst. Manager R& D sample Supervisor Asst.Operator-2 Y/D In charge Supervisor QC- 3 QC- 3 Sub Contract Out Scorching Manager Sub Contract Inside Manager Asst.Manager GM AGM Manager
  22. 22. Knitting Section 18 | P a g e 4.2. Layout of Knitting Department Fabric Store Office Room AGM Room Maintenance Room Gate
  23. 23. Knitting Section 19 | P a g e 4.3.Knitting: Knitting is the method of making fabric by transforming continuous strands of yarn into a series of interlooping loops, each row of such loops forms the one immediately preceding it. Types of weft knitting m/c: The N.A.Z Bangladesh Ltd. is a self- sufficient modern company. Its knitting section is divided into two sections- 1. Flat Knitting Section 2. Circular Knitting Section 4.4.Circular knitting section: Main parts of circular knitting m/c: 1. Yarn feed guide 2. Latch needle 3. Holding down sinker 4. Needle cylinder 5. Needle retaining spring 6. Needle operating cams 7. Cylinder driving wheel 8. Cylinder driving gear 9. Cylinder driving pinion attached to the main shaft 10. Sinker cam top 11. Cam box 12. Cam plate 13. Creel: Creel is used to place the cone. 14. Feeder: Feeder is used to feed the yarn. 15. Tensioning device: Tensioning device is used to give proper tension to the yarn. 16. VDQ pulley: VDQ pulley is used to control the GSM by controlling the stitch length. 17. Guide: Guide is used to guide the yarn. 18. Sensor: Sensor is used to seen & the m/c stops when any problem occurs. Fire Extinguisher Hose Pipe Fabric Rack Floor Marking Fabric inspection m/c V-Bed knitting m/c Circular knitting m/c
  24. 24. Knitting Section 20 | P a g e 19. Spreader: Spreader is used to spread the knitted fabric before take up roller. 20. Take up roller: Take up roller is used to take up the fabric 4.5.Basic knitting element: 1. Needle. 2. Sinker. 3. Cam. Needle: Function of needles: Needle is used to clear the old loop from the hook & to receive the new loop above it on the needle steam. Types of needle: In general there are three types of needles. a. Bearded needle. b. Latch needle. c. Compound needle. Figure 4.1: Latch Needle CAM: Cams are the devices which convert the rotary m/c drive into a suitable reciprocating action for the needles or other elements. Types of cam: Two type of cam 1. Engineering cam Knit cam 2. Knitting cam Miss cam Tuck cam Latch Steam Hook Rivet Butt
  25. 25. Knitting Section 21 | P a g e Function of CAM The functions of cam are as follows:  Produce motion to needles.  Loop formation.  Holding down.  Knocking over Sinker: This is secondary primary knitting element. It is a thin metal plate with an individual and collective action approximate at right angles from the hook side between adjoining needles. Function of sinker: It may one or more of the following functions dependent upon the machines knitting action and consequent sinker shape and movement. Others Equipments Used In Knitting Section:  GSM cutter  Electronic balance  Inspection m/c 4.6.Terms and definition of knitting: Course – A horizontal row of loops formed by the needles during one knitting cycle. Wales – A vertical column of loops formed by a single needle. Loop - It is a basic unit consisting of a loop of yarn meshed at its base with previously basic unit. Knitted loops are arranged in rows and columns roughly equivalent to the warp and weft of woven structures termed “Wales” and “courses” respectively Stitch - The smallest dimensionally stable unit of all knitted fabric is stitch. It consists of a yarn loop which is held together by being intermeshed with another stitch or other loop. Stitch length - Stitch length is a length of yarn which includes the needles of the needle loop & half of the sinker loop on either side of it. Generally the larger stitch length, the more extensible & lighter the fabric & the poorer the cover, capacity & bursting strength. Steps should be taken to change stitch length. - Check the S.L of the m/c prevailing. - Change the diameter of V. DLQ pulley. - Set of the position of carriage. - Set the speed of take- up roller
  26. 26. Knitting Section 22 | P a g e - Maintain the optimum yarn tension. Yarn count: Yarn count is the numerical system of expressing length per unit weight or weight per unit length. Count express fineness or coarseness of yarn. Yarn count can be calculated in two systems: Direct system: In direct system, yarn count is directly related to the yarn fineness. So, lower the count finner the yarn and higher the count and coarser the yarn. This system is used for Polyester and Ly- cra and other synthetic fibers. W l Direct Count w L    Where, W=weight of the sample L=length of the sample w=unit weight of the system l=unit length of the system Table 4-1: Yarn Count in Direct system System Unit weight Unit length Uses Tex Grams 1,000m Polyester Denier Grams 9,000m Lycra D-Tex Grams 10,000m Lycra Pounds/Spyndle Pounds 14400yds Jute
  27. 27. Knitting Section 23 | P a g e Indirect system: In indirect system, yarn count is inversely related to the yarn fineness. So, higher the count finner the yarn and lower the count and coarser the yarn. This system is used for cotton, worsted & woolen. w L Indirect Count W l    Where, W=weight of the sample L=length of the sample w=unit weight of the system l=unit length of the system Table 4-2: Yarn Count in Indirect system System Unit weight Unit length Uses English (Ne) 1 lb 840 yds Cotton yarn Metric (Nm) 1 kg 1 km Cotton yarn Worsted 1 lb 560 yds Worsted yarn Woolen 1 lb 256 yds Woolen yarn Stitch Density - Courses per inch (CPI) × Wales per inch (WPI) M/C Gauge - A number of needles per unit length in the knitting m/c, measured as the number of needles in one inch. This measure determines the number of Wales per unit length in the knitted fabric. 4.7.Flat Knitting Section Flat knitting section consists of Flat knitting machines. Its main production is Collar & Cuff. Different types of designed collar & Cuff is produced here matching with the body of the garments. Flat knitting machine is used to make collar and cuff with the required shape. Collar and cuff is usually with heavier gsm and thus multiple ply of yarn is used per feeder. No of yarn ply used will also depend on the yarn count. Lycra is also used when required.
  28. 28. Knitting Section 24 | P a g e Table 4-3: No. of yarn ply according to yarn count for collar & cuff Yarn count (Ne) No. of yarn ply 20 3 22 3 24 4 26 4 30 4-5 34 6 Size of collar according to size of garments:  Boy’s collar :Length 29 to 36 cm x width 8cm  Boy’s cuff : Length 31 cm x width 3cm  Man’s: Table 4-4: Collar & Cuff measurements Size Collar measurement (cm) Cuff measurement (cm) S 40 x 9 40 x 3.5 M 42 x 9 40 x 3.5 L 44 x 9 40 x 3.5 XL 46 x 9 40 x 3.5 XXL 48 x 9 44 x 3.5 XXXL 50 x 9 44 x 3.5 Collar and cuff which is made with V-bed knitting machine has 3 edge and need not to cut. Those fabrics have following 4 parts: 1. Tube 2. Tube end 3. Body 4. Separation
  29. 29. Knitting Section 25 | P a g e Sequence of operations in knitting section: Sample fabric Design analysis Sample fabric production Setting the machine for the specific design If Yes If NoBuyer approval Bulk Production QC Send to Batching section
  30. 30. Knitting Section 26 | P a g e Table 4-5:Main Product - Fabrics :- Single Jersey - Single Jersey: - Single Jersey (Lycra) - Single Jersey (Auto Stripe) - Single Jersey (Singed) - Single Jersey (Pigment Dye) - Single Jersey (Sueded / Ultra Soft) Pique - Pique - Pique (Auto Stripe) - Pique (Sueded / Ultra Soft) - Pique (Mercerized) - Pique (Ultra soft) Interlock - Interlock - Interlock (Ultra soft) - Interlock (Pigment Dye) - Interlock D/N (Cotton) - Interlock D/N (Polyester) Rib - Rib: Any Drop Needle - Rib (Pigment Dye) - Rib (Ultra soft) - Rib Elastane - Flat Back Rib - Variegated Rib Jacquard - Semi Jacquard Mesh - Mesh Fleece - Fleece - Fleece (Inside Brush) - Fleece (Both Side Brush) - Terry Fleece - Polar Fleece - Terry Fleece (Pigment Dye) Lacoste - Lacoste - Lacoste (Auto Stripe) - Lacoste (Pigment Dye) Waffle - Waffle Valor - Valor
  31. 31. Knitting Section 27 | P a g e Table 4.6: Analysis of structure, looping diagram, cam arrangement and needle arrangement of knit fabric Single Jersey Single jersey fabric vertical Wales’s line is shown on the face side of the fabric. On the back side sinker loops are produced. This fabric is produced by the needles of only one set needle. This fabric has curling effect on the edge after cut in relax state towards the back at the sides and towards the front at the top and bottom. End use: basic T-shirt, men’s vest, fine cardigans, ladies hosiery, full-fashioned knitwear etc. Face Side Back Side Looping diagram Cam Arrangement K K K K Needle Arrangement 1x1 Rib Rib fabric shows the face loop on the both sides of the fabric. Rib requires two sets of needles operating in-between each other so that walse of face stitches and wales of back stitches are knitted on each side of the fabric. This fabric has good elasticity and has no curling effect. End use: waist bands, cuffs and collars and typical applications, skirt belt, various types of fancy borders, sweaters etc. Face Side Back Side Looping diagram Cam Arrangement K M K M M K M K K M K M M K M K Needle Arrangement D C
  32. 32. Knitting Section 28 | P a g e Interlock Interlock has same appearance on both sides, like face of plane, but its smooth surface cannot be stretched. Interlock process two sets of needles (short and long) in both cylinder and dial and at least two feeders. This fabric cannot be un roved from either sides and has no curling effect. End use: under wear, trouser, sportswear, t- shirts, polo shirts etc. Face Side Back Side Looping diagram Cam Arrangement M K K M M K K M Needle Arrangement Single Lacost Single lacost is a knit-tuck single jersey structure. Face and back side of the fabric is different & produced with cylinder needle only. The prominence of the design appears on the back of the structure. The repeat of this structure completes on four courses. Face Side Back Side Looping diagram Cam Arrangement K T K K K K K T Needle Arrangement D C
  33. 33. Knitting Section 29 | P a g e Double Lacost Double lacost is a knit-tuck single jersey structure. Face and back side of the fabric is different & produced with cylinder needle only. The prominence of the design near to the single lacost design. The repeat of this structure completes on six courses. Benzene structure is shown on back side of the fabric. Face Side Back Side Looping diagram Cam Arrangement K K K K T T K T T K K K Needle Arrangement Single Pique Single pique is a knit-tuck single jersey structure and produced with cylinder needle only. The prominence of the design appears on the back side of the fabric. Face side of this fabric is like face of s/j and benzene ring is produced on the back side of the fabric. The repeat of this structure completes on two courses. Face side Back side Looping diagram Cam Arrangement K T T K Needle Arrangement
  34. 34. Knitting Section 30 | P a g e Double pique Double pique is a knit-tuck single jersey structure and produced with cylinder needle only. The prominence of the design appears on the back side of the fabric. Face side of this fabric is like face of s/j and benzene ring is produced on the back side of the fabric. The repeat of this structure completes on four courses. Face side Back side Looping diagram Cam Arrangement K K T T T T K K Needle Arrangement Fleece Fleece fabric is produced with the combination of knit, tuck and miss loops and this is s/j structure. Face side of the fabric is like face of s/j and miss loop will appear on the back side. If back side is brushed then called fleece fabric. Face side Face side Looping diagram Cam Arrangement K T K M K M K M K M K T Needle Arrangement
  35. 35. Knitting Section Industrial Attachment 31 | P a g e 4.8.Specifications of knitting machines used in N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd. Table 4.7. 1Single Jersey SL/ NO. M/C TYPE MC/ DIA M/C GAUGE FEED ER QTY BRAND ORIGIN FABRIC’S TYPE PRO. CAP/KGS REMARKS 1 S/J 19 24 57 1 ORIZIO ITALY S/J, Pique 200 2 S/J 20 24 60 1 ORIZIO ITALY S/J, Pique 225 3 S/J 21 24 63 2 ORIZIO ITALY S/J, Pique 450 4 S/J 22 24 66 2 ORIZIO ITALY S/J, Pique 500 5 S/J 23 24 69 3 ORIZIO ITALY S/J, Pique 750 6 S/J 22 24 66 2 ORIZIO ITALY S/J, Pique 500 7 S/J 23 24 69 3 ORIZIO ITALY S/J, Pique 750 8 S/J 25 24 75 1 ORIZIO ITALY S/J, Pique 300 Lycra Attachment 9 S/J 24 24 72 2 ORIZIO ITALY S/J, Pique 550 Lycra Attachment 10 S/J 25 24 75 1 ORIZIO ITALY S/J, Pique 300 Lycra Attachment 11 S/J 26 24 114 1 MAYER & CIE GERMANY S/J, Pique 500 Lycra
  36. 36. Knitting Section Industrial Attachment 32 | P a g e Attachment 12 S/J 28 24 123 1 MAYER & CIE GERMANY S/J, Pique 500 Lycra Attachment 13 S/J 26 24 114 1 MAYER & CIE GERMANY S/J, Pique 500 Lycra Attachment Total 21 6025 Table 4-7. 2 Fleece + 2 Thread Fleece + 3 Thread Fleece SL/ NO. M/C TYPE MC/ DIA M/C GAUGE FEEDER QTY BRAND ORIGIN FABRIC’S TYPE PROD CAP/KGS REMARKS 1 Fleece 28 20,24 90 1 MAYER & CIE GERMAN Y S/J ,Fleece 400 Lycra Attachment 2 Fleece 30 20,24 96 1 MAYER & CIE GERMAN Y S/J ,Fleece 400 Lycra Attachment 3 Fleece 32 20,24 102 1 MAYER & CIE GERMAN Y S/J ,Fleece 450 Lycra Attachment 4 Fleece 34 20,24 108 1 MAYER & CIE GERMAN Y S/J ,Fleece 500 Lycra Attachment 5 Fleece 32 20,24,28 96 1 Fukahama TAIWAN S/J ,Fleece 350 Lycra
  37. 37. Knitting Section Industrial Attachment 33 | P a g e Attachment 6 Fleece 34 20,24,28 102 1 Fukahama TAIWAN S/J ,Fleece 400 Lycra Attachment Total 6 2500 Table 4-7. 3 Rib + Interlock + Flat Back Rib + Drop Needle SL/ No. M/C TYPE MC/ DIA M/C GAUGE Fee der QT Y BRAND ORIGIN FABRIC’S TYPE Prod cap/kg REMARKS 1 Rib+Interlock 30 14,18 62 1 MAYER & CIE GERMANY Rib+I/L+F/Rib 300 Lycra Attachment 2 Rib+Interlock 34 14,19 70 3 MAYER & CIE GERMANY Rib+I/L+F/Rib 350 Lycra Attachment 3 Rib+Interlock 36 14,20 74 1 MAYER & CIE GERMANY Rib+I/L+F/Rib 400 Lycra Attachment 4 Rib +Interlock 36 14,20 74 1 MAYER & CIE GERMANY Rib+I/L+F/Rib 400 Lycra Attachment 5 Rib +Interlock 38 14,21 78 1 MAYER & CIE GERMANY Rib+I/L+F/Rib 500 Lycra Attachment 6 Rib +Interlock 36 16,22 72 1 Fukahama TAIWAN Rib+I/L+F/Rib 350 Lycra Attachment 7 Rib +Interlock 38 16,23 76 1 Fukahama TAIWAN Rib+I/L+F/Rib 400 Lycra Attachment 8 Rib +Interlock 40 18,22 84 3 Juinn Long TAIWAN Rib+I/L+F/Rib 400 Lycra Attachment
  38. 38. Knitting Section Industrial Attachment 34 | P a g e 9 Rib 40 16 80 1 Juinn Long TAIWAN Rib +F/Rib 800 F/Look lycra Attach 10 Rib 42 18 84 4 Juinn Long TAIWAN Rib +F/Rib 400 F/Look lycra Attach 11 Interlock 38 24 114 1 Juinn Long TAIWAN INTERLOCK 400 Lycra Attachment 12 Interlock 40 24 120 1 Juinn Long TAIWAN INTERLOCK 400 Lycra Attachment 13 Interlock 42 24 126 1 Juinn Long TAIWAN INTERLOCK 400 Lycra Attachment 14 RIB 34 15 24 1 Juinn Long TAIWAN RIB 200 Lycra Attachment Total 21 5700 Table 4.7.1 Terry = S/J + Terry / Terry Fleece + Velor + Polar Fleece etc. M/C TYPE MC/ DIA M/C GAUGE FEEDER QTY BRAND ORIGIN FABRIC’ S TYPE PROD CAP/KGS REMARKS 1 Terry 42 20 68 2 MAYER & CIE Germany Terry 1000 Lycra Attachment Total 2 1000
  39. 39. Knitting Section Industrial Attachment 35 | P a g e Table 4.7. 4 Auto Stripe + Feeder Stripe (S/J + Pique + Lacoste + Other Design) SL/ NO. M/C TYPE MC/ DIA M/C GAUGE FEE DER QT Y BRAND ORIGIN FABRIC TYPE PROD CAP/KGS REMARKS 1 Auto Stripe 34 24 48 4 Fukahama JAPAN Auto Stripe 300 Lycra Attachment 2 Auto Stripe 36 24 48 4 Fukahama JAPAN Auto Stripe 350 Lycra Attachment 3 Auto Stripe 38 24 48 2 Fukahama JAPAN Auto Stripe 400 Lycra Attachment Total 8 1050 Table 4.7. 5: V-bed knitting m/c SL/ NO. M/C TYPE MC/ DIA M/C GAUGE FEEDER QT Y BRAND ORIGIN FABRIC TYPE PROD CAP/KGS REMARKS 1 Flat Knit 0 14 8 6 Snima Seiki Japan Collar/Cuff 1400 Lycra Attachment 2 Flat Knit 0 14 12 1 Stoll Germany Collar/Cuff 700 Lycra Attachment Total 7 2100
  40. 40. Knitting Section Industrial Attachment 36 | P a g e 4.9.Quality Standard: N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd. follows the four point grading system to inspect the body & rib fabric, by this four point system, the faults arc found by the inspection and points are given against the faults. Following table shows the four point grading system followed by inspection at N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd. Table 4.8: four point system for knit fabric Four Point Grading System Size Of Defects Penalty 3 inches or less 1 point Over 3 inch but not over 6 inch 2 point Over 6 inch but not over 9 inch 3 point Over 9 inch 4 point Any Hole 4 Point Typical knitting calculations: The calculations which are frequently used in the knitting section are discussed below: Gauge (G): Number of needles per inch. Total needles: Machine diameter× Gauge×3.416 Feeders of Single Jersey: Machine diameter×3 Feeders of Double Jersey: Machine diameter×2 Relation between yarn count and fabric Gsm For single jersey fabric: 4320 Yarn Count Fabric Gsm  For Double jersey fabric:
  41. 41. Knitting Section Industrial Attachment 37 | P a g e 6000 Yarn Count Fabric Gsm  Relation between fabrics finished Gsm, stitch length, fabric gsm, yarn count: For Single Jersey fabric: 590 Ks Stitch Length Yarn Count Finished Gsm    Where, For s/j, Ks=19.6 For 1x1 rib, Ks=26 For Interlock, Ks=38 Fabric Thickness: Fabric thickness = 4D Here, D= yarn dia (in relaxed state) Tightness Factor: Tex Tightness Factor Stitch Length  , here stitch length is in mm Production per shift: . 60 8 Pr 1000 840 ( ) 36 2.2028 D G S L F RPM efficiency oduction per shift Kg yarncount Ne               Where,  D= Machine dia  G= Machine gauge  S.L.=Stitch length  F= No. of feeder 4.10. Remarks: knitting section is equipped with a large number of machines. But some modern knitting machine should purchased including engineering stripe machine with Lycra attachment facility.
  42. 42. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 38 | P a g e 5 CHAPTER : BATCH SECTION
  43. 43. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 39 | P a g e 5.1. Batching: Primarily batching is done by batching section which is supervised by dyeing manager. The main function of batching section is to prepare the batch for dyeing according to machine capacity, order and emergency. This section receive the grey fabric from knitting section and make batch according to order for particular shade. Then this batch delivers to dyeing section for dyeing. Function or purpose of Batch section:  To receive the grey fabric roll form knitting or other source.  Turn the gray fabric if require.  Prepare the batch for dyeing according to the following criteria:  Order sheet (Received from buyer)  Dyeing shade ( light or dark, color or white)  Machine capacity.  Type of fabric ( 100% Cotton, CVC, Stripe fabric)  Emergency order.  Fabric construction (Single jersey, Rib, Lycra Rib, Lacost, PK etc.)  To send the grey fabric to the dyeing floor with batch card.  To keep record. Proper Batching Criteria:  To use maximum capacity of existing dyeing machine.  To minimize preparation time & machine stoppage time.  To use a particular machine for dyeing same shade. 5.2.Calculations related to batch section: ( ) 100 Dia cm GSM Grams per linear meter   1000kg per Chamber Meters Per Chember Grms per linear meter   Now, when a gram per linear meter is low then meters per chamber will be more. Thus, fabric loading should be reduced to avoid jamming in the winch. In this case 80-85% fabric
  44. 44. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 40 | P a g e loading is given. But when gram per linear meter is more then rope length will reduce and in this case up to 90% fabric loading can be given. Preparing the fabric ropes The fabric ropes for each chamber should be prepared in batching section. The fabric rolls are correctly sewn together. This will minimize the time required to load the machine, and avoid the risk of rope entanglement. Fabric loading in the m/c will vary with the type of fabric and the width of the fabric and the amount is not less than 50% of the machine nominal load. 5.3.Calculating the chamber loading In the following table are listed general recommendations covering rope cycle times and speeds for a wide range of fabrics: Fabric Rope cycle times in minutes Rope circulation speed m/min Knit fabric PES unfixed 1 250 PES heat set 1-1.5 200 PC 1-2 250 Co - reactive 2-3 225-275 For calculation the following diagram shows the weight per running metre of a fabric in grams, and the corresponding rope weight and length. e.g. a fabric of 200 gm/running metrewith rope length of 800 metres will have a dry weight of 160 kg.
  45. 45. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 41 | P a g e Kg 0 200 400 800600 1000 0 1200 20 40 60 80 100 120 200 140 160 180 220 260 280 300 320 340 360 240 100g125g150g175g200g225g 500g 400g 350g 300g 275g 250g 550g Grms/running meter Rope length(m)
  46. 46. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 42 | P a g e Figure 5-1: Rope length (m) and fabric wt loading on m/c depending on the grams per running meter of fabric Turn over time The following diagram shows the relationship between winch speed and rope length necessary to reach a required turn over time. Figure 5-2: Rope length depending on winch speed It is also possible to reverse the procedure and calculate the maximum rope length with a fabric of a particular weight, having determined the winch speed and circulation time. For example: 100% Cotton, Reactive dyeing: Circulation time = 3 minutes Winch speed = 250 m/min Rope length = 3 mins x 250 m 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 100 200 300 400 500 m/min 600 Winchspeedm/min Rope length(m) 3 1 2 4 56
  47. 47. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 43 | P a g e = 750 meters If the rope is shorter, so that the same rope circulation time and nozzle contacts are maintained during the cycle, the winch speed should be reduced. Rope length 690 m Circulation time 3 mins = 230 m/min (winch speed) Calculation of the the rope length If Rope weight is 105 kg (weightper running metre) 200 kg/rm = 525 m (rope length) Calculation of the winch speed If Rope length is 540 m Cycle time 3 mins Then Winch speed = 180 m/min Number of nozzle passages (Process time) 360 mins (Cycle time) 3 mins = 120 (nozzle passages) 5.4.Batch management Primarily batching is done by dyeing manager taking the above criteria under consideration. Batch section in charge receives this primary batch plan from dyeing manager. Some time planning is adjusted according to m/c condition or emergency Machines in Batch section: Fabric turning m/c: Machine Name : Air turning m/c Brand Name : Taida Origin : China M/c Speed : 300-500m/min Model : DF 200 Company : Shandong Taida Dyeing & Finishing Machinery Co. Ltd.
  48. 48. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 44 | P a g e 5.5.Process flow chart of Batch preparation: Deliver the Fabric to dyeing section Receive the order sheet from in-charge Make the batch card on the priority of shipment date Take the Batch card which order have to deliver first Check the availability of the fabric Turn off the fabric (if necessary) Distribute the collar/cuff or Rib in each rope equally ensuring equal length. Take collar/cuff as per size and keep the total weight Take require quantity of body fabric from the store Stitch the fabric Write down weight against roll no. in the back side of the Batch card Write the total weight in the batch card Fill up the Production report form
  49. 49. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 45 | P a g e Precautions during batch making Check whether count variation is occured or not Check whether lot variation is occured or not Check whether rib fabric is included or not Be sure about the packing instruction , whether it is Solid color solid size Solid color assorted size Assorted color assorted size Assorted color solid size
  50. 50. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 46 | P a g e 6 CHAPTER : LAB SECTION
  51. 51. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 47 | P a g e 6.1. Lab dip: Lab dip is a process by which buyers supplied swatch is matched with the varying dyes percentage in the laboratory with or without help of “DATA COLOR” Lab dip plays an important role in shade matching & and detaching the characteristics of the dyes and chemicals are to be used in the large scale of production so this is an important task before bulk production. Objective of Lab dip: The main objectives in lab are as follows:  To calculate the recipe for sample dyeing.  To compare dyed sample with swatch by light Box or spectrophotometer.  To calculate revise recipe for sample dyeing.  Finally approved lab dip (Grade: ABC) Table 6-1: Amount salt and soda used depending on the shade % Shade % Salt (g/l) Soda (g/l) 0.001-0.01 15 4 0.01-0.1 20 5 0.1-0.5 30 7 0.5-1.0 40 10 1.0-1.5 50 12 1.5-2 60 15 2-3 70 18 3 to above 80 20
  52. 52. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 48 | P a g e 6.2.Instrumental Color matching Process: Spectrophotometer flow Chart Triangle shade Initial recipe Laboratory dyeing Use L*, a*, b* to match OK Production dyeing Use L*, a*, b* to match Recipe correction Not matched Production correction Not matched Input database History of the lab Recipe Prediction calculated by CCM Or calculated by smart shade library Finished OK
  53. 53. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 49 | P a g e 6.3. Dyes and chemicals measuring formula for laboratory: ◘ The amount of dye solution (ml) is calculated as follow – Fabric weight x Shade % Amount of dye soln (ml) = ----------------------------------------------- Concentration of stock dye soln % Example – In recipe, Fabric wt. = 5gm Shade % = 2% [If used 0. 5 % stock soln of dyes] then, 5 x 2 Amount of dye soln (ml) = ----------- = 20ml. 0.5 ◘ The amount of chemical soln (ml) is measured as follow – Fabric wt. x M: L x g/l Amount of chemical soln (ml) = -------------------------------------- 1000 x Conc. of stock soln % Example – In recipe, The Fabric wt. = 5 gm Salt = 20 g/l M: L = 10 [If taken 25 % stock soln. of salt] then, 5 x 10 x 20 Amount of chemical soln (ml) = --------------------- = 4 ml 1000 x 0.25
  54. 54. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 50 | P a g e 6.4. Stock solution preparation: SHADE % STOCK SOLUTION % 0.0001-0.009 0.1 0.10-0.99 0.5 1-1.99 1 2-3.99 2 4 ( or above) 4 6.5.Procedure of lab dip formation: A. For 100% cotton fabric:  Fabric weight measured by electric balance 5 gm sample is taken.  Calculate the recipe.  Make solution of required dyes and chemicals.  Then required amount of dyes, water, salt, soda and other chemicals are taken to the pot by digital pipette.(M:L=1:7)  Wet the fabric with water.  Keep the fabric in the pot and immerse well with tong.  Cover the pot well and set to the m/c holder.  Start the program for dyeing.  The dyeing time and temperature depend on types of dyes being used. Program – 1: For light shade Fixed temp = 60 Time = 60 min. Program – 2: For dark shade Fixed temp = 80 Circulation Time = 60 min.  After finished the dyeing time then cold wash two times.  Acid wash for neutralization with 1g/l acetic acid.  Then soaping by required soap solution for 10 min. at 950 C  Cold wash then drying the lab dip and compare with the standard.
  55. 55. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 51 | P a g e B. For cotton/ blend fabric (all in one method):  Fabric weight measured by electric balance 5 gm sample is taken.  Calculate the recipe for polyester part. 1 to April 1  Make solution of required dyes and chemicals.  Then required amount of dyes, water, dispersing agent, acetic acid and sodium ace- tate are taken to the pot by digital pipette.  Wet the fabric with water.  Keep the fabric in the pot and immerse well with tong.  Cover the pot well and set to the m/c holder.  Start the program for dyeing.  The dyeing time and temperature are carried out for 30 min. at 1300 C  After finished the dyeing time then cold wash two times.  Then reduction clearing by hydrose, caustic & detergent for 20 min at 700 C  Cold wash then drying and match with the standard sample. Again, Dye the cotton part with cotton dyeing procedure. 6.6.Self shade formation: Dyeing lab in-charge will produce self shade for new dyes stored in the dye store. Self shade should be ok with the previous self shade of the dye or if any deviation is obtained then necessary steps should be taken. Development of self shade: Reactive Black B: 0.5%,30/8 1%,40/10 1.5%,40/1 0 2%,50/12 2.5%,50/1 2 3%,60/15 3.5%,60/1 5 4%,70/18 4.5%,80/2 0 5%,80/20 6%,80/20
  56. 56. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 52 | P a g e Reactive Yellow 4GL: Ciba Red FNR: Reactive Yellow RR: Reactive Blue: 0.05%,0/6 0.1%,20/6 0.5%,30/8 0.8%,38/8 2%,60/15 3.5%,60/1 5 0.1%,20/6 0.5%,30/8 0.8%,30/8 2%,60/15 3.5%,60/1 5 5%,80/20 2%, 60/15 3.5%, 68/150.5%, 30/8 0.8%, 30/8 1%,48/10 0.05%,20/6 0.1%,20/6 0.5% 20/6 0.8%,20/6 2%,60/15 3.5%,60/1 5
  57. 57. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 53 | P a g e Ciba Orange FNK: Ciba Yellow FN2R: Ciba Red FNR: 2%, 50/12 3%, 80/20 4%, 80/20 5.5%, 80/20 0.05%,20/6 0.1%, 20/6 0.25%,30/8 0.5%,30/8 1%,40/10 1.5%,40/10 1.0%,30/8 2.5%,80/20 3.5%,80/20 5.0%,80/20 5%,80/203.5%,80/200.1%,30/8 0.5%,30/8 1%,30/8 2.5%,80/20
  58. 58. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 54 | P a g e Dimarine Scarlet HF3G: Dimarine Turquoise CIB: 0.005%, 20/6 0.01%,20/6 0.05%,20/6 0.1% 20/6 0.5%,30/8 0.8%,30/8 1%, 40/10 2%, 60/15 3.5%,60/15 5%,60/15 0.005%, 20/6 0.01%,30/6 0.05%,20/6 0.1%,20/6 0.5%,30/8 0.8%,30/8 1%, 40/10 2%, 40/10 3.5%,70/15 5%, 80/20 5.5%,80/20
  59. 59. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 55 | P a g e Reactive Super Black RGB: Sola Blue RSPL: 0.005%,20/6 0.01%,20/6 0.05%,20/6 0.1%,20/6 0.5%,30/8 0.8%,30/8 1%,40/10 2%,60/15 3.5%,60/15 4%,70/18 0.1 %, 20/6 0.5 %, 38/8 1%, 40/10 1.5%, 48/10 2.5%, 58/12 3.5%, 60/15 4%, 78/18 4.5%, 80/20 5%, 80/20 5.5%, 80/20 7%, 80/20 8.5%, 80/20
  60. 60. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 56 | P a g e 6.7.Machine Specification of Dyeing Lab: Machine No : 01 Machine Name : Power drum Manufacturer : Samsung Machine type : Fully automatic washing machine Machine No : 02 Manufacturer : Sharp Country of origin : Japan Machine type : Washing machine Machine No : 03 Machine Name :Labdyeing machine (Polyester dye) Manufacturer : Irdyer Machine No : 04 Machine Name :Electrolux washcotar Model : FOM71MP-lab Function :Dimensional stability (Shrinkage) Machine No : 05 Machine Name : Rota wash Function : colorfastness to wash Machine No : 06 Machine Name : Lab dyeing machine (Cotton dye) Manufacturer : IRDYER Machine No : 07 Machine Name : Dimensional stability to wash Manufacturer : LG Machine No : 08 Machine Name : Tumble dryer Manufacturer : Indesit Machine No : 09 Machine Name : Color fastness to light Manufacturer : SDL international Machine No : 10 Machine Name : ICI pilling tester Manufacturer : SDL international Country of origin : England Machine No : 11 Machine Name : 12
  61. 61. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 57 | P a g e Machine Name : Gray Scale Manufacturer : SDL international Country of origin : England Machine Name : Incubator Manufacturer : SDL international Function : Colorfastness to water Machine No : 13 Machine Name : Crockmeter Manufacturer : James H. Heal & Co. Ltd. Country of origin : England Machine No : 14 Machine Name : Spectrophotometer Brand : Color-eye 7000A Manufacturer : SDL international Country of origin : England Machine No : 15 Machine Name : Light box Manufacturer : Verivide (CAC 120) Machine No : 16 Machine Name : Overlock sewing machine
  62. 62. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 58 | P a g e 7 CHAPTER : DYEING SECTION
  63. 63. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 59 | P a g e 7.1.Layout of Dyeing Department Hydro Extractor M/c Fabric Inspection M/c 1 to 12- Dilmenler Dyeing M/c (Except 10 & 11) 10-bangla Dyeing m/c, 30 kg capacity 11-bangla Dyeing m/c, 50 kg capacity BWM Bangla Washing M/c CMC- Color Matching Cabinet FTM-Fabric Turning M/c 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1050 kg 700 kg 525 kg 1400 kg 350 kg 175 kg 50 kg 50 kg Tumble Dryer Tumble Dryer Tumble Dryer Tumble Dryer FTM FTM Back sewing m/c Tube Compactor Relax Dryer Tube squeezer CM C Office Room Dyeing lab (1st floor) Open Compactor Bruckner Stenter Open Squeezer 1400 kg 12 10 kg 9 1110 BWM BW M
  64. 64. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 60 | P a g e 7.2.Orgn gram of Dyeing Department: Chairman Managing Director General Manager Operation Manager Dyeing Supervisor Production Officer Worker Finishing In- Charge Quality Controller QA In-Charge Worker Assistant Manager QA Manager Dyeing Asst. Manager Dyeing Sr. Production Officer/In-Charge A.P.O Production Officer Supervisor & Worker Supervisor Officer R&D Worker Assistant Manager R&D
  65. 65. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 61 | P a g e 7.3.Textile Dyeing: Dyeing is a coloration process of textile which is invariable carried out in an aqueous medium. In the other hand, dyeing can be define as a process by which a yarn, fabric, garments and any other materials that come to contact of dye by presence of auxiliaries that create the condition of dyeing environment Table 7. 1Classes of dyes on the basis of suitability of dyeing different fibers: Sl. no Name of dyes Suitable for Fibers 01 Acid dyes Wool, silk and Nylon 02 Basic dyes Nylon, Acrylic, Acetate Rayon, Silk, Wool and Jute 03 Direct dyes Cotton, Viscose Rayon, Linen, Nylon, Wool and Silk 04 Azoic dyes Cotton, Viscose and Linen. 05 Vat dyes Cotton, Viscose and Linen. 06 Sulpher dyers Cotton, Viscose and Linen. 07 Reactive dyes Cotton, Viscose, Linen, Wool, Silk and Nylon. 08 Disperse dyes Polyester, Nylon, Acrylic, Acetate Rayon and Triacetate Rayon. Cotton: The repeating unit in the cotton polymer is cellobiose, which consists of two glucose units. The most important chemical grouping on the cotton polymer is the hydroxyl groups or -OH groups. As a result Cotton is a natural Cellulose has an empirical formula of (C6H10O5)n. Figure 7.1: Cellulose, the polymer of cotton
  66. 66. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 62 | P a g e Chemical Composition of Cotton: Table 7. 2: Chemical composition of raw cotton: Component Main location Relative amount Cellulose Secondary wall 86.8 % Oil and Wax Cuticle 0.70 % Pectins Primary cell wall 1.0 % Carbohydrates Primary cell wall 0.50 % Protein Lumen 1.2 % Salts Lumen 1.0 % Water Whole 6.8 % Others 2.0 % 7.4. Reactive dye: Reactive dyes are so called because their molecules react chemically with the fibre polymers of some fibres to form a covalent bond between the dye molecule and fibre polymer. The fibre most readily coloured with reactive dyes are the man-made and natural cellulose fibres, synthetic nylon, and natural protein fibres. History: In 1955, Rattee and Stephen, working for ICI in England, developed a procedure for dyeing cotton with fiber-reactive dyes containing dichlorotriazine groups. They established that dyeing cotton with these dyes under mild alkaline conditions resulted in a reactive chlorine atom on the triazine ring being substituted by an oxygen atom from a cellulose hydroxyl group This is shown below: Where Cell–OH is the cellulose with a reactive hydroxyl group, Dye–Cl- is the dye with its reactive chlorine atom, and Cell–O–Dye the dye linked to the cellulose by a covalent bond. The role of the alkali is to cause acidic dissociation of some of the hydroxyl groups in the cellulose, and it is the cellulosate ion (Cell–O-) that reacts with the dye. 2Cell OH HO Cell O H O Cell O Dye Cl Cell O Dye Cl                
  67. 67. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 63 | P a g e Classification of Reactive dyes on the basis of functional group Mono-functional Multi-functional Bi-functional Homo-bifunctional Hetero-bifunctional Tri-functional Tetra-functional Penta- functional Bi-and poly-functional reactive dyes can be divided into four groups. If the two reactive groups in the dyestuff molecule are the same, they are known as homobifunctional dyes, and if they are different, they are known as heterobifunctional types. Figure 7.2: Bifunctional reactive dye (Remazol Black B, DyStar) Dyeing machine: The machine which is used to dyeing or coloring of materials like yarn, fabric, garments or any other materials is called dyeing machine.
  68. 68. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 64 | P a g e 7.5.Winch Dyeing Machine: The winch or beck dyeing machine is quite simple and serves for all scouring, bleaching, dyeing, washing-off and softening processes. The machine contains a length of fabric with the ends sewn together, which is compressed to form a continuous rope. This rope passes from the dye bath over two elevated reels and then falls back into the bath. The first roller is free-running (jockey or fly roller). The second (winch reel) is driven and controls the rate of rope transport and the extent of pleating where the rope accumulates below and behind the winch. Both reels extend the full length of the machine and accommodate several fabric ropes running side by side. The fabric rope is held on the winch by friction and its own weight. Covering the winch with polypropylene or polyester tape increases the friction. Figure 7. 3: Dilmenlar Winch Dyeing m/c 7.6.Principle of winch dyeing machine  The basic principle of all winch dyeing machines is to have a number of loops or ropes of the fabric in the dye bath, these ropes are of equal length, which are mostly immersed in the liquor in the bath.  The upper part of each rope runs over two reels which are mounted over dye bath. At the front of the machine, above the top of the dye liquor, is a smaller reel, which is called jockey or fly roller. The fly roller remains freewheeling along with fabric rope.  At the back of winch tank is the winch wheel, which pulls the fabric rope from the dye bath over the jockey reel for dropping in the dye bath for immersion.  From the dropped location, the fabric rope travels back. To be lifted and fed to winch wheel.
  69. 69. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 65 | P a g e  The dyeing process on winch dyeing machines is based on higher M: L as compared with other dyeing machines.  The process is conducted with very little tension.  The total dyeing time is lengthier as compared to other machines.  Table 7. 3: Production Parameters : Process Temp(▫C) pH Time min M : L ratio Scouring - Bleaching 98 10-11 30 1:8 Enzyme Wash 55 4.5-5 30 1:8 Reactive Dyeing (Light Shade) 60 10-11 60 1:8 Reactive Dyeing (Dark Shade) 60 11-12 60 1:8 White Shade 98 10.5-11.5 30 1:8 Turquish color dyeing 80-90 11-12 60 1:8 Polyester dyeing 130 4-4.5 45 1:8 7.7.Specification of Dyeing Machine used in N.A.Z Bangladesh LTD: Machine No # 01 Manufacturer Dilmenler Capacity 50 kg No of nozzle 01 Website www.dilmenler.com.tr Machine No # 02 Manufacturer Dilmenler
  70. 70. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 66 | P a g e Capacity 50 kg No of nozzle 01 Website www.dilmenler.com.tr Machine No # 03 Manufacturer Dilmenler Capacity 1050 kg No of nozzle 06 Website www.dilmenler.com.tr Machine No # 04 Manufacturer Dilmenler Capacity 175 kg No of nozzle 02 Website www.dilmenler.com.tr Machine No # 05 Manufacturer Dilmenler Capacity 350 kg No of nozzle 02 Website www.dilmenler.com.tr Machine No # 06 Manufacturer Dilmenler
  71. 71. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 67 | P a g e Capacity 1400 kg No of nozzle 08 Website www.dilmenler.com.tr Machine No # 07 Manufacturer Dilmenler Capacity 525 kg No of nozzle 03 Website www.dilmenler.com.tr Machine No # 08 Manufacturer Dilmenler Capacity 700 kg No of nozzle 03 Website www.dilmenler.com.tr Machine No # 09 Manufacturer Dilmenler Capacity 10 kg No of nozzle 01 Website www.dilmenler.com.tr Machine No # 10 Capacity 30 kg
  72. 72. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 68 | P a g e Machine No # 11 Capacity 70 kg Machine No # 12 Manufacturer Dilmenler Capacity 1400 kg No of nozzle 08 Website www.dilmenler.com.tr Calculation realted to dyeing floor: 39.37 1000 . Machine Capacity Winch speed GSM fabric width no of Nozzle Cycle Timt       39.37 10000 . Machine Capacity Cycle Time Fabric GSM Fabric width No of Nozzle Winch speed       Re ( ) %quired Dye kg Shade Fabric weight in Kg  / Re 1000 g l required Total liquor quired Chemicals  
  73. 73. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 69 | P a g e Figure 7. 4: Cross sectional view of Dilmenler Dyeing m/c 1-Minimum fabric tension with low level main Winch 2-Adjustable patented nozzle system 3-Horizontal type cylindrical filter with large filtering surface 4-Teflon lined J-BOX bottom 5-J-BOX system which provide non-tangle even for sensitive fabric 6-Large inspection port with platform with three combined security system 7-Halogen inner lighting 8-Elliptical fabric pipe 9-Rapid machine cleaning system 10-HAT-PRO 100% hot water preparation tank 11-Proportional heating & cooling valves 12-Heat exchanger with 70 C/min heating gradient INLETINL ET Dye Dosin g Tank Chemic al Dosing Tank 6 5 4 3 2 7 21 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Water Inlet
  74. 74. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 70 | P a g e Figure 7. 5: Different valves used in Dilmenler winch Dyeing m/c Cold Soft Water Inlet Steam Inlet Hot Soft Water InletCondensate Return Line Cooling Water Return Line DN80 DN80 DN 20 Addition Tank (Auxiliaries) Addition Tank (Dye) DN 25 DN 80 DN 80 DN 80 DN 50 HeatExchanger DN 125 DN 125 DMS 140 DMS 140 DN8 0 DN 80 DMS 140 DMS 140 DN 125 8
  75. 75. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 71 | P a g e Controlling Points:  Air min 6 bar to max 7 bar  Steam supply min 6 bar to max 8 bar  Water supply min 2 bar to max 5 bar Valve fig. Description Steam valve Steam valve Swing check valve Strainer Manual valve Flow scope Pressure Gauge ½” muff and dummy plug 7.8. Important parts of Dilmenler Winch Dyeing m/c: Winch: Winch is an important part of dyeing machine and used for moving the fabric through the whole dyeing machine. Winch is rotated with the help of motor. Fabric is passed over the winch and fabric dwell time depends on the winch speed. Winch speed will depend on the rope length and gsm of the fabric to be dyed. There is opening on the machine for winch to remove tangled fabric from winch. No. of nozzle per winch is normally 1 or 2 and total no. of winch per machine will depend on machine capacity. Figure 7.6: winch
  76. 76. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 72 | P a g e Addition Motor: Addition motor is used to dissolve salt, soda dye and other chemicals. This motor ensures uniform dispersion of chemicals. This motor is used in the dosing tank and tiere is an agitator connected to the motor for addition. Dosing tank: Dosing tank is used for the application of dyes and chemicals to the dye bath in solution form. Steam line is connected to the dosing tank. This tank ensures dissolved chemicals and dyes to the dyeing machine to ensure fault free dyeing. Nozzle: Nozzle is the part of winch dyeing machine where dye pick up of the fabric is maximum. After the winch the fabric is passed through the nozzle. Main motor is connected to the nozzle and continuously circulate dyeing liquor to the machine via nozzle. Fabric passed with the pressure of water and used for controlling the speed of dye liquor. There is opening in the nozzle which can be controlled as required. Heat Exchanger: Heat exchanger is used for heating and cooling the dye bath liquor. Heat exchange process is achieved by passing steam or water through the coiled pipe line present in the heat exchanger. When heat is increased then steam valve is opened and passed through the coiled pipe line and dyeing liquor is passed through the heat exchanger. During the passage, heat increase of dyeing liquor. For reducing heat, water valve will opened and heat will reduce. J-Box: J-box of the machine is where fabric will stored after falling from the nozzle. J-shape helps the smooth passage of fabric. This box contains a deposition tube line attached to the fabric guide. This box is perforated and ensures easy circulation of dyeing liquor to the machine. Main motor: Centrifugal pump is used for circulating the liquor through the dyeing machine. Its capacity will depend on the capacity of the machine. Valves: Different types of valves are used in dyeing machine. Such as steam valve, water valve, pneumatic valve etc.
  77. 77. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 73 | P a g e Viewing light: Viewing light is given in the dyeing machine to see how the dyeing of the fabric is advancing in the dyeing machine from outside of the dyeing machine as it is impossible to look into the dyeing machine due to high steam temperature. Filter Tube: Filter tube is used inside the circulating line and drain line through which dyeing liquor is passed to filter impurities. If the filter is jammed then removed from line and cleaned. Drain line: Drain line is used for extracting the liquor out of the dyeing automatically. 7.9.Machine Setup On The Basis Of Fabric Type & GSM Fabric Type GSM Pump Speed % Reel Speed(MPM) Single Jersey Up to 140 80 250 140 – 180 85 230 180 – above 90 210 Polo Pique, Back Pique & Bubble Knit Up to 160 85 280 160 – 200 90 260 220 – above 90 240 Interlock Up to 180 85 260 180 – 220 90 240 220 – above 90 220
  78. 78. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 74 | P a g e 7.10. Stock Solution for Production: S.L no. SHADE % SALT SODA WATER 1 0.0001-0.01 7 5 1:8 2 0.01-0.08 10 6 3 0.08-0.15 12 7 1:7 4 0.15-0.8 15 8 5 0.8-1.5 18 9 6 1.5-2 20 10 7 2-2.5 30 13 8 2.5-3 40 15 9 3-3.5 50 16 10 3.5-4 60 18 11 4-4.5 70 20 1:6 12 4.5 and over 80 20 7.11. Water level for different dyeing m/c on the basis of shade %: Machine No Light Shade ≤ 0.49 % Medium Shade 0.5 – 1.99 % Deep Shade ≥ 2.0 % DM – 01 4200 Litter 3800 Litter 3600 Litter DM – 02 3000 Litter 2800 Litter 2600 Litter DM – 03 3000 Litter 2800 Litter 2600 Litter
  79. 79. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 75 | P a g e DM – 04 1900 Litter 1750 Litter 1600 Litter DM – 05 6200 Litter 5800 Litter 5600 Litter DM – 06 4200 Litter 3800 Litter 3600 Litter DM – 07 3200 Litter 3000 Litter 2800 Litter SM – 01 180 Litter 150 Litter 120 Litter SM – 02 300 Litter 250 Litter 230 Litter SM – 03 180 Litter 150 Litter 120 Litter SM – 04 160 Litter 140 Litter 120 Litter SM – 05 160 Litter 140 Litter 120 Litter SM – 06 160 Litter 140 Litter 120 Litter 7.12. Amount of Salt & Alkali on the basis of Shade% Shade % ( owf ) Glauber salt ( g/l ) Soda ash ( g/l ) 0.0010 – 0.2 20 5 0.2 – 1 40 10 1 – 2.5 60 15 2.5 – 4 70 20 4 – 8 80 20 Above 8 100 20
  80. 80. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 76 | P a g e 7.13. Raw Material Used for Dyeing: Gray fabrics Dyes Chemicals Table 7.4: Dyes, Chemicals & Cuxiliaries Use in N.A.Z: Basic Chemicals Suppliers name Country of Origine Basic acitic acid SINTEX & CHEM.PTV.LTD China Basic common salt Osman Enterprise Local Basic gluber salt chemical SINTEX & CHEM.PTV.LTD China Basic caustic soda SINTEX & CHEM.PTV.LTD China Basic hydrogen per oxide ASM CHEMICALS Bangladesh Basic soda ash light SINTEX & CHEM.PTV.LTD China Auxiliaries Peroxide killer geizyme OEM SM COLOR CHEM USA Peroxide tesbilizerSR/Stopa-52 chemical SM COLOR CHEM USA Polyester leveling Melevel -lpf MATEX BANGLADESH LTD Bangladesh Sequestering austol AUSTEX SPAIN Soaping asugal-ALBI AUSTEX SPAIN Wetting agent –proder-SCPC/LF AUSTEX SPAIN White softener gensoft AUSTEX SPAIN Fixing ecofix DR/SR Ecochem/AUTEX Sri-lanka Leveling drimegen E2R/ Texotech FORTUNE TOP INC Taiwan Anticrease-Pac(8460) Jintex ECO GD CONE FORTUNE TOP INC Taiwan Gintex ECO GS CONE FORTUNE TOP INC Taiwan Genifoam NS FORTUNE TOP INC Taiwan Special Chemicals Brightener Leuco phor BSB Clariant INDONESEIA Brightener sun white SUN RISE CHEM. Taiwan Enzyme producto _EAPS-A/Genincor- Bf-1600/3500 GENENCOR Singapore Dyebath Enzyme Techzymr-p 1600 GENENCOR Singapore
  81. 81. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 77 | P a g e Silicon softener Gensoft-SA 852 FORTUNE TOP INC Taiwan Others Others Sodium Hydrose Chemicals Alif Chemicals China Dyes Ciba blue FNR Dyes Swiss color Switzerland Ciba brill Blue FNG FyesFGFN Swiss color Switzerland Ciba red FN3G Dyes Swiss color Switzerland Ciba red FNR Dyes Swiss color Switzerland Ciba red WB Dyes Swiss color Switzerland Ciba Navy SG Swiss color Switzerland Ciba Red C2BL Swiss color Switzerland Ciba Navy WB Swiss color Switzerland Ciba yellow CRG Dyes Swiss color Switzerland Ciba yellow S3R Swiss color Switzerland Ciba yellow H2G Swiss color Switzerland Ciba Navy FNB Swiss color Switzerland Ciba Yellow F4G Dyes Swiss color Switzerland Ciba Yellow DN2R Dyes Swiss color Switzerland Ciba Orange FNR Dyes Swiss color Switzerland Ciba Orange W3R Dyes Swiss color Switzerland Dianix black CCR Dyes DyStar Switzerland Dianix Blue SSB Dyes DyStar Switzerland Dianix Navy CC Dyes DyStar Singapore Dianix Yellow SEG Dyes DyStar Singapore Drimarine Blue HFRL Dyes Clariant China/Pakistan Drimarine BlueCLBRDyes Clariant China/Pakistan Drimarine Red CL5B Dyes Clariant China/Pakistan Drimarine Red RH3b Dyes Clariant China/Pakistan Drimarine Scariate HF3G Dyes Clariant China/Pakistan Drimarine Tarquise CLB Dyes Clariant China/Pakistan Drimarine Yellow CL2R Dyes Clariant China/Pakistan Drimarine Yellow HFR Dyes Clariant China/Pakistan Reactive G. Yellow 3RS/MERL Kiri Dyes & Chemicals INDIA Reactive black B Dyes /AB/5 Kiri Dyes & Chemicals INDIA Reactive Red ME4BL Dyes Kiri Dyes & Chemicals INDIA Reactive Yellow H4GL Dyes Kiri Dyes & Chemicals INDIA Reactive Super black G Dyes/AG Kiri Dyes & Chemicals INDIA Reactobond yellow HW Dyes/AEY Kiri Dyes & Chemicals INDIA
  82. 82. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 78 | P a g e Reactobond Red Hw Dyes Kiri Dyes & Chemicals INDIA Reactive Navy WB Kiri Dyes & Chemicals INDIA Reattofex orange ME2RL Kiri Dyes & Chemicals INDIA Remazol Navy RGB Dyes DyStar Singapore Remazol Red RGB Dyes DyStar Singapore Remazol Blue RSPL Dyes DyStar Singapore Remazol RED RR Dyes DyStar Singapore Remazol Blue RR Dyes DyStar Singapore Remazol Yellow RR Dyes DyStar Singapore Synozol Black DR Kyung-in-Synthetic Corporation Korea Synozol Red HF 6BN Kyung-in-Synthetic Corporation Korea Synozol Yellow H F2GR Kyung-in-Synthetic Corporation Korea Synozol brilliant blue KRL Kyung-in-Synthetic Corporation Korea Solacion red HE Solarfine Chemicals China Reactive Turkish Blue Kiri Dyes & Chemicals INDIA 7.14. Amount of Salt & Alkali (mixed) on the basis of Shade% Shade% (owf) Glauber salt (g/l) Soda ash (g/l) Caustic (g/l) Red ≤ 4 80 5 1.2 Navy ≤ 4 80 5 1.2 Black ≤ 4 100 5 1.2
  83. 83. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 79 | P a g e 7.15.Process Flow Chart for Knit Dyeing: For Pink color Fabric : Single Jersey Quantity : 1310 kg GSM : 180 M: L=1:7 (During Pretreatment) 1.8 (During Dyeing) Color : Pink Water - 9200 lit (Pretreatment) 10500 lit (During Dyeing) Recipe: No. Commercial name of Dyes & Chemicals Amount (g/l or %) Total amount Pretreatment: 1. Wetting Agent-Proder_SCPC/LD/NO-LF 0.5 4.48 kg 2. Gintex ECO GS CONE (S.A) 0.1 896gm 3 Peroxide Stabilizer SR/Stabilizer A/Stopa-52 0.4 3.584kg 4 Anticrease-AULIT-PAC(8460) 0.8 7.360 kg 5 Caustic soda 3.0 27.6 kg 6 H2O2 2.75 25.3 kg 7 Peroxide Killer Geizyme OEM/Cetatex PC 0.5 4.6 kg 8 Acetic Acid 1.0 9.2 kg Dye Bath Chemical: 9 Acetic Acid 0.2 2.1 kg 10 Gintex ECO GS CONE (S.A) 0.2 2.1 kg 11 Anticrease-AULIT-PAC(8460) 0.8 8.4 kg 12 Leveling Drimegen E2R/Secho IND/Jinleve 1.0 10.50 kg Dyeing 13 Rea yellow HW 0.01% 0.131 kg 14 Rea. Orange-MEZRL 0.07% 0.917 kg 15 Syno. Red-HF6BN 0.80% 10.48 kg 16 Salt 30 314.4 kg 17 Soda ash 8 83.84 kg After treatment: 18 Acetic Acid 1.0 9.2 kg 19 Soaping Asugal-ALBI 0.6 5.520 kg 20 Colour Softener Gensoft-100/150/ASUMIN B 0.7% 9.170 kg
  84. 84. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 80 | P a g e Dyeing Flow Chart: Pretreatment: Fabric loading in the machine and magnet is attached to the fabric rope to ensure cutting of the fabric from the specific place. Filling the bath with the required water & run the fabric for 10 min Raise the temp. to 50° C @1.5° C/min and inject wetting agent, sequestering agent, H2O2 stabilizer & Anti creasing agent and run for 10 min at 500 C. Raise temp. to 60° C @1.5° C/min process and linear dosing of caustic for 10 min Raise temp. to 70° C @1.5° C/min process and linear dosing of H2O2 for 10 min. Raise temp. to 105° C @1.5° C/min and run the process for 40 min. Cooling the bath @1.5° C/min and drain at 80° C and then drain Fill the bath with hot water from reserve tank and wash at 95° C for 10 min. then drain the bath and normal wash. Apply peroxide killer and run at 70° C for 10 min then drain & wash the fabric. Acetic acid dosing and pH check (4.5-5) and run 10 min. Then inject enzyme at 55° C and run for 40 min Raise temp. to 80° C and run 10 min which is called enzyme hot Then drop the bath and wash for 2 times
  85. 85. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 81 | P a g e Dyeing: After-treatment: Fill the bath and raise the temp. At 45° C apply acetic acid and check pH to 5 Inject Sequestering agent, Ant-creasing agent, Leveling agent run 10 min. ½ of total Salt dosing at 45° C for 10 min with linear dosing and run 10 min Rest ½ Salt dosing at 45° C for 10 min with linear dosing and run 10 min Dye linear dosing at 45° C for 40 min and after 20 min salt is sample checked. If salt sample is ok then soda progressive dosing for 50 min at 450 C. After 20 min soda sample is checked and color steam is given to 600 C Sample checked after 10, 30, 40 min & after 10 min B.D. sample is checked Then cooling the bath & rinse for 10 min & drain the bath Fill the bath and raise temp. to 45° C and dosing acetic acid. Run 10 min then drain. Unload the fabric from machine. Fill the bath and raise temperature to 40° C and dosing softener. Fabric is treated for 20 min & sample is checked. Fill the bath & apply soaping agent. Raise temp. to 95° C. Run 10 min and then drain
  86. 86. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 82 | P a g e Figure 7. 7: Dyeing Curve After-treatment Wetting agent=0.5g/l Sequestering agent=o.1g/l H2O2 stabilizer=0.4g/l Ant creasing agent=0.8g/l L A=Caustic 3g/l B=H2O2 2.75g/l C=A.A. 1g/lx10’ D=Enzyme 0.3g/l E Acetic Acid 0.2g/l Sequestering agent 0.1g/l Ant-creasing agent 0.8g/l Leveling agent 1g/l F= Acetic acid 1g/l G=soaping agent0.6g/l H= softener 7% 1-8= sample taken for shade development wash Rinse 10’ 1050 Cx4 0’ B A C D E Dye s Soda ash Salt 40 50 60 110 70 80 90 100 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 Drain Enzymehot 10’ 10’ 40’ 20’ 50’ 20’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 F G H Drain DrainDrain Drain & Unload 7 8 Cooling Drain nL Fabric run 10’ Hot wash Time (min) Temperature(0 C) H2O2killer 0.5g/l Dyeing 30 G Pre-treatment
  87. 87. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 83 | P a g e Shade development : Note:  When shade of one stage is ok then go for next stage (usually at 600 C).  But, when color is already close to target shade at 600 C after 10 min then, temp raise to 700 C and run for 10 min. Another shade will be checked after 10 min at 700 C and if shade is ok then bath drop.  When shade is light then color is added to the dye bath and run until required shade is obtained.  In above cases shade development swatch with time will be different.  Bath drop sample should be darker than the target shade & depending on the shade soaping decision will be taken. After 20’ of color dosing (Salt sample) After 10 min of soda dosing (color steam sample) 600a C x 10 min 600 C x 30 min Target Swatch 600 C x 40 min or BD sample After Acid After Soaping After Softener
  88. 88. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 84 | P a g e 7.16. Process Flow Chart for Knit Dyeing: For Black color Fabric : 1x1 Rib Quantity : 1000 kg GSM : 180 M: L - 1:7 (During Pretreatment) 1.8 (During Dyeing) Color : 09A Black Water - 7000 lit (Pretreatment) 8000 lit (During Dyeing) Recipe: No. Commercial name of Dyes & Chemicals Amount (g/l or %) Total amount Pretreatment: 1. Jin Tex GD Conc. 1.0 7 kg 2. Jin Tex ECO GS CONE (S.A) 0.2 1.40 kg Bio-polish 3 Acetic Acid 1.0 7.0 kg 4 Techzyme-P-1600 0.7 % 7.0 kg Dye Bath Chemical: 5 Acetic Acid 0.2 2.1 kg 6 Gintex ECO GS CONE (S.A) 0.2 2.1 kg 7 Anticrease-AULIT-PAC(8460) 0.8 8.4 kg 8 Leveling Drimegen E2R/Secho IND/Jinleve 1.0 10.50 kg Dyeing 9 R. B. yellow HW 0.58% 5.8 kg 10 R.B. Red HW 1.04% 8 kg 11 Rea. Black B 10.7% 107 kg 12 Salt 80 640 kg 13 Soda ash 20 210 kg 14 Caustic 1 g/l 8 kg After treatment: 15 Acetic Acid 1.0 9.2 kg 16 Soaping Asugal-ALBI 0.6 4.20 kg 17 Colour Softener Gensoft-100/150/ASUMIN B 0.7% 7.0 kg
  89. 89. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 85 | P a g e Dyeing Flow Chart: Pretreatment & Dyeing: Fabric loading in the machine and magnet is attached to the fabric rope to ensure cutting of the fabric from the specific place. Filling the bath with the required water & run the fabric for 10 min Inject Jin Tex GD &Jin Tex GS to the dye bath and raise the temp to 95° C and run for 30 min Cooling the machine & drain the bath Raise temp. to 60° C @1.5° C/min process & apply acetic acid & run 20 min Then drain the bath and check pH and set pH to 5 Apply dye bath enzyme at 40° C and raise temp. to 55° C and run 30 min. Cooling the bath & at 45° C & and inject Sequestering agent, Ant-creasing agent, Leveling agent run 10 min. Salt dosing at 45° C for 10 min with linear dosing and run 10 min Dye linear dosing at 45° C for 40 min and after 20 min salt is sample checked. If salt sample is ok then soda progressive dosing for 50 min at 45° C. After 20 min soda sample is checked and color steam is given to 60° C
  90. 90. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 86 | P a g e After treatment: Fill the bath and raise temp. to 45° C and dosing acetic acid. Run 10 min then drain. Unload the fabric from machine. Fill the bath and raise temp. to 40° C and dosing softener. Fabric is treated for 20 min & sample is checked. Fill the bath & apply soaping agent. Raise temp. to 95° C. Run 10 min and then drain Sample checked after 10, 30, 40 min & after 10 min B.D. sample is checked Then cooling the bath & rinse for 10 min & drain the bath
  91. 91. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 87 | P a g e Figure 7. 8: DyeingCurve For Black color Rinse 10’ 30 D Acetic Acid 0.2g/l Sequestering agent 0.1g/l Ant-creasing agent 0.8g/l Leveling agent 1g/l E= Acetic acid 1g/l F= soaping agent0.6g/l G= softener 7% 1-8= sample taken for shade development Jin Tex GD conc. 2g/l Jin Tex GS conc. 0.2 g/l A B=Acetic Acid 0.4g/l C=Texzyme-pl600 0.3g/l D 95° Cx30’ Cooling 55° Cx3 0’ Dyeing 40 50 60 110 70 80 90 100 3 4 5 6 Drai nA Fabric run 10’ AceticAcid1g/l 60° C  20min Drain C B Dyes Soda ash Salt 10’ 10’ 40’ 20’ 50’ 20’ 1 2 E G H Drain DrainDrain Drain & Unload 7 8 F G Time (min) Temperature(° C) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Pre-treatment
  92. 92. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 88 | P a g e Shade development process: After 20’ of color dosing (Salt sample) After 10 min of soda dosing (color steam sample) 60 0 C x 10 min 60 0 C x 30 min 60 0 C x 40 min or BD sample After Acid After Soaping After Softener Target Swatch
  93. 93. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 89 | P a g e 7.17.Process Flow Chart for Knit Dyeing: for Black color Fabric : 1x1 Rib Quantity : 1000 kg GSM : 180 M: L -1:7 (During Pretreatment) & 1.8 (During Dyeing) Color : 09A Black Water - 7000 lit (Pretreatment) 8000 lit (During Dyeing) Recipe: No. Commercial name of Dyes & Chemicals Amount (g/l or %) Tot al amount Pretreatment: 1. Wetting Agent-Proder_SCPC/LD/NO-LF 0.5 4.48 kg 2. Gintex ECO GS CONE (S.A) 0.1 896gm 3 Peroxide Stabilizer SR/Stabilizer A/Stopa-52 0.4 3.584kg 4 Anticrease-AULIT-PAC(8460) 0.8 7.360 kg 5 Caustic soda 3.0 27.6 kg 6 H2O2 2.75 25.3 kg 7 Peroxide Killer Geizyme OEM/Cetatex PC 0.5 4.6 kg 8 Acetic Acid 1.0 9.2 kg Dye Bath Chemical: 9 Acetic Acid 0.2 2.1 kg 10 Gintex ECO GS CONE (S.A) 0.2 2.1 kg 11 Anticrease-AULIT-PAC(8460) 0.8 8.4 kg 12 Leveling Drimegen E2R/Secho IND/Jinleve 1.0 10.50 kg Dyeing 13 R. Red RR 0.48% 6.288 kg 14 Rea. Turq Blue 1.80% + 18% 27.824 kg 15 Sola Blue Rspl 2.94%+ 10% 42.365 kg 16 Salt 80 840 kg 17 Soda 20 210 kg After treatment: 18 Acetic Acid 1.0 9.2 kg 19 Soaping Asugal-ALBI 0.6 5.520 kg 20 Colour Softener Gensoft-100/150/ASUMIN B 0.7% 9.170 kg
  94. 94. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 90 | P a g e Dyeing Flow Chart: Pretreatment: Fabric loading in the machine and magnet is attached to the fabric rope to ensure cutting of the fabric from the specific place. Filling the bath with the required water & run the fabric for 10 min Raise the temp. to 50° C @ 1.5° C/min and inject wetting agent, sequestering agent, H2O2 stabilizer & Anti creasing agent and run for 10 min at 50° C. Raise temp. to 60° C @ 1.5° C/min process and linear dosing of caustic for 10 min Raise temp. to 70° C @ 1.5° C/min process and linear dosing of H2O2 for 10 min. Raise temp. to 105° C @ 1.5° C/min and run the process for 40 min. Cooling the bath @ 1.5° C/min and drain at 80° C and then drain Fill the bath with hot water from reserve tank and wash at 95° C for 10 min. then drain the bath and normal wash. Apply peroxide killer and run at 70° C for 10 min then drain & wash the fabric. Acetic acid dosing and pH check (4.5-5) and run 10 min. Then inject enzyme at 55° C and run for 40 min Raise temp. to 80° C and run 10 min which is called enzyme hot Then drop the bath and wash for 2 times
  95. 95. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 91 | P a g e Dyeing: After treatment: Fill the bath & raise temp. to 45° C and dosing acetic acid. Run 10 min then drain. Unload the fabric from machine. Fill the bath and raise temp. to 40° C and dosing softener. Fabric is treated for 20 min & sample is checked. Fill the bath & apply soaping agent. Raise temp. to 95° C. Run 10 min and then drain Fill the bath and raise the temp. At 45° C apply acetic acid and check pH to 5 Inject Sequestering agent, Ant-creasing agent, Leveling agent run 10 min. Dye linear dosing at 45° C for 40 min and run 10 min. ½ Salt dosing at 45° C for 10 min with linear dosing and run 10 min Remaining ½ Salt dosing at 45° C in10 min with linear dosing and run 10 min Raise temp. to 80° C and run 20 min for dye migration & then cooling to 60° C. Check sample & if ok then soda progressive dosing for 50 min at 45° C. After 20 min soda sample is checked and color steam is given to 60° C Sample checked after 10, 30, 40 min & after 10 min B.D. sample is checked Then cooling the bath & rinse for 10 min & drain the bath
  96. 96. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 92 | P a g e Figure 7. 9: Dyenig Curve for Tequish color (Migration process) After-treatment Dyeing Rinse 10’ Soda ash Dye s Enzymehot 1050 Cx40’ L Fabric run 10’30 Temperature(0 C) Hot wash B A Wetting agent=0.5g/l Sequestering agent=o.1g/l H2O2 stabilizer=0.4g/l Ant creasing agent=0.8g/l L A=Caustic 3g/l B=H2O2 2.75g/l C=A.A. 1g/lx10’ D=Enzyme 0.3g/l E Acetic Acid 0.2g/l Sequestering agent 0.1g/l Ant-creasing agent 0.8g/l Leveling agent 1g/l F= Acetic acid 1g/l G=soaping agent0.6g/l H= softener 7% 1-8= sample taken for shade development Drain Wash 800 Cx20’ 40 50 60 110 70 80 90 100 G F H Drain & Unload 7 8 Drain DrainDrain C H2O2killer 0.5g/l Cooling Normal hot wash E 1 2 3 4 5 6 10’40’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ Salt 1/2 Salt 1/2D Time (min) 0 5 0 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 Migration Process
  97. 97. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 93 | P a g e Shade development process: Note:  Shade check will be started after cooling from migration process at 600 C. Color is normally checked with the process.  Problems can occurred during migration process (uneven shade). At that time temp. is raised again then treat the fabric.  In above cases shade development swatch with time will be different.  Bath drop sample should be darker than the target shade & depending on the shade soaping decision will be taken. After migration process (Salt sample) After 10 min of soda dosing 60 0 C x 10 min 60 0 C x 30 min 60 0 C x 40 min or BD sample After Acid After Soaping After Softener Target Swatch
  98. 98. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 94 | P a g e 7.18. Auxiliaries and its function Chemical name Function Anti creasing Agent Acts as lubricant and reduce friction between machine parts and fabric. Thus prevent crease mark formation in the fabric. Those are oil free substance. Sequestering Agent Used to remove hardness and metal ion present in dyeing liquor. Hardness of dyeing liquor can occurred due to hardness of fabric after pretreatment which is 35 ppm and also from salt which is 70 ppm Leveling Agent Leveling agent reduces the molecular size of the dye and it will slower the penetration of dye into the fabric. As a result, uniformly dyed fabric is obtained. Enzyme Enzyme is used they remove the protruding fibbers from fabric. They can act their function with the temp. of 550 C and with pH of 4.5-5. Wetting agent To reduce surface tension of water thus ensures easy penetrating of chemicals and dye to the fabric. Anti Foaming agent To eliminate foam during dyeing process. Foam arises from water circulation and material which quickly by, also from auxiliaries which can generate foam. H2O2 Hydrogen peroxide is used for bleaching of cotton fabric and to remove natural color. Peroxide Stabilizer Peroxide stabilizer is used for slowing down the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide because if decomposition of H2O2 is more than the production of HO2 - then it can lead to cellulose breakage. Peroxide Killer Used to remove peroxide remaining in the fabric. Otherwise the fabric will damaged due to presence of peroxide. Salt Salt acts as electrolyte and increase absorption of reactive dye into fibre. salt increase exhaustion of dyes.
  99. 99. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 95 | P a g e Soda Ash Addition of soda ash causes dissociation of some hydroxyl group in the cellulose and cellulosate ion begins to react with dye. Acetic Acid Acetic acid is used to maintain pH of the dye bath in the acidic medium and also used for neutralization from basic medium to the neutral nedium. Softener The function of softener is to soft the hand feel of the fabric and increase the luster of the fabric. NaOH Caustic Soda is used for ensuring alkali media in the dye bath and also reduce the amount of soda that is used for dark shade. Soaping agent The function of soaping agent is to remove unfixed dyes present in the fabric. 7.19.Dyeing faults Causes and Remedies:  Uneven dyeing: Causes:  Uneven Pretreatment  Improper addition of color  Improper addition of chemical  Using dyes of high fixation properties  Less control of dyeing machine  Less circulation time Remedies:  By ensuring even pretreatment  By proper addition of color and chemicals  Correct circulation time  By controlling the dyeing machine properly
  100. 100. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 96 | P a g e  Batch to batch Shade variation Causes:  Using improper dyes and chemicals  Incorrect pretreatment procedure  Batch to batch weight variation of fabric  Batch to batch chemicals and dyes variation (lot variation)  Improper dosing of dyes and chemicals Remedies:  By using standard dyes and chemicals  By correcting the pretreatment procedure  By maintaining batch to batch weight variation  By avoiding lot mixing of dyes and chemicals  By correcting the dosing time of dyes and chemicals  By following different dyeing parameter.  Dark colored spots: Causes:  Dyestuff precipitation during dyeing  Incompatibility of dyestuff used for producing combined shade  Too high dyestuff concentration in the dye bath  Precipitation of unabsorbed dyestuff during after treatment Remedies:  By ensuring proper dyeing condition  By selecting proper dyestuff  By checking the solubility limit of the dyestuff before dyeing  By ensuring proper after treatment  Patchy dyeing: Causes:  Due to hardness of water  Due to faulty color addition  Due to faulty injection of alkali  Due to improper salt addition  Due to improper PH of solution
  101. 101. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 97 | P a g e Remedies:  By using proper sequestering agent  By correcting the color addition  By correcting the salt addition  By proper injection of alkali  By maintaining the PH level of the solution  Crease mark: Causes:  Poor opening of the fabric rope  Due to high speed of machine running  Unequal pump pressure and reel speed Remedies:  By maintaining proper pump pressure and reel speed.  By controlling the speed of the machine.  Correct opening of the fabric rope.  Roll to roll variation: Causes:  Poor migration property of dye.  Hardness of water.  Improper dyes solubility.  Faulty machine speed. Remedies:  Use standard dyes and chemicals  Proper machine speed.  Using soft waste.
  102. 102. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 98 | P a g e 8 CHAPTER : FINISHING SECTION
  103. 103. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 99 | P a g e 8.1.Finishing: Textile finishing is a term commonly applied to different process that the textile material under go after pretreatment, dyeing or printing for final embellishment to enhance there attractiveness and sale appeal as well as for comfort and usefulness. Objects of finishing: The aim of finishing is to render textile goods fit for their purpose or end use. Besides that, finishing can be done for achieving the following purposes- a) To improve fabric attractiveness. -By modification of fabric appearance (Calendaring, Optical brightening) -By altering fabric handle (Softening, Stiffening) -Control of fabric dimension (Sanforising, Compacting) b) To improve service ability. -Protection of fabric (Flame proofing, Water proofing) -Improved performance (Water repellency, Raising) -Easy care properties (Resin finish, Crease recovery) After dyeing, knit fabric is required to finish. During dyeing all knit fabric are dyed in tubular form. According to buyer's requirement knit fabric are finished in Open form or tubular form. The tubular and open finishing sequences of N. A. Z. Bangladesh Ltd are given bellow: Types of finishing: 1) Chemical finishing: 2) Mechanical finishing: Finishing effects:  Easy - care  Crease recovery.  Dimensional stability.  Good abrasion resistance.  Improved tear strength.  Good sew ability
  104. 104. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 100 | P a g e  Soft or stiff handle.  Shine or luster 8.2.Specification of Finishing Machines used in N.A.Z.: Table 8.1: List of machine in Finishing Section Tube Squizer Machine Name Tubular Squizer Manufacturer Bianco Country of origin Italy Capacity 8000 kg Maximum speed 80 m/min No of Chamber 03 No of Padder 3 pair Tube dryer Machine Name Tensionless dryer Manufacturer Lk & LH Co. Ltd Country of origin Taiwan Capacity 8000 kg No of Chamber 04 Tube Compector Machine Name Tube Compactor Manufacturer Ferraro Country of origin Italy Capacity 6000 kg No of padder 02 Maximum speed 42 m/min Maximum temperature 200 o C Maximum padder pressure 33 Highest overfeed 40 Highest dia 52”
  105. 105. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 101 | P a g e Open Squizer Machine name Squizer Manufacturer Bianco Country of origin Italy Maximum speed 90 m/min Maximum dia 120” Stenter Machine Name Stenter Manufacturer Bruckner Maximum speed 50 m/min Maximum overfeed 60% No of chamber 6 Maximum temperature 250o C Open Compector Machine Name Compactor Manufacturer Ferraro Country of origin Italy Maximum speed 42 m/min Maximum overfeed 15% Ultrasoft Machine Name Ultrasoft Manufacturer Lafer Country of origin Italy Maximum speed 15 m/min
  106. 106. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 102 | P a g e 8.3.Observation of Different Finishing M/C: 8.4. Tube Squeezer or De-Watering M/C After dyeing process from the dyeing machine then the fabrics arc ready for dc-watering. This is the process to remove the water from the fabric partially by squeezing. This is the main function of the squeezing machine. But here also control the some important factor of the fabric quality. Important parts • Twist detector • Expander • Padder The basic function of the squeezing m/c:  To remove the water from the fabric.  To control the width of the fabric.  To control the length of the fabric.  To control the spirality of the fabric.  To control the over feeding system.  To increase the softness of the fabric.  To remove the crease mark of the fabric. Table 8. 2: Fabric passage & function of diff. parts of Tube squeezer: Fabric path on m/c Function Turn Table Fabric trolley is placed on the turn table which can rotate in clockwise or anticlockwise direction. It is connected to the de-twister sensor via inverter. It will rotate to remove twist from the fabric. Fabric is feed to the machine from this trolley. J-Box Fabric is passed through J- box padder in which padder pressure can be maintained in the range of 1-5 bar. 20% water is extracted here. Fabric is then stored in flexible tray which can move up & down direction. When fabric load is high then the tray will automatically lowered & s. When fabric load is reduced the tray tops the feeding of the fabric. When fabric load is reduced will move upward & fabric feeding will be started again. De-Twister A sensor device is present here, which can detect twist in the fabric. If any twist goes through the de-twister, it will rotate in clockwise or anticlockwise direction
  107. 107. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 103 | P a g e to remove twist and easy passage of fabric. Dia-extension r/r This is used to control the dia of tubular knit fabric. This devise holds the two sides of the fabric in tube form and two sensors are present here, which detect hole in the fabric. If any hole is appeared then the sensor will off the m/c Water Tray Fabric is washed with water to remove unfixed dyes and impurities. Fabric is ringed continuously during the passage and constant water level (80 Lt) is maintained here. Emersion r/r is used to immerse the fabric to the water tray. Air-pressure r/r Air is applied to make the fabric in balloon form. This will help to prevent crease mark formation due to padder pressure. Padder Fabric is squeeze here with the help of two large padderes to remove 60% water Pilling Tray After squeezing the fabric will be stored in pilling tray which relaxes the fabric. Sensor device is present which detect fabric load. When fabric load is high then fabric feeding will be reduced automatically. Chemical Tray Fabric is passed through the chemical tray which is connected to the chemical tank. Chemicals can be applied to the fabric by this tray. Immersion r/r is used to ensure maximum wet medium. Air-pressure r/r Air is applied to make the fabric in balloon form. This will help to prevent crease mark formation due to padder pressure. Padder Fabric is squeeze here with the help of two large padderes to remove excess chemical. Padder pressure can be maintained as required but will be less then back padder. Shaft Fabric dia extension is done with the help of shaft. Sensor is present here to detect hole. Fabric dia will be kept more than the required dia because fabric remain 40% wet after squeezing. Delivery zone Fabric is delivered via folder which moves like pendulum to fold the fabric.
  108. 108. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 104 | P a g e Figure 8. 1: fabric passage on Tube squeezer m/c Table 8. 3: Dia extenion on tube squeezer m/c Fabric Dia extension (%) Single jersey 4-5 1x1 rib 10-12 Interlock 8-10 Fancy rib fabric 8 Mesh fabric 10-12 Fleece fabric 8-10
  109. 109. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 105 | P a g e 8.5.Relax Dryer Dryer machine is used to dry the fabric with the help of the steam. Besides drying it controls the shrinkage and prepares the fabric for the next process Important Parts: o Conveyor net o Chamber o Burner o Exhaust air fan o Over feed roller o Filter net o Fan o Nozzle The basic function of the dryer: To dry the fabric. To control the over feed system (Shrinkage control) To control the GSM of the fabric. Controlling Points o Overfeed (%): It depends on fabric structure o Temperature: It depends on color. o Speed: It depends on fabric construction and color. For higher GSM lower the speed. Table 8. 4: Fabric passage & function of diff. parts of Relax Dryer: Fabric path in m/c Function Fabric Trolley Fabric trolley is placed in front of the m/c & fabric is passed over guide r/r. Those rollers maintain uniform tension of fabric & ensure uniform passage of fabric. Wheel Wheel is used to control tubular fabric dia. Fabric dia in this wheel will be more than the required finished dia. Over Feed r/r Over feed the fabric in the dryer. Net Fabric enters in the dryer in contact with net. There are 4 sets of net which extend throughout the dryer. Each net forms endless loop. Those nets provides 3 times more dwell time to the fabric. Net position is maintained with the help of sensor.
  110. 110. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 106 | P a g e Heating Chamber Heating is done with super heated steam. Steam is entered to the heat exchanger through steam pipe. There are 4 heat exchangers through which heat is applied to the fabric. Blower Blowers are used to spread heat from heat exchanger through the whole dryer. There are 8 blowers which are run by individual motor. Out line Exhaust fan is used to remove exhausted air from the drying zone. Folder Folder delivers the fabric to the trolley. Fabric feeding to the folder is controlled by delivery r/r. 8.6.Tube Compactor Tube compactor is used to finish knit fabric in tube form; Important parts Overfeed roller Expander Blanket Steam sprayers Cylinder Teflon covers The basic functions of the Tube compactor machine • To control the GSM. (Increase & decrease). • To control the dia. • To control the shrinkage. (Increase & decrease).
  111. 111. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 107 | P a g e Table 8. 5: Fabric passage & function of diff. parts of Tubular Compactor: Fabric path on m/c Function Trolley Fabric trolley is placed in front of the machine. From this trolley fabric is feed to the machine. Feeding zone Tube fabric is passed through the wheel to control fabric dia. Sensor is present here and if any hole is going to pass through this section, the m/c automatically stops. Steam Tray Steam tray is present after feeding zone. Steam is applied to soften the fabric. On the top of this zone exhaustion unit is present to remove extra steam. Fabric Spreading Zone The spreader spread the fabric and set the required width of the fabric. Magnet is used to hold the wheel which control fabric width. Sensor is also present here to ensure proper feeding and to detect hole. Steam Supply Zone Steam is applied to heat and wet the fabric for proper compacting action. Steam supporter is present here to support steaming action. Extra steam will out through steam out line. Compacting Zone The fabric is passed through compacting zone. Compacting action is done by the action of heated cylinder in the lower side and blanket in the upper side. The blanket is wrapped over the cylinder and proper compaction is done by the help of blanket. Sensor is present to fix the blanket. Fabric Delivery Zone Fabric folder delivers the fabric to the delivery tray. Here fabric supporter is present to press the fabric ply and when required amount of fabric is stored in the delivery tray, it will automatically pass folded fabric to delivery zone
  112. 112. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 108 | P a g e Figure 8- 1: FERRARO Comptex R Tube Compactor (Fabric Passing Path) Controlling parameters of tubular Compactor: Speed = 0-40 Over feed = 0-30% Compaction = 0-33% Temp. = 80-1200 C Figure 8. 2: fabric passage diagram in tube compactor machine Note: Fabric dia extension, speed, compaction & overfeed will vary depending on the fabric type and finishing requirementsControlling Points 8.7.Slitting Machine or open squeezer: Manufacturer: Bianco Machine parts: Rotary blade: To cut the fabric through break wales line Ring: To help cutting Guide Roller: To guide the fabric to plaiting Plaiting: To plate the fabric Sensor: sense for cutting through break wales line
  113. 113. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 109 | P a g e Fabric Passage: Figure 8. 3: Fabric passage in open squeezer m/c. Controlling parameters of open squeezer: 1. Speed : 0-100m/min 2. Padder pressure : 0-10 bar 3. Air Pressure : 1.5 bar Note: 1. In case of light color padder pressure should be low. Otherwise shade will be lighter. 2. If the padder is not clean, then line mark can appear in the fabric. 3. If low gsm S/J fabric is processing, then padder pressure and speed will be maximum. 4. If high gsm fabric is processing, then padder pressure and speed will be minimum. 5. Padder pressure and speed will vary according to the fabric type. 6. In case of Lycra single jersey fabric, speed & padder pressure will be minimum. Note: Fabric dia extension, speed, compaction & overfeed will vary depending on the fabric type and finishing requirements.
  114. 114. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 110 | P a g e 8.8.Open Compactor The basic functions of the Open compactor machine is to compact the fabric in open form & • To control the GSM. (Increase & decrease). • To control the dia. • To control the shrinkage. (Increase & decrease). Important parts • Over-feed roller • Blanket • Steam sprayers • Cylinder • Tell on covers Figure 8. 4: Feraro open compactor Controlling parameters of tubular Compactor: Speed = 0-40 Over feed = 0-30% Compaction = 0-33% Temp. = 80-1200 C
  115. 115. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 111 | P a g e Fabric passage in Open Compactor: Figure 8. 5: fabric passage on open compactor 8.9.Bruckner Stenter: Stenter machine in very important for finishing knit fabric in open form. It can be used for the following functions:  Apply chemical and softener  To dart set the T/C fabric  Drying of fabric  To control width  Curing of fabric  Apply pigment dyeing  To control GSM  To control shrinkage  To decrease spirality  To decrease bowing effect  Surface coating for teflon finish  Apply soil release chemical finish  Heat set for cotton/lycra fabric  Etc.

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