Basic knowledge for merchandising

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Basic knowledge for merchandising

  1. 1. Basic knowledge for Merchandising ©right
  2. 2. Name : MAZADUL HASAN SHESHIR ID: 2010000400008 Batch: 13th Batch (Session 2009-2013) Department: Wet Processing Technology Email: mazadulhasan@yahoo.com Blog: www. Textilelab.blogspot.com Southeast University Department of Textile Engineering PREPARED BY ©right
  3. 3. MERCHANDISING DEPARTMENT OF KNIT CONCERN GROUP
  4. 4. Total Textile Process at a Glance
  5. 5. Merchandiser ↓ Negotiation with buyer & collect order ↓ Costing ↓ Sample making (according to buyer requirement) ↓ Get approval &Placement of order ↓ Getting started (In-house preparation of accessories) ↓ Line balancing ↓ Commencing production ↓ Production Monitoring ↓ Inspection ↓ Buyer’s Inspection (After Finishing) ↓ Preparation of banking & documentation ↓ Shipment/delivery Process Flow-Chart of Merchandising
  6. 6. Definition of merchandiser The main role of a garments merchandiser is to collect garments export order (export L/C), produce the garments, export the garments and earn profit, to perform those functions successfully needs lot of knowledge, experience & tremendous effort for a merchandiser. The term merchandising is defined as follows: Definition of merchandising •The term merchandising related with trade •Trade means buying & selling •The person who is involved with trade, he/she is a merchandiser •And the activities of a merchandiser is known as a merchandising Definition of merchandiser
  7. 7. Responsibilities of Senior Merchandiser 1. Sample development 2. Price negotiation 3. Order confirmation 4. L/C opening 5. Opening summery 6. Sourcing 7. Material collection 8. Production planning 9. Production monitoring 10. Quality assurance 11. Arrange final inspection 12. Arrange shipment Responsibilities of Senior Merchandiser
  8. 8. Qualities of a merchandiser 1. Language skill 2. Computer skill 3. Marketing skill 4. Right consumption knowledge of various goods 5. Costing knowledge of raw materials 6. Order getting ability (That is if the merchandiser is known by actual rate of raw materials, so that he can negotiate perfectly with buyer. In this way, the possibility of getting order is hundred percent.) 7. Sincere & responsible 8. Hard worker Qualities of a merchandiser
  9. 9. Garment finishing process flow chart
  10. 10. Garment process flow chart
  11. 11. Production planning process flow chart
  12. 12. Garment Size
  13. 13. Basic Component of a pant
  14. 14. Basic Component of a shirt
  15. 15. Basic Component of a shirt
  16. 16. Some Factors Related to Buying Side: Customer: Those who buy the ultimate product are called customers. Customer of a product may be the consumer of this product or not. Consumer: Those who use the ultimate product are called consumers. Consumer of a product may be the consumer of this product or not. Buyer: Those who buy the product from other in large quantity are called buyers. Whole Seller: Those who sell the product to the retailer are called whole-sellers. Retailer: Those who sell the product directly to the customer are called retailers. Importers: Those who buy or import the product from foreign or overseas country in large quantity are called importers. Some Factors Related to Buying Side:
  17. 17. Some Factors Related to Selling Side: Seller: Those who sell the product to the others are called seller. Manufacturer: Those who manufacturer the product are called manufacturers. Exporter: Those who sell or export the product to the buyer of foreign country are called exporters. Trader: Those who establish liaison between buyer and manufacturer are called traders. Some Factors Related to Selling Side:
  18. 18. Multinational: 1.Li& Fung 2. Synergies 3Linmark 4. Complex tile 5. ZXY Apparel Buying Solution 6. Asmara 7. Texbo. Buying House: Buying house means Buyer’s liaison office or trader office. Traders are of two types- 1. Foreign Trader 2. Local Trader Local: 1. Team Sourcing 2. Centro tex. List of Traders:
  19. 19. Name of Some Important Buyer of Bangladesh: Generally buyers of USA, Europe, Canada, Australia, Japan, India are the main buyers of Garments and Textile product of Bangladesh. Name of some important buyers of these countries are described below- Name of Some Important Buyer of Bangladesh:
  20. 20. Name of Some USA Buyers:  GAP  Adidas  Walmart  Levi’s (Brand: Dockler, Denizer, Levi’strauss)  VF Asia (Brand: Lee, Wrangler )  PVH -Phillips Von Heuson (Brand: CK)  Peri Ellis  Academy  Banana  Old Navy  US Polo  Nike  American Eagle Name of Some Important Buyer of Bangladesh:
  21. 21. Name of Some European Buyers:  H & M  Hugo Boss  Zara  Mango (Turnkey)  Puma  European Eagle  C & A  M &S  Esprit  Terco  Decathlon  Sains Burry  Carretow  NKD  Tema  Lindex Name of Some Important Buyer of Bangladesh:
  22. 22. Name of Australian Buyers:  K-mark Name of Some Japanese Buyers:  Uniquelo  Huloson Bay Name of Some Indian Buyers:  Black Berry  Mahendra ( Brand: Peter England )  ITC  Ramond Name of Some Important Buyer of Bangladesh:
  23. 23. Name of Some Important Buyer of Bangladesh:
  24. 24. Name of Some Important Buyer of Bangladesh:
  25. 25. Seasons of Export in USA: 1. Spring 2. Summer 3. Fall Seasons of Export in Europe: Seasons of Export:
  26. 26. Specialty : Turkey: This country is suitable for highly de corative and fancy garments. China: Buyers select China for decorative garments and short time shipment. India: Buyers select India for decorative garments. Vietnuma: Buyers select Vietnum for plain printed T-Shiort. Combodia: Buyers select Vietnum for plain printed T-Shiort. Bangladesh: Bangladesh is a Lower Developing Country with GSP facilitiy. Buyers import various types of garments from Bangladesh. Major Garments Manufacturer Countries: 1. Bangladesh 2. China 3. Vietnam 4. Combodia 5. Pakistan 6. Thailand 7. Indonesia 8. Turkey 9. India 10.Shrilanka
  27. 27. The Generalized System of Preferences (known as GSP for short) is a scheme whereby a wide range of industrial and agricultural products originating in certain developing countries are given preferential access to the markets of the European Union. Preferential treatment is given in the form of reduced or zero rates of customs duties. The GSP scheme is specifically designed to benefit certain developing countries and integrate them into the world economy. Since 1971, the EU has had rules ensuring that exporters from developing countries pay lower duties on some or all of what they sell to the EU. This gives them vital access to EU markets contributing to the growth of their economies. This scheme is known as the "Generalized System of Preferences". Today Bangladesh offers a very flexible and feasible production base for its customers in EU, America and Australia. The EU market is quota free for apparels and goods are eligible for the GSP facilities. As an LDC member Bangladesh also obtain special Tariff benefit from Canada (18% import Tax free). FOB: FOB means Free on Board. It is the value of the product which is fixed without cost of transportation of this product. CIF: FOB means Free on Board. It is the value of the product which is fixed including the cost of transportation and insurance of this product. GSP
  28. 28. 1.Space Availability: Space availability or time agreement is the availability of availability of production floor for the production of garments. 2.Costing: Costing means the way of calculating the cost of production of garments. Costing is done considering-  Fabric price  Accessories price &  C&M Cost  Way of Costing:  Costing can be done by-  Original Sample  Specification GARMENTS EXPORT PROCEDURE
  29. 29. Specification contains the following factors:-  Design or Sketch of garments  Fabric Type-  Composition  Color  Construction  GSM or Ozs. Per Square Yards.  Any other instruction  Accessories Detail  Any Kind of Instruction  Garments Size ( called “Measurement Chart” or “Size Chart” ) Specification File: The file which contain the specification of product is called the “Specification File” or “Technical Package” or Tech-pack” or “PDM” (Product Development Manual) or “Order Sheet” or “Product Package”. Specification File is issued by the buyer and collected by the manufacturer. GARMENTS EXPORT PROCEDURE
  30. 30. BOM Sheet: The pages of specification file contain fabric and accessories detail is called BOM ( Bill of Material ) Sheet. GARMENTS EXPORT PROCEDURE 3.Order Confirmation: Order confirmation is issued by the buyer to the manufacturer which contains Tech- pack. 4.Purchase Order: PO or purchase order is issued by the buyer to the manufacturer. 5.Master L/C: L/C or Letter of Credit is a confirmation which is prepared by the buyer ( bank of buyer ) and issued to the manufacturer. It has financial value. L/C is of two types-  Master L/C &  Back to Back L/C When a L/C is opened to import goods directly from the exporter is called master L/C. It is issued by the buyer (bank of buyer) to the manufacturer.
  31. 31. 6.T & A Calendar Making: T & A or “ Time and Action” calendar is made by the manufacturer to complete the production within a specific period of time. 7.Fabric & Accessories Booking: After making of T & A calendar, fabric & accessories booking is necessary. Without fabric, all materials used in garments is called “Accessories” or “Trimmings”. Accessories includes-  Sewing Thread  Button  Interlining  Zipper  Label  Tissue Paper  Ball head pin  Hager  Carton  Rib and  Silica Gee Bag  Plastic Clip so on. GARMENTS EXPORT PROCEDURE
  32. 32. Master L/C Back to Back L/C Master L/C is prepared by the buyer to import goods from the manufacturer. Back to Back L/C is prepared by the manufacturer to collect raw materials for the production. This L/C is issued by the buyer to the manufacturer. This L/C is issued by the manufacturer to the raw material suppliers. It is the basic L/C. It depends on master L/C Prepared for the import of goods from the exporter. Prepared to collect raw material from the supplier. It has higher financial value than the Back to Back L/C. It has lower financial value than the Master L/C ( 70-80% of Master L/C ). 8.Back to Back L/C: Back to Back L/ C is prepared by the manufacturer to collect raw materials from the suppliers. It has 70-80% financial value of Master L/C. GARMENTS EXPORT PROCEDURE Difference Between Master L/C and Back to Back L/C:
  33. 33. 9.Sampling: Sample is the small quantity which represents the bulk. The process of collecting or making sample is called “Sampling”. Types of Garments Sample  Proto Sample: Features: •This type of sample is made by the manufacturer by available fabric and accessories. •This sample is made before or after order confirmation. Purpose: Here buyer checks whether the factory can make the garments.  Fit Sample: Features: •This type of sample is made by the manufacturer by available fabric and accessories. •This sample is made after order confirmation. Purpose: Here buyer checks the fitness or measurement of the garments. GARMENTS EXPORT PROCEDURE
  34. 34.  PP Sample: Features: •This type of sample is made by the manufacturer by actual fabric and accessories. •This sample is made after order confirmation. •This sample must be approved by the buyer before production. Purpose: Bulk production is done following PP sample.  Size Set Sample: Features: •This type of sample is made in all sizes. •These samples are sent to the buyer. •These samples are made in all sizes. Purpose: This sample is used for PP meeting.  Production Sample: Features: •These samples are collected from the production floor while bulk production is running. •These are sent to the buyer. Purpose: Here buyer compares Production Sample with the PP Sample. GARMENTS EXPORT PROCEDURE
  35. 35. Garments Test Sample: Features:  These samples are collected from the production floor while bulk production is running.  These are sent to the testing house. Purpose: Here Testing House tests different aspects of the garments and sends “test report” to the buyer. Common Tests of Garments: Common tests of garments are as follows. • Dimensional Stability Tests • Sewing Strength Tests • Button Attaching Tests • Spirality Tests • Color Fastness Tests • Abrasion Tests • Radiation of Materials Tests Testing Houses may be local or international. They test the garments and send the test report to the buyer to inform the quality of product producing by the manufacturer. GARMENTS EXPORT PROCEDURE
  36. 36.  Shipment Samples: Features: •These samples are not so mandatory. •These are sent to the buyer after the shipment of the products. Purpose: Here buyer compares the Production Sample with the Shipment Sample.  Salesman Samples: If buyer collect sample garments of specific design for specific season which are displayed in the retail shop to justify the demand of these samples, then these are called Salesman Sample. GARMENTS EXPORT PROCEDURE
  37. 37. Name of Some Currier: Samples or any other important documents necessary for export are sent by the currier. Name of Some Currier: 1. DHL 2. Aramex 3. TNT 4. Fedex 5. UPS 6. Sky net 7. DPEX GARMENTS EXPORT PROCEDURE
  38. 38. 10. Fabric & Trims in House: Here confirms all fabrics and accessories in their hand. 11. Innovatory Checking & Report Making: The term innovatory checking is applied for checking the quality & quantity of fabrics and accessories in house. After checking a report is made with the test data. 12. PP Meeting: This meeting is held just before going to the bulk production. This meeting is conducted by following persons-  Buying House QC  Factory QC  Buying House Merchandiser  Factory Merchandiser  Cutting Master  Pattern Master  Production Manager  Sample man GARMENTS EXPORT PROCEDURE
  39. 39. 13. Pattern and Marker Making of Bulk Production: Pattern is a hard paper which is made by following each individual components for a style of garments. Marker is a thin paper which contains all components of different sizes for a particular style of garments. 14. Trial Cutting: Little amount ( for 200-300 pieces of garments ) of fabrics are cut for checking the efficiency and production cost of the garments. 15.Bulk Cutting: Here total fabrics required for bulk production are cut. 16. Numbering –Bundling & Sorting: After cutting of fabrics numbering, Bundling and sorting process are done. Then cut pieces are sent to the sewing section. GARMENTS EXPORT PROCEDURE
  40. 40. 17. Production Line Set-up: Production line set-up is the arrangement of sewing machines where the input of the first machine is cutting part of the fabrics and the output of the last machine is complete garments. Production line may be straight or V-shaped or face to face or any other suitable type. 18. Sewing: Cutting pieces are attached by sewing to make the complete garments. Different types of sewing machines are used in production line. 19. Finishing: Finishing includes- ironing, accessories attaching, label attaching, ironing etc. 20. Pre-Final Inspection: This type of inspection is done by factory QC. It may be at the end of the production line or in the lab. GARMENTS EXPORT PROCEDURE
  41. 41. 21. Final Inspection: Final inspection is conducted by the – Self Inspection: Conducted by the factory QC. Third Party Inspection: Conducted by the testing houses. Name of Some Testing Houses: Functions of Testing Houses: •Testing of Fabric •Testing of Garments •Testing of Trims •Garments factory Auditing for Compliance GARMENTS EXPORT PROCEDURE
  42. 42. Compliance: Any type of rules and regulations that must be followed by an ideal factory. These include-  Time of Work  Environment of Work Place  Salary & Wages  Facilities ( Dining, Child care, Toilet )  Treatment of Liquid Waste Factories may be classified as-  Compliant  Semi Compliant &  Non Compliant Compliance:
  43. 43. In-line Inspection: During production, buyer QC will come and check the product quality and suggest to over-come any type of problem. This type of inspection is called In-line Inspection. On-line Inspection: Inspection at the end of the production line during production is called On-line Inspection. This inspection is conducted by the factory QC GARMENTS EXPORT PROCEDURE
  44. 44. Logistic Firms: The firms or agents which take the responsibility to receive the goods from the manufacturer company at the port and send to the buyer or buyer agent are called Logistic Agent.  They also called Freight Forwarding Agent or Forwarder.  Buyer pays to the Logistic Agent. Names of Some Logistic Firms: 1. Maersk 2. APL 3. MGH 4. Damco 5. Expolonca 6. Crown Logistic 7. NMC Corporation Logistic Firms:
  45. 45. C & F Agent: The firms or agents which handle all kinds of customs related formalities are called C & F Agent. Factory pays to the C & F Agents. 1. Unit Price 2. Total Price C & F Agent:
  46. 46. 1.Commercial Invoice: A sheet contains- 1. Buyer Details 2. Manufacturer Details 3. Item Details 4. Unit Price 5. Total Price 2.Packing List: It is the list of packed products according to the size, color and content in each package. 3.Bill of Lading: The document witch is issued by the Freight Forwarding Agent to the manufacturer containing detail about product sent and transportation company. e.g. AW/B- Air Way Bill. ICD: ICD means Inland Container Depot. The goods which are not suitable to transport in carton because of introducing crease marks are transported hanging in ICD. Document For Payment
  47. 47. Document For Payment
  48. 48. Document For Payment
  49. 49. Document For Payment
  50. 50. Costing and Negotiations: Costing: Merchandise makes a cost sheet to see if the product is feasible or not in terms of cost and revenue. Merchandiser has to calculate the cost of products including all wastes and accessories to tell the final cost of the product to his customers. Negotiation: Merchandiser must have a negotiating power on the price to convince his buyers on specific price to lessen the chances of loss. If price is negotiated then its time to sample approval from buyer. The aim of negotiation/approach "Win Win solution" Both parties are benefited. The skill for negotiation: 1. Discovering common interest and removal of personal issues. 2. Questioning skill 3. Listening effectively 4. Understanding body language. 5. Observation and judgment. 6. Influencing skills
  51. 51. Export Procedure 1. INVOICE: In Invoice following criteria is required. 1. Consignee and Applicant Addresses 2. Garment Description 3. Garment Price and Total Invoice value 4. Net and Gross Weight of Garments 5. PO (purchase order) no. 6. Freight Terms. 7. from # & Date 8. L/C. # (letter of credit) 2. PACKING LIST There are following details in the packing list required as per buyer's instruction or mentioned in L/C. 1. Consignee and applicant addresses 2. Product description 3. Garment Style and color 4. Net and Gross weight of Garments 5. No. Of Pieces in the Carton and Carton Dimension also other necessary information, which gives help for the custom clearance.
  52. 52. Export Procedure 3. Export-FORM: E-FORM is issued and attested by the concerned bank (Islami bank Bangladesh ltd.) 4. BILL OF ENTRY Applicable only in case of the imported material used in the manufacturing of the garments for the export purposes. 5. SHIPPING BILL The forwarder prepares shipping bill. After the sub Management Information Systems ion of the custom docs, by the forwarder, custom authorities check the docs. And examine the shipment accordingly. They write the report on the backside of the shipping bill and allow the shipment for the export from Bangladesh. All these docs are then returned to the export department. 6. VISA PROCESS After receiving the Docs from the forwarder, Export Department prepares the Visa docs, which are required for the export of garment to the following countries; USA, CANADA, EUROPEAN countries. 7. NEGOTIATION / COLLECTION After the completion of the Visa process, we submit the docs in the Bank for the negotiation/ collection. The docs are prepared according to the L/C. or the buyer requirement.
  53. 53. Export Procedure 8. DOCUMENTS FOR THE BUYER Export department also prepare documents for the buyer for the custom clearance of the shipment at the destination. 9. PAYMENT PROCEDURE After the negotiation/ collection procedure of the docs, bank dispatches the same to L/C opening bank, to realize the payment. Foreign bank is bound to realize the same within the 10 to 15 days. REBATE CLAIM 10. COMMERCIAL INVOIVCE In the commercial invoice all the details are mentioned required under conditions of L/C for the custom clearance and other necessary purposes. 11. PACKING LIST It consists of color, weight, product code/other, coding numbers, no. of cartons, carton dimension, and carton packing. 12. BILL OF LADING/ AIRWAY This is according to the L/C terms and conditions.
  54. 54. Types of sample/Stages of sample: 1. Proto Type Sample: This is the first sample given to the buyer. The sample is prepared according to requirement of buyer and this is the rough sample. The range of sample is about 1-2 to vary according to the requirement of buyer. Comments on Proto Type: Buyer gives his comments on sample and also recommends the changes in sample. 2. Counter Proto Sample: This sample is based on the comments received from the buyer. For this sample, 2-3 pieces are required. 3. Salesman Sample: Buyer sends the samples in market by salesman to get market feedback from customers it is done on 250-500 pieces or may exceed depending on season and customer. Buyer has to sell these garments to check and view. Samples Market Feedback Buyer's Design Buyer's Merchandisers Manufacturer's Merchandiser Comments on Salesman Sample: Feedback on sample from customer is send to merchandiser/ manufacturer.
  55. 55. 4. Pre-Production Sample (PPS): Manufacturer prepares it. All changes are confirmed on it. 2-3 pieces are required in pre-production sample. Approval of PPS: It is the stage where a sample may be approved or rejected. If accepted go ahead to next step and if rejected then there will be the process of revision of previous steps. PPC department is also involved at this stage. Once PPC is involved, no change in styling is acceptable. 5. Size Set Sample: 2-3 sets of different size are sending to PPC (planning production and control). Manufacturer keeps one sample himself and one sends to buyer for cutting approval. Its purpose is that buyer will make no change in cutting details. If he makes some changes, he himself will be responsible for any loss/ damage. Types of sample/Stages of sample:
  56. 56. 6. Fit Sample: No change in stitching is acceptable at this stage. 2-3 garments are used in fit sampling. 7. Photo Shoot Sample: Now the sample is ready fort shipment. Buyer picks some pieces randomly to test its gauge, GSM, shrinkage. If all these are according to the requirement of buyer then shipment is said to be ok. 15-20 pieces are picked up as a sample to test. 8. Shipment Sample: This stage is the completion of total order. And the garments are sending to shipment. Types of sample/Stages of sample:
  57. 57. COMMON ITEMS OF GARMENTS WE EXPORT There are three categories of garments that we export- 1. Woven Garments 2. Knit Garments & 3. Heavy Knit Garments
  58. 58. Woven Garments: 1. Shirt: Men top garments. Shirt is of two types-  Basic/Formal/Dress/Official shirt  Casual/Pilot shirt 2. Pants/Trouser: Men bottom garments. Pants may be of two types-  Formal/Dress/Chino pants  Casual pants. e.g. Jeans pants, Cargo pants. 3. Half Pants/Shorts: Men bottom garments above the knee. e.g. Cargo shorts. 4. 3/4 of Pants: Men bottom garments under the knee, above the ankle. 5. Blouse: Ladies top garments. e.g. Ladies shirt or fotua. 6. Dress: Ladies top garments. e.g. Ladies kamiz
  59. 59. 7. Capri’s: Ladies short pants above the ankle but not ¾ of pants. 8. Skirt: Ladies garments. 9. Jacket/Blazer/Coat: Men top garments containing “Lapel” and Taffeta. 10. Padded Jacket: Jacket that contains “Quilting”. 11. Trench Coat: Long coat with waist belt. 12. Gilet: Sleeveless thick jacket. 13. Pazamas: Night dress- both top & bottom. Woven Garments: 14. Coverall: 15. Overall: 16. Shortall: ‘Work wears’ which provide protection from uncomfortable working environment.
  60. 60. 17. Vest/Over coat/Waist coat: Sleeveless coat with button at front. 18. Head Wear: Different types of cap, hat etc. Woven Garments:
  61. 61. Knit or Light Knit Garments: 1. T-Shirt: Top garments that must not contain placket. It may contain half collar or not. Collar of T-Shirt is made by circular rib machine. Generally single jersey fabric of GSM 120- 220 is used to make T-Shirt. 2. Polo Shirt: Top garments that must have placket and collar. The collar of Polo Shirt is made by flat bed knitting machine. Double jersey fabrics are used to make Polo Shirt. 3. Knit Trouser: Bottom garments made of knit fabric. 4. Tank Top: Sleeveless top garments for men containing strap. 5. Briefs: Men underwear (short ). 6. Lingerie: Ladies underwear ( short ). 7. Boxer Shorts: Long size men underwear above the knee. 8. Sweat Shirt: Long sleeve T-Shirt made of fleece fabric. 9. Socks
  62. 62. 10. Tights/Hose/Leggings: Ladies skin trouser. 11. Singlet: Ladies top garments with strap. 12. Hoody: Long sleeve top garments with hood. Generally made of fleece fabric. 13. Gloves: Hand wear for long time use on hand when use of finger is necessary. 14. Mitten: Hand wear for short time use when use of finger is not necessary. 15. Sports Wear: Garments used in any type of sports. 16.Swim Shirt: Garments used as swimming dress. These garments are skin tight, made of hydrophobic fibre and water proof. 17. Pazamas: Night dress- both top & bottom. Knit or Light Knit Garments:
  63. 63. Knit or Light Knit Garments:
  64. 64. Heavy Knit or Sweater: 1. Pullover: Long sleeve sweater without button at front. 2. Slipover: Sleeveless sweater without button at front. 3. Vest/Waist Coat/Over Coat: Sleeveless sweater with button at front. 4. Cardigan: Long sleeve sweater with button at front. 5. Zip-up: Long sleeve sweater with zipper at front. 6. Half-zip: Long sleeve sweater with half-zipper at front.
  65. 65. Type s of Fleece: Generally there are two types of fleece. 1. Terri Fleece: One side of this fabric is like single jersey and other side is brushed. 2. Polar Fleece: Both sides of this fleece are brushed. Type s of Stripe: Generally there are two types of Stripe. 1.Feeder Stripe: When the repeat size of strip in the fabric is less or equal 4 cm. then it is called Feeder Stripe. 2.Engineering Stripe: When the repeat size of strip in the fabric is grater than 4 cm. then it is called Feeder Stripe. Outer Wear: Garments that protect from bad weather are called Outer Wear. e.g. Rain Coat, Trench Coat, Wind Breaker.
  66. 66. CVC- Chief Value of Cotton (cotton > polyester) PC- Polyester Cotton Blend (Polyester > Cotton) TC- Tetron Cotton (polyester & rayon >cotton) GSP- Generalized System of Performance. LDC- Least Development Country C&F Agents- Clearing & Forwarding Agents T&A calendar- Time & Action Calendar CIF- Cost of Insurance & Freight BTB- Back to Back L/C ITS- Inter-tech Testing Service FOB- Free o Boat (up to port) L/C- Letter of Credits TT- Telegraphic Transfer PO - Purchase Order PP- Pre-Production IDC- Inland Commercial Depo AWB- Air Way Bill PO- Purchase Order PDM- Product Document Manu BOM- Bill Of Materials Do not forget-
  67. 67. Production overview yarn to garment
  68. 68. Production overview yarn to garment
  69. 69. Production overview yarn to garment
  70. 70. Production overview yarn to garment
  71. 71. Production overview yarn to garment
  72. 72. Garment Factory Overview ( Machine Requirement )
  73. 73. Knitting machine for fabrics
  74. 74. Knitting machine for fabrics
  75. 75. Brand of sewing Machine
  76. 76. How to recognize sewing Machine to see the shape
  77. 77. 85 MACHINES USED IN WASHING PLANT
  78. 78. Knit Dyeing machine
  79. 79. 1. Yarn Manufacturing Technology Link : http://www.facebook.com/pages/Yarn-Manufacturing-Technology/485014954866808 2. Fabric Manufacturing Technology Link : http://www.facebook.com/pages/Fabric-Manufacturing-Technology/459520217425605 3. Garments Manufacturing Technology Link : http://www.facebook.com/pages/Garments-Manufacturing- Technology/472364799463126 3. Wet processing Technology Link : http://www.facebook.com/pages/Wet-Processing-Technology-Dyeing-/468645219825404 4. Fashion-Design-and-Technology Link : http://www.facebook.com/pages/Fashion-Design-and- Technology/587655294583875?ref=ts&fref=ts My Facebook Textile related Pages http://www.textilelab.blogspot.com (Visit My Blog for more Info )

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