Industrial attachment of micro fibre ltd

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Industrial attachment of micro fibre ltd

  1. 1. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT MICRO FIBRE LTD
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT At first my gratefulness goes to Almighty Allah for giving me strength and ability to complete the industrial training and this report. You have made my life more bountiful. May your name be exalted, honored and glorified. Now I wish to take this excellent opportunity to thank a lot of people who have assisted and inspired me, Prof. Syed Fakhrul Hassan my supervisor, to whom I am extremely indebted for his tremendous support and guidance throughout my training period. Working with him I have not only earned valuable knowledge but also was inspired by him innovativeness which helped enriches my experience to a greater extent. His ideas and way of working was truly remarkable. I would like to thank the management of the MICRO FIBRE LTD. for giving me the opportunity to complete the industrial training successfully and also for their valuable suggestion. My deepest gratitude goes to Executive Director Mr. Amirul Haque, General Manager Mr. Mizanur Rahaman Patwoary, Assistant general manager Mr. Solaiman Hossain, MICRO FIBRE LTD. for their permission to conduct my industrial training without which it would be impossible. Their generous support is greatly appreciated. I would also like to thank specially our senior brothers and sisters working there efficiently as textile engineer. I am greatly indebted to them. I also want to thank executives, senior executives and other official’s employee of MICRO FIBRE LTD. for helping me to complete industrial training successfully. My gratitude also goes to all the employees of MICRO FIBRE LTD. for their sincere co-operation, support and valuable advices. Finally my heartfelt thanks goes to my training mates for their indescribable co-operation & sincerity.
  3. 3. Introduction: Final course industrial training is one of the most essential parts of engineering & technical education. This industrial training is included in our syllabus to acquaint us with the practical implementation of the technology studied within the industrial environment. Though it is very helpful & lays the milestone for starting the carrier for fresh Textile graduates. Fabric manufacturing and Wet processing technology which occupies a vast field in modern Textile technology is undergoing many stages of processing. Many problems are generally being encountered during each operation stage starting from yarn to fabric and fabric desizing to finishing stage. Finally from mill training, we learn practical Knowledge about on fabric manufacturing and wet processing under industrial environment. We think it will be helpful in our future carrier. Vision: To establish as a one stop source for the Global knit Apparel market and to satisfy and meet customers expectation by developing and providing products and services on time, which offer value in terms of Quality, Price, Safety and Environmental impact. Assuring complete compliance with the international quality standards and also providing the employees internationally acceptable working condition and standards. To promote the development and to use human talent and equal opportunity of employment. Mission: Micro fibre realizes the need to take out a competitive segment in the changing global market of today through technological excellence and human expertise. Micro fibre is committed to transpose its local success to the world scene.
  4. 4. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 S Chashara Location Of The MICRO FIBRE GROUP Shibo Market E Micro W N Ramarvag Narayanganj Fatullah Fibre Fatullah Stadium Fatullah Rail Sign Tikatol Chittagong Board ZatraBari Kamolapur railstation Gulistan
  5. 5. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 Contents CHAPTER-01..............................................................................................................1 PROJECT DESCRIPTION .......................................................................................1 Name of the project........................................................................................................................................................... 1 Sister organizations........................................................................................................................................................... 1 Type of the mill ................................................................................................................................................................. 1 Year of establishment........................................................................................................................................................ 1 Registered Office............................................................................................................................................................... 1 Factory Address ................................................................................................................................................................ 1 Communication................................................................................................................................................................. 1 Sponsors ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1 Capacity............................................................................................................................................................................. 2 Project cost ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2 Project area ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2 History of project development: ....................................................................................................................................... 2
  6. 6. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 Different departments:...................................................................................................................................................... 3 Product mix:...................................................................................................................................................................... 3 LAYOUT DESIGN ........................................................................................................................................................... 4 Layout plan of printing section:....................................................................................................................................... 5 Remark:............................................................................................................................................................................. 6 Physical Infrastructure: ................................................................................................................................................... 7 CHAPTER -2...............................................................................................................8 MANPOWER MANAGEMENT...............................................................................8 Organ gram of man-power administration...................................................................................................................... 8 Management system: ........................................................................................................................................................ 8 Shift change:..................................................................................................................................................................... 9 Total Section Wise Man power Management system: .................................................................................................... 9 Responsibilities of S.P.O/P.O:........................................................................................................................................ 10 Job description of S.P.O/P.O................................................................................................................................ 10 Remarks........................................................................................................................................................................... 10 CHAPTER-3..............................................................................................................11 MACHINE DESCRIPTION....................................................................................11
  7. 7. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 List of Single Jersey Circular knitting Machineries :................................................................................................... 11 List of Single Jersey Circular knitting Machineries :................................................................................................... 12 List of Double Jersey Circular knitting Machineries :................................................................................................. 13 List of Auto Stripe Circular knitting Machineries :...................................................................................................... 14 List of Flat Bed knitting Machineries : ......................................................................................................................... 14 List of Cloth Inspection Machineries :.......................................................................................................................... 15 Machine Picture.............................................................................................................................................................. 16 Lay-out Plan of knitting Machineries : ......................................................................................................................... 18 Remarks : ........................................................................................................................................................................ 20 CHAPTER -04...........................................................................................................22 RAW MATERIALS..................................................................................................22 Types of Raw Materials:................................................................................................................................................. 22 Yarn: ............................................................................................................................................................................22 Grey Fabrics:.............................................................................................................................................................23 Chemicals: ..................................................................................................................................................................24 Commonly used dyes in fabric dyeing section in Micro fibre Ltd................................................................24
  8. 8. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 Chemicals & their function:........................................................................................................................................... 26 Chemicals used in Dyeing and their function: ...................................................................................................26 Printing chemicals function: ..................................................................................................................................28 Urea ..............................................................................................................................................................................28 Resist salt......................................................................................................................................................................28 Na .................................................................................................................................................................................28 Thickener......................................................................................................................................................................28 Price: ...........................................................................................................................................................................29 Annual requirement: ................................................................................................................................................29 Remarks: ......................................................................................................................................................................... 29 Chapter-05 .................................................................................................................30 Production planning, sequence & operation ..........................................................30 Introduction and Basic Procedure of Planning and Control:................................................................................. 30 Recommendable points of a buyer:................................................................................................................................ 30 Production Planning: ..................................................................................................................................................... 31 Knitting section ............................................................................................................................................................... 32
  9. 9. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 Production parameters: ..........................................................................................................................................32 Points that should consider in case of G.S.M. changing:................................................................................32 Production flow chart:.................................................................................................................................................... 33 Description of production process: ................................................................................................................................ 33 GSM:............................................................................................................................................................................34 Fabric width: .............................................................................................................................................................34 RPM:.............................................................................................................................................................................34 Loop length: ...............................................................................................................................................................34 No. of feeder or no. of cone: ................................................................................................................................34 Gauge:..........................................................................................................................................................................35 Production calculation:............................................................................................................................................35 Following Counts are used to achieve the mentioned G.S.M: ..................................................................................... 38 Relation between yarn count, fabric type, stitch length and finished GSM: ............................................................... 39 Fabric Dyeing Section:................................................................................................................................................... 44 Production flow chart for fabric:........................................................................................................................44
  10. 10. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 Process sequence: ....................................................................................................................................................45 Pretreatment: ...........................................................................................................................................................45 Scouring-Bleaching:....................................................................................................................................................... 46 Pretreatment program: (scouring ,bleaching and enzyme) ............................................................................46 Bio-Scouring:.................................................................................................................................................................. 48 Enzyme Treatment: .................................................................................................................................................48 Dyeing: ............................................................................................................................................................................ 50 Dying program for ME dyes: .................................................................................................................................50 Dyeing program for HE Dyes: ...............................................................................................................................51 Dying program for W Dyes:...................................................................................................................................52 Dying program for Turquise Dyes:.......................................................................................................................53 Dying program for KHW Dyes: .............................................................................................................................54 Dyeing program for HF dyes:................................................................................................................................55 Dyeing program for WHITE color (Without enzyme):...................................................................................56 Dyeing program for WHITE color (With enzyme):.........................................................................................57
  11. 11. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 Dyeing program for Disperse Dyes: ....................................................................................................................58 Re-dyeing Process:...................................................................................................................................................59 Stripping process:....................................................................................................................................................60 After Treatment Of All Program:.......................................................................................................................61 After dyeing for neutralization:..........................................................................................................................62 For fixing: ..................................................................................................................................................................62 Softener solution(10% solution):..........................................................................................................................62 Necessary calculations used in textile dyeing processes:.............................................................................................. 63 Molarity ......................................................................................................................................................................63 Normality ...................................................................................................................................................................63 Stock solution preparation ....................................................................................................................................63 Dyeing calculation.....................................................................................................................................................63 Common textile auxlliaries used in dyeing: .................................................................................................................. 64 Acid..............................................................................................................................................................................64 Alkalis..........................................................................................................................................................................64
  12. 12. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 Buffer .........................................................................................................................................................................64 Oxidizing agent.........................................................................................................................................................64 Reducing agent..........................................................................................................................................................64 Surfactants ...............................................................................................................................................................65 Wetting agent...........................................................................................................................................................65 Detergent...................................................................................................................................................................65 Lubricant ....................................................................................................................................................................65 Anti-foaming agent..................................................................................................................................................65 Anti-creasing agent .................................................................................................................................................65 Anti-pilling agent......................................................................................................................................................65 Leveling agent ...........................................................................................................................................................65 Dispersing agent.......................................................................................................................................................65 Retarding agent........................................................................................................................................................65 Carrier ........................................................................................................................................................................66 Chemical formula of common chemicals used in textile dyeing:...................................................................66
  13. 13. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 Problems Encountered In Dyeing: ............................................................................................................................... 66 Uneven Dyeing...........................................................................................................................................................66 Uneven Shade in Rope to Rope..............................................................................................................................67 Off Shade..................................................................................................................................................................67 Dye Spots...................................................................................................................................................................67 Batch to Batch Shade Variation...........................................................................................................................67 Crease Mark ..............................................................................................................................................................67 Running Marks...........................................................................................................................................................67 Intensive Foaming ....................................................................................................................................................68 Patchy Dyeing............................................................................................................................................................68 Miscellaneous Problems ..........................................................................................................................................68 Remarks: ......................................................................................................................................................................... 68 Printing............................................................................................................................................................................ 68 Sample Preparation ........................................................................................................................................................ 69 Bulk Production:............................................................................................................................................................. 70
  14. 14. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 Available Printing Style in Micro Fibre LTD................................................................................................................ 70 Types of Printing in Micro Fibre Group:...................................................................................................................... 70 Reactive printing:.....................................................................................................................................................70 Discharge printing: ..................................................................................................................................................71 Pigment printing: ......................................................................................................................................................71 Recipe of Pigment paste:........................................................................................................................................71 Recipe of Discharge paste:....................................................................................................................................71 Recipe of reactive Paste:.......................................................................................................................................71 Pollutants during printing process: ......................................................................................................................72 Finishing section............................................................................................................................................................. 72 Objective of finishing:............................................................................................................................................72 Types of finishing:...................................................................................................................................................73 Flow chart of final process (knit fabric) ...........................................................................................................74 The machines that are used in open line that are given bellow: ..................................................................74 The machines that are used in tube line that are given bellow: ..................................................................75
  15. 15. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 Machine Specification: ...........................................................................................................................................75 Squeezer Machine:...................................................................................................................................................78 Hydro-extractor m/c..............................................................................................................................................78 Dryer m/c :..............................................................................................................................................................78 High Production Dryer:...........................................................................................................................................78 Utility:.............................................................................................................................................................................. 79 Calendar M/C: ...........................................................................................................................................................80 Width Compactor.....................................................................................................................................................80 Stentering Machine......................................................................................................................................................... 84 Purpose of the m/c:.................................................................................................................................................84 Main parts of the machine:....................................................................................................................................85 Procedure for Heat set for Lycra s/j fabric: ..................................................................................................87 Factor Consideration:..............................................................................................................................................88 CHAPTER-6..............................................................................................................90 Quality Assurance System........................................................................................90
  16. 16. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 Quality assurance:.......................................................................................................................................................... 90 Object of quality control:................................................................................................................................................ 90 Scope of quality control:................................................................................................................................................. 91 Quality Control Flow Chart:.......................................................................................................................................... 91 Quality Management system:......................................................................................................................................... 92 Online QC ...................................................................................................................................................................92 Off Line Test:...........................................................................................................................................................93 WORKING PROCEDURE FOR LAB........................................................................................................................... 94 List of Dyeing and Qc Laboratory Machinaries............................................................................................................ 95 Quality Standard:.......................................................................................................................................................... 100 Fabric Inspection:..................................................................................................................................................100 Grey Fabric Inspection.........................................................................................................................................100 Finished Fabric Inspection:................................................................................................................................. 101 Procedure of the Different Laboratory Tests: ............................................................................................................. 103 Color Fastness to Wash Test: ............................................................................................................................103 Required instrument:.............................................................................................................................................104
  17. 17. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 Procedure :...............................................................................................................................................................104 Evaluation:................................................................................................................................................................104 Washing fastness for solid dyeing is checked normally 3 times e.g. ........................................................104 Color the Fastness to Rubbing (Dry & Wet) Test: ........................................................................................104 Procedure:................................................................................................................................................................105 Evaluation:................................................................................................................................................................105 Color Fastness to cool Water:............................................................................................................................105 Testing Solution: ....................................................................................................................................................105 Color Fastness to hot Water: .............................................................................................................................106 Testing Solution: ....................................................................................................................................................106 Color Fastness to Perspiration Test: ................................................................................................................107 Color fastness to light:.........................................................................................................................................108 Accepted Quality standard: .......................................................................................................................................... 108 Measuring the Dimensional Stability (Shrinkage & Spirality):...................................................................108 Spirality test calculation: .................................................................................................................................... 110
  18. 18. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 pH of a Dyed Fabric Test .....................................................................................................................................111 Quality Standard:.......................................................................................................................................................... 112 SHORTLY DESCRIBED ABOUT OEKO-TEX STD100:................................................................................. 112 Remarks: ....................................................................................................................................................................... 113 CHAPTER-07..........................................................................................................114 MAINTENANCE ....................................................................................................114 Maintenance of machinery: ......................................................................................................................................... 114 Break down Maintenance:..................................................................................................................................... 114 Routine Maintenance:............................................................................................................................................ 114 Manpower Set-Up For Maintenance:.......................................................................................................................... 115 Maintenance procedure:............................................................................................................................................... 115 Maintenance work to the different machines:............................................................................................................. 116 Boiler Maintenance Schedule:............................................................................................................................. 116 Dyeing m/c maintenance Schedule .................................................................................................................... 117 Compacting m/c maintenance:............................................................................................................................. 118 Maintenance tools/equipments & their functions:...................................................................................................... 119
  19. 19. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 Remarks: ....................................................................................................................................................................... 120 CHAPTER-08..........................................................................................................121 UTILITY SERVICE...............................................................................................121 Available Utility Facilities:........................................................................................................................................... 121 Electricity:............................................................................................................................................................... 121 Gas:................................................................................................................................................................................ 122 Water:............................................................................................................................................................................ 122 Boiler:............................................................................................................................................................................ 122 Compressor: .................................................................................................................................................................. 123 Source of Utility:........................................................................................................................................................... 124 Utility cost: .............................................................................................................................................................124 Remark:......................................................................................................................................................................... 125 Water treatment plant................................................................................................................................................... 125 Process Flow chart.................................................................................................................................................125 Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) .................................................................................................................................. 126 Flow chart for ETP: ...............................................................................................................................................127
  20. 20. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 Effluent analyzing report: ...................................................................................................................................128 Ref:............................................................................................................................................................................128 USPEA(United States Environment Protection Agency) .............................................................................128 Product Quality Checked: ....................................................................................................................................128 Chemicals Used in ETP:.........................................................................................................................................129 CHAPTER-09..........................................................................................................130 STORE & INVENTORY CONTROL..................................................................130 Inventory system for raw material:.............................................................................................................................. 130 Grey fabrics store:................................................................................................................................................130 Dyes & chemicals store: .......................................................................................................................................130 Spares:......................................................................................................................................................................130 Finished goods: ....................................................................................................................................................... 131 Remarks: ....................................................................................................................................................................... 131 CHAPTER-10..........................................................................................................132 COST ANALYSIS...................................................................................................132 Price of the product: ..................................................................................................................................................... 132
  21. 21. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 Remarks: ....................................................................................................................................................................... 132 CHAPTER-11..........................................................................................................133 MARKETING ACTIVITIES.................................................................................133 Consumers of Product:................................................................................................................................................. 133 Name of buyer:.............................................................................................................................................................. 133 Product Label:............................................................................................................................................................... 133 Package Size & Label:.................................................................................................................................................. 134 Local Market:................................................................................................................................................................ 134 Importing countries:..................................................................................................................................................... 134 Manpower of marketing:.............................................................................................................................................. 134 Marketing strategy:....................................................................................................................................................... 135 Duties and responsibilities of marketing officer:........................................................................................................ 135 Remarks: ....................................................................................................................................................................... 135 CHAPTER -12.........................................................................................................136 CONCLUSION........................................................................................................136
  22. 22. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 1 | P a g e CHAPTER-01 PROJECT DESCRIPTION Name of the project Sister organizations Type of the mill Year of establishment Registered Office Factory Address Communication Sponsors MICRO FIBRE GROUP A-One polar Ltd, Liberty Knitwear Ltd, Midland Knitwear Ltd, Orient Chem.-Tex Ltd. 100% export oriented knit composite textile mill. 1998 331, Tongi Dioversion Road, Moghbazar, Dhaka – 1217, Bangladesh Ramarbagh, Kutubpur, Fatullah, Narayangonj, Bangladesh 0189-214648, 0173-034617 (E.D) 0171-3001607 (D.G.M-Production), 0173- 011112 (Merchandising Manager) The project is easily accessible by road. The route has been clarified in the location map presented in the previous page. The mill is sponsored by M.S. Zaman.
  23. 23. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 2 | P a g e Capacity Project cost Project area Gray knit fabric production 8000 Kg/day (approximately) Dyed knitted fabric 22-24 ton/day (approximately) Cost of the project is approximately in Taka 250,00,00,000 7.00 acres History of project development: It is a moment of rejoice to introduce Micro Fiber Group (MFG) to its clients and patrons. MFG believes whatever it has achieved; its credits should be directed toward its clients. Micro fibre group started their Textile business in 1998 by starting construction of the building for project setup. At 1st they set up Garments project. In 1999 they went to production of fabric and dyeing with a dryer of 400 kg & 6 ton capacity boiler. As an ambition to expand the business they setup knitting section in 2000 & to fill the demand of knitting they setup as well as stenter, calendar, dewatering m/c, dryer for finishing. With the passage of time different type of m/c were brought to the mill to improve the quality & production. The mill is well oriented for knit composite project. Therefore, when many struggle to survive in post-MFA world; its business in fact enjoying a healthy growth. Moreover, having endless efforts to ensure internationally accepted employment practice, its clients recognize us as a partner to protect their value system and images among final consumers.
  24. 24. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 3 | P a g e Different departments: i. Knitting section ii. Dyeing section: Circular Flat Knit dyeing iii. Garments section iv. Costing & Finance v. Logistics vi. Maintenance vii. Planning section viii. QC section Product mix: Types of raw materials processed here are- i. cotton- 100% combed or carded ii. polyester-cotton blend (p/c or t/c), (65%pet+35% cotton) iii. CVC (60% cotton+40% polyester) iv. grey melange (85% cotton+15% viscose) v. Ecru melange (98% cotton+2% viscose or 99% cotton+1% viscose)
  25. 25. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 S E W LAYOUT DESIGN N ETP Midland Knitting & Garments M idl a n Maintenanc e Department Midland Finishing Laborator y Office Liberty Garments Midland finishing Midland Dyeing Micro Dyeing Micro Finishing Office Office Utilities Cantee n Store Entrance Midland Dyeing Office Midland Printing Room Utilities Room Dyes & Chemicals Car parking Health facilities Room Prayer Security Room Office 4 | P a
  26. 26. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 55 | P a g e Layout plan of printing section: In the printing section of Micro fibre ltd there are 2 floors. In ground floor there are 3 Allover printing m/c and Store Keeper E MKT Office AGM Office Store W N S C E C Sample Table Ink Jet m/c 1 1. Computer 2. Expose m/c 3. Retouching table 2 C. Computer E. Entrance T. Toilet 3 T Fig: 2nd Floor of printing section
  27. 27. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 66 | P a g e N E Screen washing zone W S Allover Printin g m/c # 3 Allover Printin g m/c # 2 Allover Printin g E m/c # 1 E Fig: Production Floor Printing Section Remark: Micro Fiber Group is a well established knit composite industry. The industry stands on industrial area of Ramarbagh, Narayangonj. It is a Group of Companies, . It is going to prove its own standard of product quality in world market as they know that their reputation depends on quality. It is a profitable project and contributes the economy of our country.
  28. 28. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 77 | P a g e Physical Infrastructure: MICRO FIBRE GROUP Knittin g Dyeing Garment Admin Maintena nce Knit (admin) Knit (prod) Cost & finance Accounts Knit dyeing Prod QC Gmt(Ad min) Gmt (Prod) Electric Dept Mechanica l Dept Utility Clea ning
  29. 29. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 88 | P a g e CHAPTER -2 MANPOWER MANAGEMENT Organ gram of man-power administration MANAGING DIRECTOR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR GENERAL MANAGER ASST. GENERAL MANAGER ASSISTANT PRODUCTION MANAGER MANAGER (LAB & QC) SENIOR PRODUCTION OFFICER OFFICER PRODUCTION OFFICER SENIOR OFFICER ASSISTANT PRODUCTION OFFICER SENIOR LAB ASSISTANT SENIOR SUPERVISOR LAB ASSISTANT SUPERVISOR LAB BOY ASSISTANT SUPERVISOR SENIOR OPERATOR OPERATOR ASSISTANT OPERATOR HELPER Management system:
  30. 30. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 99 | P a g e In Micro Fiber Group the management system is regular. employees are well skilled and are graduate in their respective profession. Shift change: The industry has two shift .Duration of every shift is 12 hours. Workers get one hour break time. Shift change depends on the work order and production. There is a supervisor in every shift who takes the working activities & understands his responsibilities from previous supervisor during shift change. Total Section Wise Man power Management system: Micro Fibre Group has sufficient number of skilled manpower working in different sections. A picture of manpower distribution with total manpower is given below: DEPARTMENT MANPOWER Knitting 445 Dyeing 560 Printing 138 Finishing 315 Garments 3587 Maintenance 40 Administration 23 Utility 20 Security 28 Total 5136
  31. 31. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 1010 | P a g e Responsibilities of S.P.O/P.O: The main job as well as main responsibility of a s.p.o is to control process. The responsibility of a s.p.o/p.o is to complete a batch in required time. Any fault or disturbance happens in a batch, the blame goes to s.p.o/p.o. The p.o should try to minimize overhead expenditures and also try to make a batch more profitable. In a word he is in charge of the floor & his responsibility is to keep moving the production smoothly. Job description of S.P.O/P.O stes to 1. To give program slip according to daily production plan. 2. To follow up production process from raw materials to finished goods. 3. To match shade in connection with fabric quality according to buyer requirements. 4. To find out fabric faults as early as possible (before finishing), & take recover it. 5. To rectify the finished fabric rejected from quality control department. 6. To coordinate with unit technical manager for achieving the target production. 7. To motivate supervisors and workers for achieving maximum production with them minimum faults. 8. To check the daily production report. 9. To study dye & chemicals nature delivery by the manufacturer & apply Correctly to the production to get best product. Remarks The manpower management system in Micro Fiber Group is well arranged. There are good number of textile engineers in the industry. but they are not adequate enough to undertake the huge production of the industry. Some more are expected to be enrolled there in the shortest possible time to meet up the growing need. The efficiency of the worker should be increased for more quality production.
  32. 32. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 1111 | P a g e CHAPTER-3 MACHINE DESCRIPTION List of Single Jersey Circular knitting Machineries : Serial No Machine Brand Name M/C Type M/C Dia M/C Gauge M/C Feeder Origin 01 Jiunn Long S/J 22 24 66 F Taiwan 02 Jiunn Long S/J 22 24 66 F Taiwan 03 Jiunn Long S/J 23 24 69 F Taiwan 04 Jiunn Long S/J 23 24 69 F Taiwan 05 Jiunn Long S/J 24 24 72 F Taiwan 06 Jiunn Long S/J 24 24 72 F Taiwan 07 Jiunn Long S/J 25 24 75 F Taiwan 08 Jiunn Long S/J 25 24 75 F Taiwan 09 Jiunn Long S/J 25 24 75 F Taiwan 10 Jiunn Long S/J 25 24 75 F Taiwan 11 Jiunn Long S/J 26 24 78 F Taiwan 12 Jiunn Long S/J 26 24 78 F Taiwan 13 Jiunn Long S/J 26 24 78 F Taiwan 14 Jiunn Long S/J 26 24 78 F Taiwan 15 Jiunn Long S/J 28 24 84 F Taiwan 16 Jiunn Long S/J 28 24 84 F Taiwan 17 Jiunn Long S/J 32 24 96 F Taiwan 18 Jiunn Long S/J 34 24 102 F Taiwan 19 Jiunn Long S/J 36 24 108 F Taiwan
  33. 33. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 1212 | P a g e 20 Jiunn Long S/J 34 24 102 F Taiwan 21 Jiunn Long S/J 40 24 120 F Taiwan 22 Jiunn Long S/J 38 24 114 F Taiwan List of Single Jersey Circular knitting Machineries : Serial No Machine Brand Name M/C Type M/C Dia M/C Gauge M/C Feeder Origin 23 Jiunn Long S/J 36 24 108 F Taiwan 24 Jiunn Long S/J 23 24 69 F Taiwan 25 Jiunn Long S/J 24 24 72 F Taiwan 26 Jiunn Long S/J 21 24 63 F Taiwan 27 Jiunn Long S/J 20 24 60 F Taiwan 28 Jiunn Long S/J 32 24 96 F Taiwan 29 Jiunn Long S/J 30 24 90 F Taiwan 30 Jiunn Long S/J 28 24 84 F Taiwan 31 Jiunn Long S/J 30 24 90 F Taiwan 32 Jiunn Long S/J 36 24 108 F Taiwan 33 Jiunn Long S/J 30 20 90 F Taiwan 34 Jiunn Long S/J 30 20 90 F Taiwan 35 Jiunn Long S/J 30 20 90 F Taiwan 36 Jiunn Long S/J 30 20 90 F Taiwan 37 Jiunn Long S/J 30 24 90 F Taiwan 38 Jiunn Long S/J 40 24 120 F Taiwan 39 Jiunn Long S/J 30 20 90 F Taiwan 40 Jiunn Long S/J 30 20 90 F Taiwan 41 Jiunn Long S/J 36 24 108 F Taiwan
  34. 34. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 1313 | P a g e 42 Jiunn Long S/J 30 20 90 F Taiwan 43 Jiunn Long S/J 30 20 90 F Taiwan 44 Jiunn Long S/J 30 20 90 F Taiwan 45 Jiunn Long S/J 36 24 108 F Taiwan 46 Fukuhama S/J 30 24 90 F Taiwan 47 Fukuhama S/J 31 22 72 F Taiwan List of Double Jersey Circular knitting Machineries : Seri al No Machine Brand Name Fabric type M/C Type M/C Dia M/C Gaug e M/C Feeder Origin 01 Falmac Interloc k D/J 24 16 38 F Singap ore 02 Falmac Rib D/J 34 16 54 F Singap ore 03 Falmac Rib D/J 30 16 48 F Singap ore 04 Falmac Rib D/J 30 16 48 F Singap ore 05 Hubter Rib D/J 38 18 80 F Taiwan 06 Hubter Rib D/J 40 18 84 F Taiwan 07 Hubter Rib D/J 20 16 32 F Taiwan 08 Hubter Rib D/J 30 16 48 F Taiwan 09 Fukahama Interloc k D/J 36 18 72 F Taiwan 10 Fukahama Interloc k D/J 36 18 72 F Taiwan 11 Fukahama Rib D/J 36 18 72 F Taiwan 12 Fukahama Rib D/J 34 18 72 F Taiwan 13 Fukahama Rib D/J 34 18 102 F Taiwan 14 Fukahama Interloc k D/J 28 20 84 F Taiwan
  35. 35. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 1414 | P a g e List of Auto Stripe Circular knitting Machineries : Serial No Machine Brand Name M/C Type M/C Dia M/C Gauge M/C Feeder Origin 01 Fukuhara S/J 30 24 48 Japan 02 Fukuhara S/J 30 24 48 Japan 03 Fukuhara S/J 34 24 48 Japan 04 Fukuhara S/J 34 24 48 Japan 05 Fukuhara Rib/ Interlock 36 18 48 Japan List of Flat Bed knitting Machineries : Seri al No Machine Name M/C Type M/C Bed Length M/C Gauge M/C Cares Origi n 01 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 40 14 Single Cares Taiwa n 02 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 40 14 Single Cares Taiwa n 03 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 40 14 Single Cares Taiwa n 04 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 40 14 Single Cares Taiwa n 05 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 40 14 Single Cares Taiwa n 06 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 40 14 Single Cares Taiwa n 07 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 86 14 Single Cares Taiwa n 08 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 68 14 Double Cares Taiwa n 09 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 68 14 Double Cares Taiwa n 10 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 68 14 Double Cares Taiwa n 11 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 68 14 Double Cares Taiwa n
  36. 36. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 1515 | P a g e 12 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 68 14 Double Cares Taiwa n 13 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 68 14 Double Cares Taiwa n 14 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 68 14 Double Cares Taiwa n 15 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 68 14 Double Cares Taiwa n 16 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 68 14 Double Cares Taiwa n 17 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 68 14 Double Cares Taiwa n List of Cloth Inspection Machineries : Serial No Machine Name Nos Brand Origin 01 Grey Fabric Inspection Machine 02 Sets UZU® Thailand
  37. 37. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 1616 | P a g e Machine Picture SINGLE JERSEY CIRCULER KNITTING MACHINE JIUNN LONG MACHINE CO. LTD. TAIWAN. Specification: Model: JLS Cyl. Dia: 30" Feeders: 90 F Gauge: 24 G Needles: 2256 T SINGLE JERSEY CIRCULER KNITTING MACHINE JIUNN LONG MACHINE CO. LTD. TAIWAN. Specification: Model: JLS Cyl. Dia: 30" Feeders: 90 F Gauge: 24 G Needles: 2256 T SINGLE JERSEY CIRCULER KNITTING MACHINE FUKAHAMA MACHINERY CO. LTD. YUANHSIEN, TAIWAN. Specification: Model: SH-JFA3 Cyl. Dia: 34" Feeders: 102 F Gauge: 24 G Mfg. Date: Sep. 2010
  38. 38. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 1717 | P a g e FUKUHARA STRIPER MACHING PRECISION FUKUHARA WORKS,LTD. JAPAN. Specification: Gauge: 20/24 Feeders: 192 F Size: 34" Mfg. Date: March.2007 COMPUTERIZED FLAT KNITTING MACHINE AROUND STAR INTERNATIONAL CO. LTD. TAIWAN. Specification: Bed Length: 40" Gauge: 14 G UZU® FABRIC INSPECTION MACHINE AATPR INDUSTRY CO. LTD. THAILAND. Mfg. Date: April-2007
  39. 39. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 1818 | P a g e F Lay-out Plan of knitting Machineries : K S E W D N H I A M C B J E G L
  40. 40. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 1919 | P a g e A = Office of A.G.M (Knitting) B = Office of Production Officer C = Cloth inspection machine D = Re-conning machine E = Supervisor office & Knit Admin F = Flat bed knitting section G = Spare Cylinder room H = Stair I = Lift J = Store of Spare parts & equipments K = Fitter / Staff office L = Toilet M = Auto stripe Machine Section = Circular Knitting Machine (Single & Double Jersey) = Eyes marking or Floor marking Total Floor space of the knitting floor = 20,338.93 Sq.ft (approximately) Space of A.G.M. Office = 172.85 Sq.ft Space of P.O Office = 175 Sq.ft Space of Knit admin office = 96.15 Sq.ft Staff office space = 175 Sq.ft Stair space = 472.5 Sq.ft Lift space = 157.5 Sq.ft Space of Re-conning M/c = 52.5 Sq.ft Cloth inspection M/c = 78.72 Sq.ft ×2 = 157.44 Sq.ft
  41. 41. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 2020 | P a g e Space of equipments office = 228 Sq.ft Space of Spare Cylinder room = 383.8 Sq.ft Space of Toilet = 547.1 Sq.ft Space of Flat Bed Knitting Section = 1372.61 Sq.ft Space of Auto Stripe Knitting M/c Section = 1478.73 Sq.ft Total space used for different section = 5512.74 Sq.ft Now ,Rest of the free space for circular knitting machine according with floor marking, = Total Floor space of the knitting floor - Total space used for different section = (20,338.93 - 5512.74) Sq.ft =14862.19 Sq.ft In Micro Fibre Group the total number of knitting machine is 83 ( where Single jersey circular knitting machine is 47, Double jersey circular knitting machine is 14, Auto Stripe circular knitting machine is 5, And Flat Bed knitting machine is 17, total 83). But there has another knitting floor where other knitting machines are positioned. The space of 14862.19 Sq.ft for Circular knitting machines which are assembles in previous page.And in this lay out plan 40 No’s of Circular knitting machine are situated. One circular knitting machine with creel stand which required 262.44 sq.ft So, the number of 40 knitting machines required space is, = 262.44 sq.ft × 40 = 10497.6 Sq.ft The totally free space is = 14862.19 Sq.ft - 10497.6 Sq.ft = 4364.59 Sq. ft Remarks : The Lay out plan of the machineries is well Micro Fiber Ltd. arranged. There are good number of textile machineries in the industry. They are adequate
  42. 42. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 2121 | P a g e enough to take the huge production of the industry. The efficiency of the worker should be increased for more quality production.
  43. 43. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 2222 | P a g e CHAPTER -04 RAW MATERIALS Micro Fiber Ltd. is a knit composite industry. In the industry raw materials for different section is different. As for example knitting uses yarn as raw material, Fabric processing department uses the knit fabrics, dyes and chemicals. Types of Raw Materials: Different type of raw materials are found like 1. Yarn 2. Grey Fabric 3. Dyes 4. Chemicals Order is usually obtain in the form of making complete garments grey fabric or yarn dyeing that is main raw material is fabric & yarn. Fabric is made in its own knitting section from different types of yarn according to requirement, but sometimes buyer may supplies this. 18/1, 150/D. Yarn: Following types of yarns are used to knit fabrics: 1. Cotton — 30 s/1, 80/2, 20/1, 60/2,34s/l, 26/1, 20/1, 24/1 (Carded or combed.) 2. Filament —20/D, 24/D, 30/D, 40/D,75/D, 100/D, 3. Polyester spun — 50/2 Ne, 20/2 Ne. 4. T/C —+30/1, T/C. 5. Viscose —26/1. 6. CVC (varying proportion) The count mentioned above was found during mill training. Sources: Yarn is collected from the fo1lowing sources:
  44. 44. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 2323 | P a g e 1. Shohagpur spinning mills 2. Delta spinning 3. Israk spinning mills 4. Delsy spinning mills 5. Techno spinning mills 6. Jamuna spinning mills 7. Malek spinning mills 8. Kader spinning mills Price: Not provided. Grey Fabrics: Following types of grey fabrics are dyed: 1.Single jersey: - Single and double lacoste - Polo pique - Terry fleece - Engineering stripe 2. Single jersey with Lycra 3. Double jersey: - Rib - Interlock 4. Double jersey with Lycra 5. Flat bed : -Single Collar and Cuff -Design Collar and cuff Sources: The required grey fabric is produce in the industry. The required fabrics are supplied from Micro Fiber Ltd. Price: Price of grey fabrics depends upon the price of yarn and the making charge of the fabric. For example, in case of 30’s spun cotton yarn, the price of yarn is $3/kg and for single jersey fabric the knitting charge is $0.18. So the price of single jersey fabric is $3.18/kg.
  45. 45. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 2424 | P a g e Chemicals: CHEMICAL NAME TRADE NAME CHEMICAL NAME TRADE NAME Optical brightening Bluton –BVB Anticreasing agent ACN Wetting agent SCF Leveling agent CL-225 Fixing agent SR Softener FS Peroxide killer OEM Antifoaming agent SF Leveling agent RLF-349 Anticreasing agent CBA Sequestering agent SQ-117 Antifixing agent TPA Softener WCS Softener EAS Sequestering agent 2UD Soap AW-501 Alkali RH Sequestering agent SQ-114 Acetic acid G.acid Brightening agent SQS Silicon PE-40 Wetting agent MC Optical brightening ER330 Enzyme MKL Flame retardant WRN Optical brightening BBU Dust remover Flock BM Sequestering agent InSA Fixing agent SR Optical brightening BUBZAM Commonly used dyes in fabric dyeing section in Micro fibre Ltd For light color: RR dyes
  46. 46. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 2525 | P a g e i. Yellow RR ii. Red RR iii. Blue RR If color shade% not matching under three different light source (D-65, TL-83,A), then below dyestuffs are used: DRI dyes: i. DRI yellow HFR ii. DRI Red HF3B iii. DRI Blue HFRL For medium shade: ME dyes (Navy blue, olive etc i. G.yellow SP-3R ii. RED SP3B iii. N.BLUE ME2G iv. BLUE RSPL v. BLACK B vi. BLUE BBNEW and so on. RED: i. W-dyes ii. Orange W-3R iii. Red KHW iv. DK Blue WR v. Yellow KHW Black: i. Super black G ii. Black WNN
  47. 47. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 2626 | P a g e Turqious : i. Yellow 4GL ii. Blue BBNEW /N.Blue 2GL iii. Blue G Chemicals & their function: Chemicals used in Dyeing and their function: ♦ Acid - The chemical compounds that dissolve in water and provide H+(proton). It changes the color of litmas paper from blue to red. Strong acids - completely ionized in water; For example: HClO4, Hl, HBr, HCl, HNOs, H2SO4, H3PO4.Weak acids - partial ionized in water; For example: HF, H2S, HCN, HC2H3O2 and most organic acids. ♦ Alkalis - The chemicaL compound that dissolve in water and provide 0H- . It changes the color of litmas paper from red to blue. Strong alkalis - completely ionized in water; For example: NaOH, KOH, LiOH, Mg(OH)2 most metallic hydroxides Weak alkalis - partial ionized in water; For example: NH4OH and most organic alkalis ♦ Buffer - lt is a saturated solution of acid-salt or alkali-salt mixture. lt resists the change of pH on addition of acid or alkali. Usually it is used to control the any bath solution. Buffer solutions are solutions containing mixtures of a weak acid or base and a salt of that acid or base. For exampre, the mixture of acetic acid and sodium acetate, which dissociates as: CH3COOH CH3COO - + H+ CH3COONa CHs COO - + Na+ ♦ Oxidizing agent - The chemical compound which provide oxygen during chemical reaction and converting to oxide, They gain electrons in a redox chemical reaction, for example, O3, H2O2, Ca0Cl2. ♦ Reducing agent - The chemical compound which losses electron during chemical reaction. lt reduces other substances chemically, especially by donating an electron or electrons, for example, Hydrose (Na2S2O4), Rongalite C. ♦ Surfactants - Surfactants or surface-active agents act in solid-liquid, solid-gas, or liquid-gas interfaces and reduces the interfacial tension. ln textile wet processing it works in between solid-liquid interface and reduce the surface tension of liquid. lt has a versatile application in textile industries especially in textile coloration, for example, Wetting agent, Detergent, Lubricant, Foaming agent, Anti-foaming agent, Leveling agent, Dispersing agent.
  48. 48. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 2727 | P a g e ♦ Wetting agent - lt accelerates the wetability of material in solution; thus helps to easy penetration of chemicals into substrate. Usually it is used in scouring, bleaching and dyeing processes. lt is available in market in form of clear or yellowish liquid. ♦ Detergent - Detergents are one kind of surface active agents but the reverse is not always true. The surfactants which have detergency power and the number of carbon in aliphatic chain are not less than 9. Usually it is used in textile to clean the materials by removing undesirable substances. These products are either soaps or synthetic detergents. ♦ ♦ Lubricant - The chemical compounds use to prevent contact between solid surfaces in relative motion in order to reduce friction, wear, overheating, and rusting. They are very good coolants, provide the appropriate range of viscosities, and are thermally stable. ♦ Anti-foaming agent - Anti-foaming agents are another type of surfactants which are able to prevent or reduce foam. Usually, anti-foaming agents are used in dyeing bath and in printing paste to hinder foam generation. Excess foam generation can create adverse effect in processing and product. ♦ Anti-creasing agent - Usually used in dyebath or in finishing stage to prevent creasing of fabric or garments. ♦ Anti-pilling agent - Some man-made and blended fibre fabrics can easily form pills in their surface. Thus it reduces the aesthetic value of the fabric or garment. Anti-pilling agents are used to prevent such kind of pills formation during wearing of cloth. ♦ Leveling agent - Leveling agent is used in textile coloration process to achieve uniform dyeing over the whole substrate by controlling the rate of dyeing. Generally it is a non-ionic surfactants type compound either fibre substantive or dye substantive. lt is available in market in liquid form. ♦ Dispersing agent - usually it is used in disperse and vat dyeing process helps to distribute the dye molecules in dye bath. it is also help to penetrate the dye molecules into the substrate. lt is available in market in powder form. ♦ Retarding agent - The chemical compound that are able to retard or control the dye uptake inside of the fibre .Using retarders is very common in acrylic dyeing ♦ with cationic dyes. ♦ Carrier - Carriers are relatively small organic substances that usually have affinity for polyester. lt acts as a catalyst to accelerate the dye penetration into the fibe in disperse dyeing process.
  49. 49. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 2828 | P a g e ♦ Chemical formula of common chemicals used in textile dyeing: Water – H2O Hydrochloric acid - HCI Sulfuric acid –H2SO4 Phosphoric acid – H3PO4 Sodium chloride (common salt) - NaCl Sodium carbonate – Na2CO3 Sodium sulfate (glauber salt) – Na2SO4 Sodium bicarbonate – NaHCO3 Sodium hydroxide - NaOH Potassium hydroxide - KOH Sulfur dioxide – SO2 Tri sodium Phosphate – Na3PO4 Benzene – C6H6 Acetic acid - CH3COOH Oxalic acid - (COOH)2 Cellulose – C6H10O5 Starch - C6H10O5 Hydros (sodium hydrosulfite) – Na2S2O4 Bleaching powder- Ca(OCl)Cl Printing chemicals function: The functions of chemical used in printing process are given below Urea: Hydroscoping agent, by using urea the steaming is finished within 5 to 10hours. Resist salt: NaCl is penetrated by heating but resist salt is penetrated into fabric without heating. Na2CO3: Fixing the dyes molecules properly. Thickener: Thickener helps the past or chemical to be not sprayed on the fabric or not to be bleeding. Increased paste viscosity. Reduce screen pore radius.
  50. 50. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 2929 | P a g e Price: Price of dyes & chemicals depend on the quality, type availability & requirement. For high quality product, better dye & chemical should be used though cost is high. Annual requirement: Annual requirement of dyes & chemical depend on the order of production but for various reasons such as improper weighting, carelessness of operators, hydrolysis of dyes, uneven process control, wrong recipe formulation, incorrect batching, improper storage facilities & for different unwanted expenditure increases dyes & chemicals requirement. Remarks: For smooth running of a factory uninterrupted supply of raw materials is very essential. As far as we saw the raw material control of MFG is good.
  51. 51. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 3030 | P a g e Chapter-05 Production planning, sequence & operation Introduction and Basic Procedure of Planning and Control: A planned work brings success. Without planning nothing is completed within the required time. So planning has its own importance which is intolerable. "Planning" gives a scheduled task and 'control' completes it successfully. But production planning and control is not an easy task. So Micro Fibre Group has a high-performance department called "Production Planning & Control". Its Basic working procedure is as follows – 1. Taking orders from marketing division. 2. Analyzing the orders. 3. Planning for knitting the fabric. 4. Planning for dyeing the fabric. 5. Planning for finishing the fabric. It is only a basic procedure. It may change according to the type of order. Sometimes, order is places only for finishing the material or only for dyeing the white goods. Then some steps are omitted for planning procedure. Recommendable points of a buyer: I. Diameter of the fabric II. Design of the fabric III. GSM of the fabric IV. Total wt. of the fabric V. Yarn count VI. Types of yarn VII. Color of the fabric VIII. Finishing of fabric. IX. Handling & fastness property.
  52. 52. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 3131 | P a g e Production Planning: Marketing Lab dip Lab dip approval Sample production Sample approval & Order for bulk production Knitting Sample production according to buyer recommendation Bulk knitting production Batching Pre- treatment Dyeing Finishing Packing Garment section Ready for delivery
  53. 53. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 3232 | P a g e Knitting section Production parameters: Yarn processing: Package Winding/ Re- conning Package density, Knitting: Stitch length GSM Dia Gauge Count Fabric dyeing: pH, Temp M:L, Time, Finishing: Overfeed, Underfeed, Stretch, Temp, Padding pressure. Speed, Dwell time Points that should consider in case of G.S.M. changing: i) VDQ (Variable Dia. Quality Control) pulley diameter. ii) Yarn count. iii) M/C gauge. iv) Cam position v) Take up motion
  54. 54. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 3333 | P a g e Production flow chart: Work order received Design development Requisition of raw material (yarn) Yarn collect by cone package from spinning Setup yarn on creel and Yarn passage through different tentioner and positive feeder Machine parameter setup (Adjust stitch length and GSM by VDQ pulley) Produce ½ meter fabric and inspection Knitting the fabrics and without any fault / If fault correct it Cut the roll of fabric from the machine and Marking the roll Grey fabric inspection and grading according to Quality Control Fabric delivery or Transferred the fabric to grey store Description of production process: Micro Fiber Ltd. Is capable of producing stripes of any width and enormous color. The engineering stripes machines are used for producing such fabrics. Except this feeder stripes are also produced. Single jersey fabrics and its derivatives like lacost, polo pique, terry fleece etc. are also produced. Rib and interlock fabrics and its derivatives such as 2x2, 3x3 etc. are also produced. Different fabrics can be produced by jacquard m/c by varying the tucking lengths and looping sequence. Collar and cuffs of any designs are produced here in the flat bed m/cs. The jacquard design can be computerized and transferred to the knitting m/c by floppy disks. The yarn that used in the body fabric is also used in producing collar and cuff.
  55. 55. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 3434 | P a g e GSM: It is the critical parameter that is checked and controlled at different staged of processing the fabric after knitting to finishing. Fabric GSM can be controlled by the following ways: By varying the loop length by VDQ pulley. By varying the no. of loops by needle gauge setting. By using different count of yarn. The yarn count, in all cases, has prescribed by the buyers. So m/c setting is the only way to control the grey GSM. The final GSM in the finished fabric depend on the finishing treatments and parameters of finishing machineries. m/c. Fabric width: Fabric width can be controlled by changing cylinder diameter or by changing RPM: M/c rpm is adjusted with the lead time for production. When lead time is very short then rpm may increase at a certain level for definite count and strength of yarn. So it also depends on the yarn parameter and also with structure to be produced. Loop length: Loop length determines the fabric GSM. It can be controlled by changing the dia of VDQ pulley In Mayer & CIE m/c , it can be controlled digitally. No. of feeder or no. of cone: It depends on the urgency of production, available cone packages, color to be knit and structure of the fabric.
  56. 56. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 3535 | P a g e Gauge: Needle gauge determines the no. of loops in a course which determines the GSM of fabric. Production calculation: 1. Production = no. of needle x no of feeder x RPM x stitch length/ yarn count Production per shift in KG at 100% efficiency RPM x no of feeder x no of needle x stitch length(mm) x 60 x 12 = 10 x 2.54 x 36 x 840 x 2.2046 x yarn count 2. Stitch length = Ks X 590.5 Count (Ne) x GSM Where, Ks = knitting constant Count = linear density of yarn GSM = gm per square meter Another formulae is Stitch length = (Tex × Ks) / GSM Ks is a constant. Its value is different for different fabric structure and fabric type. Ks is calculated and estimated as below: Ks = (GSM x Stitch length) / Tex
  57. 57. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 3636 | P a g e Fabric type Color Value of Ks Single jersey Average 19.55 Single lacoste Average 22.4 Double lacoste Average 22.75 Polo pique Average 25 Plain interlock Average 39.3 1 X 1 rib Light 24.5 1 X 1 rib Average 26.5 3. Production/shift in meter: = Course/ min. Course/ cm = RPM × No.of Feeder× 60×12× Efficiency Course/ cm×100 4. Fabric width in meter: = Total no.of wales Wales / cm ×100 = Total no.of Needles knitting Wales / cm ×100
  58. 58. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 Fabric type Yarn count Stitch length color D X G Finished dia Finished GSM Plain s/j 18s/1 2.94 white 26X24 30 inch 220-230 20s/1 2.98 white 30X24 33.5 inch 200-210 24 s/1 2.68 white 30X24 32 inch 175-185 26s/1 2.66 white 30X24 31 inch 160-170 28s/1 2.70 avg 26X24 25 inch 150-160 30s/1 2.68 avg 30X24 30 inch 130-140 34s/1 2.40 avg 26X24 24 inch 125-135 40s/1 2.44 avg 24X24 20 inch 100-110 1x1 Rib 26s/1 2.50 avg 40X18 41 inch 240 24s/1 2.75 avg 30X18 64 inch 235 26s/1 2.45 avg 40X18 40inch 245 26s/1 2.55 avg 40X18 47inch 235 26s/1 2.65 avg 32X18 32inch 230 36s/1 2.65 avg 32X18 33inch 170 24s/1 2.95 avg 34X18 32inch 220 24s/1 2.90 avg 40X18 38inch 225 28s/1 2.40 avg 30X24 38.5inch 232 2X1 L Rib 34s/1 2.60 avg 40X18 23inch 190 34s/1 2.70 avg 32X18 20inch 185 40s/1 2.76 avg 30X20 35”T 160 28s/1 2.87 avg 34X18 32”T 260 26s/1 3.25 avg 34X18 31”T 205 24s/1 3.50 avg 34X18 31.5”T 285 20s/1 3.25 avg 34X20 55”(op) 260 2X2 L/Rib 20/1+40D 3.10 avg 30X18 18”T 390 24/1+40D 2.90 avg 30X18 18”T 320 30/1+70D 2.90 avg 30X18 18”T 320 30/1+40D 2.98 avg 26X18 18”T 240 30/1+40D 2.80 avg 26X18 18”T 240 Single lacost 18s/1 3.00 avg 30X24 46 inch 245-255 24s/1 2.64 avg 30X24 40 inch 210-215 26s/1 2.60 avg 30X24 36inch 200-210 30s/1 2.50 avg 30X24 33inch 180-190 37 | P a g e
  59. 59. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 3838 | P a g e For S/J without'Lycra Fabric G.S.M Yarn Count 110-120 40 -36s 120-130 36s-32s 130-140 32s-28s 140-150 28s 150-160 26s 170-210 24s For Rib without Lycra: Fabric G.S.M Yarn Count 180-190 36s-32s 190-200 30s 200-210 28s 210-220 26s 220-250 24s 250-300 24s Following Counts are used to achieve the mentioned G.S.M: For S/J with Lycra Fabric G.S.M Yarn Count 180-190 34s 190-210 32s 210-220 30s 220-240 28s 240-250 26s For interlock without Lycra Fabric G.S.M Yarn Count 200-220 34s 220-230 32s 230-250 30s 250-300 26s For Lacoste without Lycra Fabric G.S.M Yarn Count 180-190 30s 190-210 28s 210-230 26s 230-250 26s
  60. 60. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 3939 | P a g e Relation between yarn count, fabric type, stitch length and finished GSM: By the following three tables, we can summarize the above data: For Single jersey- FINISHED GSM COUNT FINISHED DIA 140 30/1 Machine dia=Finished dia 160 26/1 Machine dia+1=Finished dia 180 24/1 Machine dia+2=Finished dia 200 20/1 Machine dia+3=Finished dia 220 18/1 Machine dia+5=Finished dia For 1X1 Rib Finished gsm Count Gauge Finished dia 150-200 30/1 18 Machine dia 210-220 28/1 18 Machine dia 220-230 26/1 18 Machine dia+1 240-250 24/1 18 Machine dia+1/2 280-300 20/1 18 Machine dia+2/3 For Plain Interlock- Finished gsm Count Gauge Finished dia 200 40/1 24 Machine dia 180 40/1 24 Machine dia+1 220-230 34/1 24 Machine dia+2
  61. 61. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 4040 | P a g e × × × × × • × • × × × × • × • × × × × × 240-250 30/1 24 Machine dia+2/3 If the fabric is to be Enzyme washed, the stitch length should be kept (10%) less than the normal range. Because, enzyme wash reduces the total weight of the fabric by removing the floating fibre and hairy fibre. For light color, the finished GSM varies near about 15-20% from grey GSM For average color, the finished GSM varies 20-25% For dark color, grey GSM is kept less (i.e. the stitch-length is large) because take up% of dark color is more and the weight of dyed fabric will be increased. If the GSM varies 25-30%, it is not only necessary to control the VDQ pulley dia but also yarn tension & take up roller. Grey fabric introducing: Factors that should be considered for changing of fabric design on: i) Cam arrangement changing. ii) Needle butt setting & needle dropping. iii) Using of different colors in selected feeder. iv) Using of jacquard mechanism. v) Size of the loop shape Stitch Notation, Cam Arrangement & Needle Repeat Of Some Knitted Fabric: FABRIC NAME: SINGLE LACOST Stitch Notation: × = Knit stitch • = Tuck stitch K = Knit cam T = Tuck cam 1 = 1 Butt Needle 2 = 2 Butt Needle 3 = 3 Butt Needle Fig. Looping diagram
  62. 62. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 4141 | P a g e 1 2 1 2 3 × × × × × • × • × • × • × × × × • × • × • × • × 1 2 Cam arrangement & Needle arrangement: i) Using two track cams: ▲ ▲ ▲ T ▲ ▲ T ▲ ▲ ▲ ii) Using three truck cams: ▲ ▲ ▲ T ▲ ▲ T ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ T ▲ FABRIC NAME: DOUBLE LACOST Stitch Notation: × = Knit stitch • = Tuck stitch K = Knit cam T = Tuck cam 1 = 1 Butt Needle 2 = 2 Butt Needle 3 = 3 Butt Needle Fig. Looping diagram Cam arrangement & Needle arrangement: i) Using two track cams: ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ T T ▲ T T ▲ ▲ ▲
  63. 63. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 4242 | P a g e 1 2 3 × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × 1 2 ii) Using three truck cams: ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ T T ▲ T T ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ T T Fig.- Cam arrangement Fig.- Needle arrangement FABRIC NAME: SINGLE JERSEY Stitch Notation: × = Knit stitch K = Knit cam 1 = 1 Butt Needle 2 = 2 Butt Needle 3 = 3 Butt Needle Fig. Looping diagram Cam arrangement & Needle arrangement: i) Using two track cams: ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ Fig.- Cam arrangement Fabric inspection : Two ways of grey fabric inspection used to done by- a) Auto turning fabric inspection m/c. b) Varivide colour assessment cabinet –2 D-65, TL-84, TL-83, Florescent, UV.
  64. 64. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 4343 | P a g e ♦ Grey fabric faults : Following faults are found in the grey fabric: Problem Reason Remedy 1. Hole Broken needle head Change the needle 2. Missing yarn Missing of one end of double yarn Careful observation and instant stop when fault found 3. Needle line Bent needle latch Replace the needle 4. Thick & thin yarn Yarn fault Replace the yarn cone to a more uniform yarn cone 5. Slubs Yarn fault Replace the yarn cone to a more uniform yarn cone 6. Drop needle Needle fail to receive the yarn while knitting, needle missing Reset the needle 7. Barrie mark/patta Irregular tension of take down roller Adjust the take down tension or synchronize the take down speed with knitting 8. Pin hole Due to missing stiches or loop Concentrate on needle and latch 9. Oil line Improper lubrication Proper lubrication 10. Fly contact Fly coming fro the adjacent m/c Separate one m/c from others 11. Oil stain Dirty m/c and improper handling of fabric Proper lubrication and clean m/c
  65. 65. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 4444 | P a g e Fabric Dyeing Section: Production flow chart for fabric: Grey fabric inspection Batching Pretreatment Dyeing Dewatering Dewatering (Tube form) Dewatering(Open form) Tension less dryer Slitting Calendaring Stentering Compacting Inspection Inspection Packing Packing Delivery Delivery
  66. 66. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 4545 | P a g e Process sequence: For Cotton Dyeing: Pretreatment Enzyme (anti pilling) Dyeing Soaping Softening Pretreatment: Two types of pretreatment are done in Micro Fibre Ltd. 1. Scouring-Bleaching 2. Bio-Scouring (Bio polishing/ Enzyme treatment)
  67. 67. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 4646 | P a g e Scouring-Bleaching: Pretreatment program: (scouring ,bleaching and enzyme) Fill water Fabric load Light color: M:L=1:10 SCF (0.25g/l)+2UD (0.25g/l) ACN+CBA (0.25+0.25g/l) ( Dosing 10mins) Temp=60o c and run=20min Drain Fill water SCF+InSA(0.65+0.65g/l) +ACN+CBA (1.25+1.25g/l) (Dosing 10mins at room temp) Caustic Dosing at 40o c (1.8g/l) Temp 70o c Peroxide +stab (1.75+0.22g/l) Temp=98o c and Run=50-60mins Cooling at 80o c Drain Fill water Drain Raise temp. 80o c and run 10 mins OEM ( 0.3 g/l) dosing 20 minutes Green acid( 0.5 g/l) Hot wash (95o c X 10mins) Fill water
  68. 68. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 4747 | P a g e Medium/deep color: M:L=1:8 Fill water Fabric load SCF (0.17g/l) ACN+CBA (0.425+0.425g/l) ( Dosing 10mins) Temp=60o c and run=20min Drain Fill water SCF+InSA(0.552+0.637g/l) +ACN+CBA (0.637+0.637g/l) (Dosing 10mins at room temp) Caustic Dosing at 40 o c (1.70g/l) Temp 70o c Peroxide +stab (1.70+0.212g/l) Temp=98o c and Run=50-60mins Cooling at 80o c Drain Fill water Hot wash (95o c X 10mins) Fill water Drain Raise temp. 80o c and run 10 mins G. acid(0.697g/l) OEM ( 0.3 g/l) dosing 20 minutes
  69. 69. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 4848 | P a g e Bio-Scouring: Process description of Bio-Scouring is same as normal pretreatment process. But in Bio-Scouring process, we use only one auxiliary (MA-stab XLC), where in normal pretreatment process ,we use more than one auxiliary. Enzyme Treatment: Process Description of ENZYME TREATMENT: Light color: M:L=1:10 Or, Medium/deep color: M:L=1:8 Water fill Green acid (0.4g/l)(Check PH ) MKL (0.3% owf) Temp 55o c and Run 60mins Drain Ready for dyeing
  70. 70. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 4949 | P a g e Chemica 10 Enzyme 60 Tem Time Fig: Enzyme Treatment
  71. 71. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 5050 | P a g e Dyeing: Normaly for knit dyeing, there are many kinds of dyeing procedure such as Iso thermal process, Critical migration process, Exhaust method etc. In Micro Fibre they use Exhaust method for knit dyeing. Dying program for ME dyes: M:L=1:8 Leveling Agents: SQ-117 =1.275 g/l CL- 225 =1.275 g/l CAN+CBA =0.85+0.85 g/l pH =6.2-6.8 Run-10΄ Dyes-25΄(30% Dosing rate) Run-30΄ Salt -15΄(20% Dosing rate) Run-20΄ Soda-25΄(20% Dosing rate) Run-20΄ Temp=60°C(2°C/min) Then temp=70°C(2°C/min) if required Run-20΄ Sample check
  72. 72. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 5151 | P a g e Dyeing program for HE Dyes: Leveling Run-5΄ Temp- 60°C Dyes-25΄ (30% Dosing Rate) Run-20΄ Salt-20΄ (40% Dosing Rate) Run-15΄ Temp=90o C Cooling at 40°C Soda-30΄ (40% Dosing Rate) Run-30΄ Temp- 80°-87°C (2C/min) RUN=2Omin Sample check
  73. 73. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 5252 | P a g e Dying program for W Dyes: Leveling Run-10΄ Temp = 60°C Dyes-15΄ (50% Dosing rate) Run-10΄ Salt-15΄ (40% Dosing rate) Run-10΄ Temp-67°C (1C/min) Run-35΄ Cooling at 60°C (1C/min) Soda-30΄ (50% Dosing rate) Run-20΄ Sample Check In need increase temp up to 65°C-67°C
  74. 74. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 5353 | P a g e Dying program for Turquise Dyes: Leveling (5min Dosing time) Run-10΄ Temp-60°C Dyes-25΄ (25% Dosing rate) Run-20΄ G.Salt-20΄ (20% Dosing rate) Run-15΄ Temp-90°C (1C/min) Run-45΄ Cooling at 40°C Soda-40΄ (40% Dosing rate) Run-45΄ Temp-80°C (2C/min) Run-20΄ Sample Check
  75. 75. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 5454 | P a g e Dying program for KHW Dyes: Leveling (dosing 5min) Run-10΄ Temp-60°C Dyes-20΄ (20% Dosing rate) Run-25΄ Common Salt-20΄ (40% Dosing rate) Run-20΄ Temp-67°C Run-30΄ Cooling at 40-45°C Soda-30΄ (30% Dosing rate) Run-5΄ Caustic solution 20’ (dosing rate 20%) Run=20min Temp-60°C (2C/min) Run=20min Sample Check
  76. 76. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 5555 | P a g e Leveling Agents: SQ-117 =0.85g/l CL-225 =0.85 g/l ACN+CBA =0.85+0.85 g/l Dyeing program for HF dyes: L.R=1:8 pH=6.2-6.8 Run-10΄ TEMP=40O c Dyes-25΄(30% Dosing rate) Run-30΄ TEMP=60O c(1O c/min) Salt -20΄(40% Dosing rate) Run-30΄ Soda-30΄(40% Dosing rate) Run-20΄ Sample check
  77. 77. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 5656 | P a g e Dyeing program for WHITE color (Without enzyme): SCF+InSA ACN+CBA Dosing time 10min Caustic Stab+50% H202 Temp 980 c Run= 90mins Cooling at 40o c BvB +BUBZAM Dosing time 30mins Temp 98o c Run 30mins Shade check
  78. 78. 5757 | P a g e Industrial Attachment Report 2011 Dyeing program for WHITE color (With enzyme): SCF+2UD ACN+CBA Stab+ Caustic+Peroxide Dosing at 60o c temp BVB Temp 900 c Run= 10mins Shade check at 80o c Hot wash Gacid Temp=55 o c and run=10min MKL Temp=55o c and run=1hour SQS Temp=80o c and run=20mins
  79. 79. 5858 | P a g e Industrial Attachment Report 2011 Dyeing program for Disperse Dyes: Fabric treated with oxalic acid at 70°C for 20min Rinse for 5 min pH is controlled at 4.0-4.2 Dyeing at 130°C temp for 40-50 min Hot wash for 5 min Reduction cleaning 80-90°C temp for 30 min Neutralization/Hot wash Softener at 60°C temp for 20 min Drain the bath Unload the fabric
  80. 80. 5959 | P a g e Industrial Attachment Report 2011 Re-dyeing Process: When shade is not matched then fabric is treated again in dyeing machine for shade matching is known as re-dyeing. Generally, re-dyeing is done if the shade is deeper than the target shade. It may occur when the fabrics absorb one or two colors more or less. One re-dyeing process is described below. - Drain the let off solution - Hot wash at 70 0 -80 0 C - Acid wash at 60 0 -70 0 C(60 0 for light shade & 70 0 for deep shade). - Soda ash washes at 900 -1000 C for 60mins to reduce the depth of shade. - Acid wash at 600 C. - Addition to required dyestuffs. - Salt addition. - Soda ash addition. Other operations are same as previous described dyeing operations.
  81. 81. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 6060 | P a g e Stripping process: Add water Fabric load TPA+G.ACID Temp=90o C run=20min Drain Fill water SCF+NaOH Temp=98o C run=30min Cooling at 80O C Hydrose Temp=98o C run=60min Drain Hot wash Half scouring Temp=98o C run=35-50min Dyeing Recipe: Antifixing agent (TPA)= 3.0g/l A.Acid (G.Acid)= 3.0g/l Wetting agent(SCF)= 0.2g/l Hydrose= 4.0g/l Caustic= 3.0g/l Half scouring recipe: SCF=0.26g/l InSA=0.6g/l ACN+CBA= 0.26+0.26g/l Stab= 0.088g/l Caustic= 0.72g/l 50% H2O2=0.7g/l G.acid= 1.0g/l OEM=0.12g/l
  82. 82. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 6161 | P a g e After Treatment Of All Program: For light color For Deep / Medium color C Neutralizer=0.425g/l Temp=60c-65c Run=20min Hot Wash (AW-501=0.17g/l) Temp=80c-90c FS(10% Solution)=3-4g/l Temp=50 O c-For light color Temp=60O c –For deep color PH=4.0-4.5 Run =20min Hot Wash C Neutralizer=0.425g/l-0.552g/l Temp=60c-65c Run=20min Hot Wash 90O c- run 10min (AW-501=0.255-0.425g/) Fixing agent =0.425g/l Temp=50o c-60o c Run=20min PH =5.0-5.5 FS(10%solution)=3-4g/l Temp=60 o c run=20min PH =4.0-4.5 Temp=50c-60c Run=20min
  83. 83. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 6262 | P a g e After dyeing for neutralization: For white (without enzyme) For white (with enzyme) For light color For medium color For deep color A.Acid=1.5g /l Temp 65 o c Run=20min PH =4.5- 4.8(By using A.Acid) Temp 55o c Run=60min C.Neutralizer= 0.425g/l Temp 63-65 o c Run=20min C.Neutralizer= 0.425-0.552g/l Temp 63-65o c Run=20min C.Neutralizer= 0.552g/l Temp 63-65 o c Run=20min For fixing: For medium color For deep color SR=0.425-0.85g/l Temp 50-60o c Run=20min PH =5.0-5.5(By using C.neu) SR=1.275-1.7g/l Temp 50-60o c Run=20min PH =5.0-5.5(By using C.neu) Softener solution(10% solution): For white For light color For medium/deep color WCS(10%Soln )=2.55- 3.4owf Temp 60o c Run=20min PH =4.0-4.5(By using A.Acid) FS(10%Soln )=2.55- 3.4owf Temp 50o c Run=20min PH =4.0-4.5(By using C.neu) FS(10%Soln )=2.55- 3.4owf Temp 60o c Run=20min PH =4.0-4.5(By using C.neu)
  84. 84. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 6363 | P a g e Necessary calculations used in textile dyeing processes: Molarity When one mole or gram molecutar weight of solute is dissolved in one litre of solution is known one-molar (1M) solution. For example, 1M HCl contains 36.5 gm HCI/lit 1M H2SO4 contains 98 gm H2SO4/lit 1M NaOH contains 40 gm NaOH/lit 0.1M HCl contains 36.5x 0.1= 3.65 gm HCI/lit 0.01M H2SO4 contains 98x 0.01= 0.98 gm H2SO4/lit 0.001M NaOH contains 40x 0.001= 0.04 gm NaOH/lit Normality When one gram equivalent weight of solute is dissolved in one liter of solution is known one-normal (1N) solution. lt is calculated from the molecular weight divided by the hydrogen equivalent (maximum valency of ion) of substance. For example, 1N HCI contains 36.5 gm HCI/lit 1N H2SO4 contains 49 gm H2SO4/lit 1N NaOH contains 40 gm NaOH/lit 0.1N HCI contains 36.gm 0.1= 3.65 gm HCI/lit 0.01N H2SO4 contains 49x 0.01= 0.49 gm H2SO4/lit 0.001N NaOH contains 40x 0.001= 0.04 gm NaOH/lit Stock solution preparation ln practice 1% stock solution is very common in dyeing process. in laboratory work,1.0 gm solid (powder, 100% concentration) dye stuff/chemicals is taken in a conical flask and pour 100m1 of warm (around 45o c) water and stir to dissolve the reagent to make 1% stock solution of that dyes/chemicals. To prepare 0.1% stock solution - 10ml or 1ml of 1.0% solution need to mix with 90ml or gml water respectively. ln the case of liquid reagents - For example, take 10ml acetic acid in a beaker; making it 100mr by pouring necessary amount of water is prepared 10% v/v acetic acid solution. Dyeing calculation Amount respect to owg (on the weight of goods): ln recipe, the % (on the weight of goods - fiber, yarn, fabric, garment) amount respect to the material is calculated with the following formula : Required amount reagent = (Material weight x recipe amount %)
  85. 85. Industrial Attachment Report 2011 6464 | P a g e For example, the batch weight is 100 kg and shade percentage is 1.5%. so, the required amount of dyes = 100 kg x 1 .5 % = 1.5 kg. ln laboratory dyeing, the necessary amount of dyes and chemicals are very tiny - taking of this tiny amount contain higher error percent. Accordingly the required amount of reagents is taken in diluted form of different concentration such as 0.1%, 1.0%, 10.0%,20.0% etc. ln that case, the required amount of reagent is calculated by using the following formula : Required amount reagent = {(Material weight x recipe amount %)/stock solution %}. For example, 5.0gm sample need to dye where as the shade (recipe amount) is 2.0%and stock solution concentration is 1.0%. so, the required amount reagent = {(Material weight x recipe amount %)/stock solution %) = {(5.0 x 2.0 %)/1.0%} = 10 ml. Common textile auxlliaries used in dyeing: Acid - The chemical compounds that dissolve in water and provide H+(proton). It changes the color of litmas paper from blue to red. Strong acids - completely ionized in water; For example: HClO4, Hl, HBr, HCl, HNOs, H2SO4, H3PO4 Weak acids - partial ionized in water; For example: HF, H2S, HCN, HC2H3O2 and most organic acids. Alkalis - The chemicaL compound that dissolve in water and provide 0H- . It changes the color of litmas paper from red to blue. Strong alkalis - completely ionized in water; For example: NaOH, KOH, LiOH, Mg(OH)2 most metallic hydroxides Weak alkalis - partial ionized in water; For example: NH4OH and most organic alkalis Buffer - lt is a saturated solution of acid-salt or alkali-salt mixture. lt resists the change of pH on addition of acid or alkali. Usually it is used to control the any bath solution. Buffer solutions are solutions containing mixtures of a weak acid or base and a salt of that acid or base. For exampre, the mixture of acetic acid and sodium acetate, which dissociates as: CH3COOH CH3COO - + H+ CH3COONa CHs COO - + Na+ Oxidizing agent - The chemical compound which provide oxygen during chemical reaction and converting to oxide, They gain electrons in a redox chemical reaction, for example, O3, H2O2, Ca0Cl2. Reducing agent - The chemical compound which losses electron during chemical reaction. lt reduces other substances chemically, especially by donating an electron or electrons, for example, Hydrose (Na2S2O4), Rongalite C.

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