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  1. 1. Report on Industrial Attachment Northern Fashion Ltd. Plot # 16-18, Dakhin Panishail, EPZ-Kaliakoir Road,Kashimpur, Gazipur. (1 st February to 31 st March, 2011) Prepared By Name ID Batch Md. Moktadidul Hoque 2007100400008 5th Sanjib Kumar Roy 2007100400029 5th Department of Textile EngineeringSoutheast university Date of Submission: 16 May, 2011
  2. 2. SoutheastUniversity Department of Textile Engineering Report on Industrial Attachment Northern Fashion Ltd Plot # 16-18, Dakhin Panishail, EPZ-Kaliakoir Road, Kashimpur, Gazipur. (1 st Fbruary to 31 st March,2011) Supervising TeacherProf. Syed Fakhrul Hassan MuradChairman, Department of Textile EngineeringSoutheast University Prepared By Name ID Batch Signature Md. Moktadidul Hoque 2007100400008 5th Sanjib Kumar Roy 2007100400029 5th Department of Textile EngineeringSoutheast University Date of Submission: 16 May, 201 Acknowledgement To preparing this report a number of people have made considerable contribution. Their in-sights, advice and suggestions helped us a lot. We would like to pay special thanks to Prof.
  3. 3. Syed Fakhrul Hassan, [Chairman; Department of Textile Engineering, Southeast Uni-versity], for continuously guiding us about the development and preparation of the report. He has enriched us with necessary ideas and concepts for incessant improvement of the report. We would also like to express our heartfelt thanks to Md. Fazley Elahi, [Assistant Profes-sor; Department of Textile Engineering; Southeast University] for all necessary informa-tion for preparing this report. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to Mr. Touhid, [Senior production officer; Northern Fashion Ltd], who help us lot at time of industrial training and he share us lot of experience and we gather knowledge about industrial environment. We also express our thanks S.M. Aminur Rahaman [Manager HR, Admin & compliance Northern fashion Ltd.] for providing a chance and allowed us to work in the organization during the Industrial training period. We express our heartiest thanks to Assistant General Manager of dyeing section & Manager of Knitting section. Dyeing & Fishing, Garment and Accessories for enriching our knowledge on various fabric manufacturing and finishing processes with their excellent professional knowledge. Our sincere appreciation goes to the entire Northern Fashion Ltd. team for extending their hands of cooperation throughout the training period. However, we have prepared my Industrial Training report overcoming all the difficulties & also the shortage of time. Here I would like to present the report. Date: 16 May, 2011 Acknowledged By Sanjib Kumar Roy Md. Moktadidul Hoque Chapter Chapter Name Page 1 Northern Fashion at a Glance ------------------------------------------- 1 – 12 2 Manpower Management ------------------------------------------------- 13 – 16 3 Knitting Section ----------------------------------------------------------- 17 – 32
  4. 4. 4 Dyeing & Finishing Section --------------------------------------------- 33 – 106 5 Garments Section --------------------------------------------------------- 107 – 120 6 Maintenance --------------------------------------------------------------- 121 – 123 7 Utility Service ------------------------------------------------------------- 124 – 128 8 Story & Inventory--------------------------------------------------------- 129 – 130 9 Cost Analysis -------------------------------------------------------------- 131 – 132 10 Marketing Activities ----------------------------------------------------- 133 – 135 11 Conclusion ----------------------------------------------------------------- 136 – 137
  5. 5. Northern Fashion Ltd. is a state-of-the-art Knitting, Dyeing – Finishing & Garment Manufac-turing factory. The project has been a setting up of a 100% export oriented composite knit garment unit. The project has been designed to fulfill the present world market demand for producing most value added fabrics. The project is equipped with open width finishing line. This helps saving all types of fabrics consumption. Also the quality of fabrics is improved tremendously. The machinery of the project is Brand new and has been imported from abroad. The project has been started its commercial operation in the mid of 2007. Objectives: To meet the appropriate expectations of clients To gain confidence of the Buyers To be the "Tag carrier of made in Bangladesh" To create employment opportunities Speedy Communication through Internet & Telecom services Location:
  6. 6. Geographical Location: Latitude : 23°59'29.67"N Longitude : 90°15'26.59"E
  7. 7. NORTHERN FASHION LTD. Factory Layout: ETP Main Factory Building Utility &StoreBuilding WTP StuffQuarter E & Dining NS Gas Line Scequrity Entry & Exit Gate W Meter Room EPZ-Kaliakoir Road Page7 Northern Fashion at a Glance SOUTHEASTUNIVERSITY DEPARTMENTOFTEXTILEENGINEERING Other Information:
  8. 8. Compliance: Northern Fashion Ltd. complies with specific regulation and requirement state by the land of law or by the customer against work environment, sound, noise, safety & health, working hour, wages, mandatory benefits, cleaning & hygienic, work regulations etc. Some examples are given below-Fire Extinguisher:Sufficient fire extinguisher in Northern Fashion Ltd.
  9. 9. Norther rn Fashion LLtd. supplie es pure drin nking water for employ yees that are e ensured byy BUET test resu ult. This tes t result is gi - siven below- BANG GLADESH Mobile H UNIVERS DEPA e: 01819 557 ENVIRO SITY OF E ARTMENT 7 964; PAB ONMENTA ENGINEER OF CIVIL BX: 966 565 AL ENGINE RING AND ENGINEER 50-80 Ext. 7 EERING LA D TECHNO RING 7226; www. ABORATO OLOGY (B ORY BUST) /ce/ BRTC N Sent by Proiect Company EPZ,Kali Sample I Date of Te N0. : 03967/ 10 : NORTHERN -Water Test y address : Ro iakoir, Kashim ID : As Per Cl Test : 24/10/20 0-11/CE; Dt: 2 N FASHION oil 16-18, Dak mpur, Gazipur lient Letter 010 – 08/11/2 2411012010 LIMITED khin Panishil, r. 2010 Ref, N Sourc No. : NFL / A ce : Fresh wa Admin-03; Dt: ater : 18/10/2010 TEST R REPORT (PHYSSICAL/ CHEM MICAL/ BACTEERIOLOGICALL ANALYSIS OF DRINKING G WATER SAMMPLE)
  10. 10. S.L No. W Pa Water Quality Parameters y Unit Con ncentration Present Bangladesh Standard fo Drinking Water (ECR’97) or WHO Guideline Values, 2004 Method analys d of sis Mi De L (M inimum etection Limit MOL) 1 To (a Total Hardness as CaCO3) mg/l 66 200 – 500 500 USEP 130.2;SM2 EPA 2340 C 0.2 2 MManganese (Mn n) mg/l 0.007 0.1 0.4 PAN Metho N od 0.005 3 Iroon (Fe) mg/l 0.15 0.3 – 1.0 0.3 USEP 200.9SM;3 EPA 3111 B 0.02 4 Ni (N itrate-Nitroge NO3 – N) en mg/l 0.3 10 50 USEPA 353 4500-NO 3.2; SM O3-N-F 0.1 5 To So Total Dissolved olid (TDS) d mg/l 121 1000 1000 USEP 160.2;SM2 D EPA 2540 B- 5 6 Ni (N itrite-Nitrogen NO2 – N) n mg/l <MDL < 1 3 USEPA 353 4500-NO 3.2; SM O2-N-F 0.008 7 Coopper (Cu) mg/l 0.051 1 2 USEP 200.9SM;3 EPA 3111 B 0.014 Commen nts: 1. Sample w 2. Sample w was supped by was received i y CLIENT in unsealed co ondition. Importa sponsibil are sent i ant Notes: Sam lity as to the r in a secure and mples as supp respective cha d sealed cover plied to us hav aracter of the r/pack. ve been tested sample requi d in our labora ired to be test atory. BTRC d ted. It is recom does not have mmended that e any re-t sample Complain System: In Northern fashion Ltd employees/labors complains are handled out by the following dia-gram below-
  11. 11. Other Compliance Matters: No child labor/involuntary labor Timely payment, incentive, Bonus and leaves following minimum wages Transportation in companies account for distance labors/staffs Free routine medical checkup and medical facilities Training of operators and technical staffs Regular evacuation drill and trained staffs
  12. 12. Alternative in building staircase Emergency exit Forklift and wheel loader to warehouse go-down Security Observation through CC TV Remarks: It’s a wonderful project. This project makes profit more than ever for its strong management. Northern Fashion Ltd. (NFL) is leading house of industries and commerce in Bangladesh having Knitting, Dyeing and Garments industries. The main accomplishment of their project is the highly gas burn power plant and own chemical waste water treatment plant. This is ef-fectively running to remove effluents from drained water. It is such a type of industry which has the ability to maintain finest quality products. To fulfill the buyer requirements the facto-ry has established a strong management and equipped with modern machineries. Manpower Organ gram: Manpower Organ gram of Northern Fashion Ltd. is as follows –
  13. 13. Dyeing & Finishing Shift Duration A 6 : 00 AM to 2 : 00 PM B 2 : 00 PM to 10.00 PM C 10 : 00 PM to 6 : 00 AM Garments Section General Shift 8 : 00 AM to 5 : 00 PM (one hour lunch break) Page16
  14. 14. Shift Change: The industry maintains three shifts for Knitting and Dyeing & Finishing Section. For Gar-ments section maintains one general shift. Shift duration are given below- Job Description / Responsibility of Production Officer: To prepare programs as per order sheet. To follow up production time to time & quality of products according to the order sheet. To prepare fabric swatch & trim card for buyer`s approval before bulk production To solve any problem of Dyeing To give the solution for dia, GSM, shrinkage, spirality, crease mark, line mark and hand feel problem of the finished fabrics. To meet the planning schedule according to the requirement of Garments Div. To submit Daily production reports to the Concern Authority To maintain registers of dye yarns and samples To develop new samples and keep it for future requirement. Any other assignment given by higher authority. Communication System: Intercom Telephone Fax E-mail Written letters Oral
  15. 15. Knitting is the method of creating fabric by transforming continuous strands of yarn into a series of interlocking loops, each row of such loops hanging from the one immediately pre-ceding it. The basic element of a knit fabric structure is the loops intermeshed with the loops adjacent to it on both sides and above and below it. The weft knitted structure is very different from the warp knitted one. The difference is ap-parent from both warp and weft knitted structures is shown in simplest forms in below. It is seen from this figure that in a knitted structure a horizontal row of loops can be made using one thread and the thread runs in horizontal direction. In a warp knitted structure, each loop in the horizontal direction is made from a different thread and the number of threads used to produce such a fabric is at least equal to the number of loops in a horizontal row. One can say that in a warp knitted fabric the threads run roughly in a vertical direction.
  16. 16. Northern Fashion Ltd. has a state-of-the-art Weft Knitting Section. It has two knitting unit that is known as knitting – 1 and knitting – 2. The capacity of the knitting section has been rated annually as 900,000 kgs of grey fabric.
  17. 17. NORTHERN FASHION LTD. Machinery Layout Plan of Knitting – 1 13 7 5 6 E NS W 8 3 4 12 9 1 2 11
  19. 19. NORTHERN FASHION LTD. Machinery Layout Plan of Knitting – 2 3 4 N WE S 2 1 5 6 9 8 7
  21. 21. Specification of Knitting Machine: Others Equipments Used In Knitting Section: GSM cutter Electronic balance Inspection m/c Raw Material of Knitting Section:
  22. 22. There are two types of raw material that is yarn & Elastane. Brand name & origin of the yarn & elastane that is used in Northern Fashion Ltd. is given below- Types of Fabric: Single jersey & Double Jersey derivatives that is familiar in Northern Fashion Ltd. is given below- Single jersey Derivatives 1 Single jersey with lycra and without lycra 2 Single lacoste with half feeder lycra ( in lacoste never used full feeder lycra) 3 Pique & double lacoste 4 Two thread terry 5 Denim single jersey 6 Three thread fleece
  23. 23. 1 (1x1) Rib 2 (1x1) half feeder lycra Rib 3 (1x1)Full feeder lycra Rib 4 (2x1) Rib 5 (2x1) half feeder 6 (2x1) full feeder lycra 7 (2x1) Rib 8 Offal Fabrics 9 I-lack fabric 10 Flat Back Rib Knitting Parameter & Calculation: The main parameters & calculations are followed in knitting section, are given below- Machine or Needle Gauge: The needle gauge of a knitting machine (also called cut or gage) is a measure expressing the number of needles per a unit of the needle bed (bar) width express in mm. Gauge,N = How many needles are used in one English inch (25.4 mm ). Number of needles N = One English inch. Number of needles N = mm. 2.54 Highest needle gauge is about 60 and lowest gauge is about 2 to 2.5. GSM: GSM means the weight in gram of one square meter fabric. Mainly it is measured by GSM cutter & electric balance.
  24. 24. Selection of machine gauge depends upon yarn diameter. Yarn diameter also depends on sev-eral factors such as yarn count, fibre type, yarn finishing etc. general practice of yarn count and machine gauge in different industries in Bangladesh given below: Yarn count used Machine gauge Yarn count used Machine gauge 16 18 28 22 18 20 28 25 20 20 28 28 20 24 30 22 24 22 30 24 24 24 30 28 26 20 30 34 26 22 34 28 26 24 34 28 26 28 The above values may differ, because it is the results of a research work. There is a relation between yarn in tex and machine gauge is given by equation, 1650 1400 For Single Jersey, G = and for Double Jersey, G = , where G is measured Tex Tex in needles per cm.
  25. 25. The yarn count to be used on a circular knitting machine depends largely on the pitch, and thus on the machine gauge. For any given machine gauge it can lie within a larger range, be-cause on the same machine different yarn counts can be used, depending on the knitted struc-ture, the desired optics (fabric appearance) and the fabric properties. Needle Pitch: The needle pitch is the distance between two neighboring needles in the same needle bed (bar), from the centre of a needle to the centre of the neighboring needle express in mm. Needle Pitch (Length units / Needles )= Needlegauge 1 (length unit ) Loop or Stitch Length: The length of yarn knitted into one stitch in a weft knitted fabric. Stitch length is theoretically a single length of yarn which includes one needle loop and half the length of yarn (half a sinker loop) between that needle loop and the adjacent needle loops on either side of it. Gen-erally, the larger the stitch length the more elastic and lighter the fabric, and the poorer its cover opacity and bursting strength. Stitch Length, l = One needle loop + Two half a sinker loop Yarn count is a numerical expression of fineness or coarseness of yarn. Yarn count is calculated in two systems: Direct system Indirect system Suitable Yarn Count Selection: Yarn count is selected by following equation- For Single Jersey:
  26. 26. Suitable Yarn Count ( Ne )= 4320 Finish GSM For Rib (1×1): Suitable Yarn Count ( Ne )= 6000 Finish GSM For Interlock (plain): Suitable Yarn Count ( Ne )= 7200 Finish GSM Production Calculation: It has been expound in the sections above that the output of a circular knitting machine de-pends on a series of different influencing variables. A wealth of machine data and data on the fabric to be produced is required for calculating production capacity. In this respect the cylinder diameter d in inch, the gauge E, the system count S, the machine rpm n, and the efficiency level ɳof the circular knitting machine must be known. The follow-ing data on the fabric produced must also be available: The construction (e.g. single jersey , rib, purl etc.) The course density or course /cm and the weight per unit area in gm/m 2 . Production is calculated in accordance with the following equation- Machine rpm × No. of feeder × Effciency × 60 Running Length (L) = m / hr No.of feeders per course × courses per cm ×100 Cylinder Diameter in inch ×π × MachineGauge Fabric width (WB) = Meter
  27. 27. Wales per cm ×100 Running length in meter per hour × WB × Weight in GSM Production in Kg, P = Kg / hr 1000 Knitting Procedure for Elastane Single Jersey Fabric:
  28. 28. Knitting Procedure for Single Jersey Fabric (Without Elastane)
  29. 29. After knitting every roll of grey fabric of each order is inspected for checking “is it meet with the finishing target or not.” Four point method was used for inspection the fabrics. Four grey fabric inspection reports for different four orders are given below-
  30. 30. Northern Fashion Ltd. has a state-of-the-art Dyeing & Finishing Section. The capacity of the
  31. 31. Dyeing section has been rated annually about 21,00,000 kgs of dyed and finished fabric.
  34. 34. Page35 Dyeing & Finishing SOUTHEASTUNIVERSITY DEPARTMENTOFTEXTILEENGINEERING Symbol Description D1;D9;D10 Sample Dyeing Machine (Dilmenler; ATAC; Thies) D2 – D8 HT Dyeing Machine (Dilmenler) H Hydro Extractor WSM Washing Machine (Babcock) [Under Installation] FTM Fabric Turning Machine SLM Slitting Machine ST7 Stenter Machine (7 Chamber ) [ACC] ST6 Stenter Machine (6 Chamber ) [Babcock] [Under Installation] CPST Control Panel for Stenter CPD Control Panel for Dyeing Machine COMP1 Compacting Machine COMP2 Compacting Machine With Rolling Device RLM Rolling Machine RD Relax Dryer [Santex] TD Tumble Dryer FISP (1-3) Fabric Inspection Machine [Sweden, Thailand] OFA Office Area FFBA Finish Fabric Area WFBA Wet Fabric Area DCHMST Dyes & Chemicals Store
  35. 35. BTS Batch Section QCS Quality Control Section GFBR Grey Fabrics Racks RFBR Rolled Fabrics Racks MTL Male Toilet FTL Female Toilet
  36. 36. Mainly dyes, chemicals and grey fabrics are raw material for dyeing & finishing. Grey fabric is supplied from knitting section. Name of dyes & chemicals that is used in Northern Fashion Ltd. are given below- Chemicals List:
  37. 37. The things which influence the effective coloration of textile materials with reactive dye are called as parameters of dyeing. These include –Temperature, Time, Liquor ratio, pH of the bath etc. A brief description about them is given below- Effects of Temperature: Temperature of the dye bath plays vital role for dyeing. Rise in temperature has a large effect on an increase in the diffusion rate of dyes into fabrics. Increasing of temperature increases the rate of dyeing & of the dye migration. Higher dyeing temperature ensures the good leve-ling & better penetration of dye in to the fibers. But the temperature depends on the types of dyes adapted in the dye bath. For Example-in case of hot brand dyestuff the dosing tempera-ture of dye is 80ºC and for cold brand dye temperature is kept 60ºC. Effects of pH: In the case of most popular fiber reactive dyes, a high PH actually activates the cellulose (cot-ton) fiber, forming a cellulosate anion, which can then attack the dye molecule, leading to a reaction that produces a strong, permanent covalent bond. Without a high pH, the dye will not fix permanently to the cellulose fiber. For this reason Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) [Some time mixed alkali such as (NaOH + Na2CO3)] is used for no other reason than to increase the PH of the dye reaction, so that the fiber will react with the dye. Basically during the color ad-dition, the PH of the bath remains at near about 6, but after adding alkali it goes rise to pH 11.4 & this is the critical stage in which the dye molecules fix up with the fiber. Effects of Material: Liquor Ratio (M : L): Dye bath exhaustion increases with the decreasing of liquor ratio. Dyeing at low liquor ratio decreases the amount of waste dyes & chemicals in the effluent. Because higher the liquor ratio greater the amount of g/l of chemicals which increases the volume of effluent. To get rid from this problem Then Air flow Dyeing machine is getting popular in our country which can dyeing at 1:3 Materials: Liquor ratio. But in case of Thies Jet Dyeing machine it can possible up to 1: 5 Materials: liquor ratio. Effects of Time: The time for dyeing also the vital one. A specific Time adjusted with the temperature, very much needed for better dyeing. For this reason color dosing takes place in 20 minutes (may
  38. 38. vary process to process) & Specific run time is set for dyeing. A dimensional change resulting in a decrease in the length or width of a specimen subjected to specified condition is known shrinkage. Spirality: If the wales of the knitted fabric are not perpendicular to the course and skew to the right or left spirality occurs in the fabric. This creates serious problem, especially in the apparel in-dustry. Dyeing Calculation: g/ l ×Total liquor Required chemical = Stock Soluation % ×1000 Required Dye = Material weight ×Shade % Conversion of % to gm/l: X ×10 X%= { }gm/ l Liquor ratio (only L value) Conversion of gm/l to %: X × Liquor ratio (only L value) X gm / l ={ }% Liquor ratio (only L value)
  39. 39. Laboratory: Lab is the most important section of a dying industry. Higher precision lab can aid easily to achieve the goal of the organization. Before bulk production a sample for the approval from industry is sent to the buyer. As per requirement of the buyer the shade is prepared in a lab considering the economical aspect. The Main Objectives of a Textile Dyeing Laboratory: To develop standard operating procedures (SOP) for all the products which are to be processed in a dye house. Dyestuffs evaluation. Color matching together with process and product development. To provide training ground for production and laboratory technicians. Process optimization and cost reduction through process modifications and develop-ing or testing newer techniques and products. In process checks of important quality parameters affecting the quality, efficiency, cost etc and monitoring. Quality control of all raw materials consumed and also all processed material in terms of color and fastness. NORTHERN FASHION LTD. Machinery Layout Plan of Dyeing Lab
  40. 40. 14 15 12 13 11 16 10 17 19 9 20 18 8 21 7 22
  41. 41. 6 N WE 5 S 23 4 24 3 2 25 25 1 25 Page44 Dyeing & Finishing SOUTHEASTUNIVERSITY DEPARTMENTOFTEXTILEENGINEERING
  43. 43. Process Flow for Dyeing & Finishing: Merchandiser sent Swatch or Color Code to the Lab Incharge Lab Incharge Developed at least 3 Lab Dip (A, B & C) Lab Dip Sent for Buyer Approval If not Buyer Approved A or B or C OK Information Sent to Bulk Sample Dyeing & Finishing with Quality Control Batching for Bulk Production Scouring & Bleaching Dyeing Rope Opening, Slitting and Dewatering Stentering Compacting Quality Inspection Storing the Finished Fabric
  45. 45. Grey Fabric Store & Batch Section: In Northern Fashion Ltd. Grey fabric store and Batch section works along with. Where the fabrics are arranged by type of fabrics & buyer order after completing grey fabric inspection. Fabrics are separated by roll or lot. Every face of lot or rolls contains Fabric types Yarn count Fabric GSM Fabric faults name Lot number Roll number This section maintains a card for every lot which contains the information about fabrics.
  46. 46. Batch section is a vital section for fabric dyeing. Batching is a separation for fabrics roll ac-cording to dyeing machine. Normally its separation depends of the number of nozzle. This section is always tried to give same weight of fabrics for every nozzle. Function of Batch Section: To receive the grey fabric roll form knitting or other source.Turn the gray fabric if require. Prepare the batch for dyeing according to the following criteria:-Order sheet (Received from buyer)-Dyeing shade ( light or dark, color or white)-Machine capacity.-Type of fabric ( 100% Cotton, CVC, Stripe fabric)-Fabric dia. and rope length-Emergency order.-Fabric construction (single jersey, Rib, Lycra Rib, Lacost, PK etc.) To send the grey fabric to the dyeing floor with batch card. To keep record.
  47. 47. To try same rope length for each nozzle. To use maximum capacity of existing dyeing machine. To minimize preparation time & machine stoppage time. To use a particular machine for dyeing same shade. Turning machine This tubular turning machine is for turning tubular knit fabric before dyeing and drying after. As knit fabric material is handled by the air force, there is no fear of damage during opera-tion. Speciation: Made of stainless steel, the main pipe can stand up permanently without rusting. Operation is easy and safe. Air flow initiation or termination is instantly effected by the press of the ON or OFF push-button, or the moment the material fabric reaches the eject roller. There is no lingering air consumption. Air flow direction is designed to automatically switch upon alteration of the position of the curved pipe, as they are interlocked with each other.
  48. 48. Dyeing Machine:
  49. 49. DMS 11 HT JUMBO FABRIC DYEING MACHINE (RDS) HT Jumbo is a winch dyeing machine. HT Jumbo is designed and manufactured with the lat-est high technology for dyeing any kind of open width fabric made of natural, synthetic and their blends such as open width knitted cotton and cotton lycra, viscouse and viscouse lycra and all kind of towell fabric and bathmad etc. DMS 11 JUMBO (RDS) presents the latest technical achievement on dyeing both knitted and woven fabrics to produce high quality level materials at a compatible cost. DMS 11 HT JUMBO is able to process fabrics in the range from 70 g/m up to 2300 g/m in weight by choosing the right nozzle say. Machine is available in various capacities starting from 25 Kg upto 2000 Kg on both high and low temperature design. Machine`s body and all wetted parts made of highly corrosion resisted stainless steel AISI 316 L, in accordance with American ASME and European (CE) norms.
  50. 50. Dyeing & Finishing The basic principle of DMS 11 HT dyeing machines is to have a number of loops or
  51. 51. ropes of the fabric in the dye bath, these ropes are of equal length, which are mostly immersed in the liquor in the bath. The upper part of each rope runs over two reels which are mounted over dye bath. At the front of the machine, above the top of the dye liquor, is a smaller reel, which is called jockey or fly roller. The fly roller remains freewheeling along with fabric rope. At the back of winch tank is the winch wheel, which pulls the fabric rope from the dye bath over the jockey reel for dropping in the dye bath for immersion. From the dropped location, the fabric rope travels back. To be lifted and fed to winch wheel. The dyeing process on winch dyeing machines is based on higher M: L as compared with other dyeing machines. The process is conducted with very little tension. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for Dyeing Machine: Work should be done before running machine. 1 Clean the machine. 2 Clean additional tank & filter. 3 Switch ON the main switch. 4 Open the steam, water & air bulb. 5 Run the machine. 6 Check the pneumatic bulb is it work properly 7 Have any bad sound in machine? Check it. 8 Start the production process 9 Close the all bulb after ending the process. 10 Switch OFF Emergency switch. 11 OFF the main power 12 Don’t touch electric switch on wet hand. 1 Machine should be kept always clean. 2. Before opening machine door or reel following point should be considered-
  52. 52. a. Machine pressure should be at 0. b. Temperature should be below at 80ºC c. Water level should be kept under machine door. 2 Electric component should be safe from water during machine cleaning. 3 After cleaning machine filter dust should be kept in specific drum. 4 If any problem is observed in dyeing machine, the information should be sent to maintenance department as soon as possible. Operator must not be accessed electric control panel in any condition. 5 After ending process and before going operator must be clean the machine. 6 If it is needed that machine will be stopped for few days, machine should be kept with filling water upto midlevel. Rope Opening, Slitting & Dewatering Machine: Slitting is a process that is applied for cutting the tubular fabric through the intended brake Wales lime on length wise direction prior to stenter processing.
  53. 53. Machine Function: Open the fabric from the rope form.Reduce the water contentTo slit the fabric from tube formApply overfeed to give some compaction.Width-wise stretch the fabric.Plait the fabric J-Box: Squeeze the fabric to reduce the water contains. Water reducing percentage depends on J-Box pressure. Detwister: By the detwister rope formed fabric become untwists form. (due to action of sensor) Hand Wheel: It is manual and used for guiding the rotary blade. Turn Wheel: It controls the fabric rotation Rotary Blade: To cut the fabric through break wales line. Ring: To help cutting. Guide Roller: To guide the fabric to plaiting Plaiter: To plait the fabric. Sensor: Sense for cutting through break wales line. Basic Operation Principle:
  54. 54. The bianco tensionless tubular fabric slitting and opening lines are used after the wash process or the dyeing station. 1 The fabric, placed in a basket in rope form. 2 It is made to pass through the squeezing unit where most of the impregnation liquid is extracted. 3 Then it enters the detwister, which eliminates the tension of the rope and is prepared for the slitting and spreading processes. 4 The container is placed on a platform whose rotation, synchronized with the action of the detwister, untwists the rope preceding the entrance to the detwister. 5 The latter is placed at the top of the structure, for optimal distance from the automatic slitter, so as to enhance the effectiveness of rope detwisting and spreading. 6 Then the untwist form fabric is transferred to the basket by means of motorized belts and then it moves on towards the slitter without stresses that would can be widened upto a diameter of 80 cm. 7 The cutting line can be controlled by means of basket rotation. to the conveyor belt making for enhanced relaxation of the fabric. 1 From conveyor belt fabric is passed through dogal centering roller (It constitutes a compacata fabric centering system, with faster centering action and enhanced efficacy compared to traditional centering devices.) 2 The open with fabric is passed through squeezing system to extract the greatest possi-ble quantity of impregnation liquid from the fabric, by squeezing it between two rub-ber coated rollers. (It structure is highly compact and sturdy, and it can be made either of iron or of stainless steel). 3 After squeezing the fabric it go to the plaiter to plait on a trolley. Checking Parameter: Cutting Line Check: Operator checks fabric cutting line. Rotary blade cut fabric throughwales line or not.Bow and Slant Check: Operator checks bow and slant at delivery
  55. 55. side.Faults Check: As mentioned earlier.
  56. 56. that world-class, quality and technological stenter machine. Argonomik operating platform, the operator's use of the machine is designed to provide the most ideal way. All command and control of the machine belongs to the ACC software platfomda bulunmaktadır.Bütün Turkish software program "touch-screen" screen contains the following details about the con-trol over this. Basic Working Principal of Stenter: The stenter line has units: 2 padders, 1 weft straightener, 1 tenter and drying chambers. There are also steaming, selvedge degumming and curing arrangement. At least padder is simply wash with water. The squeeze pressure normally 5 bars. In two padder the fabric is treated with softener. The fabric is passed through tenter. There are two steams along fabric width that apply steam from below fabric. There are gumming unit before drying chamber. In sten-ter, fabric enters in drying chambers by gripping with chain pin and with over feed/ under feed that is with more controlled conditions. The drying chamber has 7 units. Generally tem-perature kept about 150 – 200 ºC. The fabric comes out form chamber by tenter chains grip-ping with pins. Before delivery the fabric is removed from the tenter chains by unpinning rollers and then the cutting units cut the additional fabric from the gummed sides. Now at de-livery side there is an antistatic arrangement to remove static electricity from heated fabric. Function of Stenter: Apply chemical and softener To dart set the T/C fabric Drying of fabric To control width Curing of fabric Apply pigment dyeing To control GSM To control shrinkage To decrease spirality To decrease bowing effect Surface coating for teflon finish Apply soil release chemical finish Heat set for cotton/lycra fabric
  57. 57. 1. Feed Zone: -Centering device 2. Chemical Padding Zone: -Squeezing roller-Chemical tray 3. Bowing Control Zone: -Bowing roller (Rubber rollers, number of roller 2)-Sensor (no of sensor 6)-Uncurling roller 4. Chin Entry Zone: -Uncurling device (both side of the chain entry)-Sensor (both side of the chain entry)-Brush roller (for attaching the fabric with the pin of the chain, no of brush roller 4) -Selvedge gumming device with gum box under chain entry. 1 Drying Zone (gas burner 10) Cooling Zone. 2 Cooling Zone 3 Delivery Zone Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for Stenter Machine: Work should be done before running machine. 1 Clean the machine (inner & outer side.) 2 Switch ON the main switch. 3 ON the Gas & Air line bulb. 4 Have any bad sound in machine? Check it. 5 Check conveyor belt, it is ok or not. 6 Run the machine. 7 After raising temperature at a specific state start running the fabric 8 Close the all bulb after ending the operation.
  58. 58. 1 Switch OFF Emergency switch. 2 OFF the main power 3 Don’t touch, machine & machine switch on wet hand or foot.
  59. 59. To control shrinkage To control width To control GSM To smooth fabric Heat setting of fabric for lycra Checking Parameter: 1 Shade Check: In delivery side operator checks the shade of fabric with customer ap-proved swatch. 2 With Check: Operator measures fabric width by using measuring tape and compared with required width. 3 Wight Check: Operator checks the weight by using GSM cutter and electronic bal-ance & compares with the required finished width. 4 Fault Check: As mentioned before 5 Design & Slanting: Operator checks design and slanting at delivery side. 6 Edge line checking: check two edges of fabric at delivery side. Table: Treatment Condition According to the Type of Material Fibre Composition Cylinder Temp. ( ºC) Steam Quantity Cotton 100% 130-150 High Cotton –Acrylic 80-90 Medium Cotton-Wool 80-110 Medium Wool-Cotton-Polyamide 80-110 Medium Viscose-Cotton 90-130 Low Viscose-Wool 90-110 Low
  60. 60. FUNCTI ONAL SELECTION LEGEND 1 – Fabric Brake 13 – Felt Centering Rollers 2 – Fabric Feeding roller 14 – Felt Tensioning Rollers 3 – Beater 15 – Heated Roller 4 – Safety Photocell indicating Lack of Fabric 16 – Felt Drawing Rollers Covered with Rubber 5 – Fabric Conveyor Belt 17 – Rollers with Loading Cell for automatic Fabric Tension Control 6 – Photocell Loop Control 18 – Exit Belt Drawing Roller 7 – Operator Platform 19 – Fabric Conveyor Belt 8 – Re – directing Roller 20 – Movable Arms 9 – Automatic Spreader Mod. AL-BATROS 21 – Fabric Conveyance Hopper 10 – Steaming Chamber 22 – Plaiting Roller 11 – Motorized Adjustable Rollers 23 – Fold Pressing Device 12 – Felt Re – directing Adjustable Rollers 24 – Plaiting Platform OPTION: A – Ring Spreader for Tubular Fabric C – Cardboard Positioning Device
  61. 61. B – Cooling Chamber at Exit D – Cutting Device The machine include the following units A) Support Structure: It consists of sturdy body sides made of painted steel, supporting the cylinders, the mechanical part and the plant system; they are connected by means of longitudinal and transversal cross-section. The body sides are provided with special safety locks. B) Inlet Tightener: The inlet tightner is designed to drag the fabric to the machine with an adequate ten-sion. Its effect can be varied by turning the hand wheel provided. C) Fabric Draw Roller: The draw rollers receive their movement from a variable speed motor. They deter-mine the speed of fabric. -The rollers are normally covered with rubber and it is most important that the sur- face of the covering is always in good condition so ass to avoide slipping of the fabric. Should this not be so then it is necessary to replace the covering. -The processing of fabrics treated with chemical against might involve a rapid de-terioration of the drag rolls coating. D) Idle Cylinders: The idle cylinders are designed to change the route of the fabric to convey it in the right position for subsequent working. E) Dancing Roller Synchroniser The dancing roller is constituted by a cylinder mounted on oscillating arm,
  62. 62. connected to a rheostat for the synchronisation of the various group. F) Inlet fabric Guide It consists of shoulders supporting a couple of adjustable spreader rollers operated by an independent motor, and a pneumatically operated fabric centering unit with move-able staves, controlled by border guard photocells. G) Steaming Tank It consist of no. 1 steam delivery chamber on the fabric, made of inox steel and com-plete with metering valve and on-off solenoid valve. They are the real compacting units. Each unit consists of: -A steam heated cylinder, diameter 500 mm., made of chromium plated and ground steel; it is complete with a rotary joint for steam feeding, a thermocouple feeler to feel the temperature, and an effective system for the condensate drainage. The cy-linder temperature can be adjusted with the utmost (+/-2˚C) directly from the keyboard placed on the control board, and is shown on the display. -A thick Nomex – Polyester compacting felt. The double action felt centering de-vice ensures perfect felt alignment during running. The computer controlled felt control mechanisms automatically releases felt tension after a machine stop. -An adjustable position counter-roller for the fabric shrinkage control during inlet in the compacting group. -An inlet element in a special non-adherent fibre (shoe) equipped with a device for
  63. 63. adjusting both angle of incidence and insertion length. I) Spreader Roller It is a spreader roller, for the selvedge unwinding and the inlet of the fabric perfectly spread in the machine. J) Scroll Roll Unit The adjustable spreading scrolls at entry are used for open width knits and for all fa-brics that have lengthwise creases. Consists of two adjustable spiral scroll roll driven by an independent motor. K) Device for Fabric Tension Check It consists of a cylinder combined with a special load cell sensor. It allows synchro-nizing the speed between the upper and lower compacting unit, and adjusting the fa-bric tension between them with the utmost precision. The adjustment is performed di-rectly from the keyboard placed on the control board and is shown on the display. L) Cooling Unit It consists of a steel structure including a conveyer belt, the drag and tension cylinders Of the latter, a suction chamber with a net plane for a perfect distribution of the cool-ing air. The chamber is connected to a high-efficiency centrifugal electric fan. The bars which are usually mounted on the folding unit arms, will eliminate the elec-trostatic changes of the fabric. N) Checking Table:
  64. 64. The inspection table is composed by a steel structure that supports a table that accom-panies the fabric falling from the cooling band. In this phase the operator placed in the rolling up unit zone can carry out a check on the quality of the worked fabric and no-tice possible defects. O) Fabric Storage Chute for the System Non-Stop: It consists of a j-plate for the fabric storage during the phase of roll change. It allows removing the finished roll, and starting a new roll without stopping the system. P) Rolling Unit It consists of a bearing structure and a moveable trolley which supports the rolling cy-linders. The trolley sides on two rails in order to allow the perfect alignment of a sel-vedge on the roll of fabric. The movement is automatically controlled and is operated by an electromechanical actuator. The reading of the selvedge border is performed by two photocells, whose position can be adjusted by means of a hand wheel. The rolling cylinders are covered with vulcanized rubber for a perfect adhesion. The roll compac-tedness can be adjusted by a pneumatically operated device. The rolling unit is com-plete with a spreader roller, operated by an independent motor, placed immediately before the rolling cylinders. Q) Steam System It is installed in the machine. It includes a filter, an on-off valve, a pressure gauge for displaying the line pressure and a condensate separator. It is provided with a series of servo-operated solenoid valves to feed the different elements of the machine and wit automatic steam traps complete with by-pass for manual drainage. R) Controls The main controls are located on the left side at the machine entry; they include a “Touch Screen” interface and a set of buttons. The auxiliary controls are placed on the panel at the machine exit. The emergency stop buttons are located on the sides of the machine.
  65. 65. The electric board is installed in the machine. It includes the electromechanical instal-lation, electronic cards, a set of inverters and the PLC controlling the machine. It is also equipped with protection devices, and cooling devices. All operation func-tion is shown in the “Touch Screen” on the main control board. The machine is equipped with a direct grounding of all the electric components and of the metal frame. The preventive measures to ensure immunity in the presence of electromagnetic dis-turbances have been adopted, and have been taken the necessary precautions to atte-nuate the disturbances of an electromagnetic nature produced by the electric/ electron-ic system of the machine T) Pneumatic System It includes an on-off valve, a filter-lubrication unit, a pressure regulator and a series of solenoid valves for the operation of the pneumatic actuators. Technical Description of the Options A) Conveyor Belt and Folding Unit It consists of a pressure bent steel structure, including a polyester conveyer belt to convey the fabric without any tension from the cooling unit till the folding unit with rocking arms. The belt is controlled by a drag cylinder. B) Meter-Counter This device can be installed in the outlet unit, to check the length in meters of the fa-bric worked. C) Antisquashing and Antiglossy Device This is a special device, patented by Lafer, which prevents the undesired glossy effect on acrylic fibres on the fabric at the compacting unit outlet. The system is complete with a steaming device, used to freshen up the pile and assembled in the cooling belt, just before the unit.
  66. 66. Table: Troubleshoot of compacting
  67. 67. Machine Operating Rules & Regulation for Compacting Machine: 1 Machine should be kept always clean. 2 Knot & very much course stitch containing fabrics should not be feed to the machine. 3 Machine should not be stopped until the temperature decrease at 65ºC 4 Teflon should be cleaned minimum two times in a day. 5 Load value of load cell should be check. 6 Machine inlet steam should be between 4 – 6 bars. 7 Electric component should be safe from water during machine cleaning. 8 If any problem is observed in dyeing machine, the information should be sent to maintenance department as soon as possible. Operator must not be accessed electric control panel in any condition. There are three batches dyeing recipe & dyeing program are given below-
  68. 68. Order sheet: There are summary of three order given below- Page72 S.L. Buyer Order/ Fabric Composition Color/ Dia . Fabric No. Job No. Description Code Cut able Finish Quantity (Inch.) (Inch.) (kg) 1 Dunnes 1978 AT Pique 200 GSM 95% Cotton + 5% Elastane Aqua 72 74 863 2 Dunnes 2006 AT Single Jersey 180 GSM 95% Cotton + 5% Elastane Chocolate 73 75 6479 3 Wool Worth 1980 AT Single Jersey 200 GSM 95% Cotton + 5% Elastane Black 60 62 1730 All fabrics of an order were dyed under same recipe, same program & same machine setting. Which order was dyed under which recipe and program, are showing below in a table
  69. 69. Recipe & dyeing program history . Buyer Order No. Recipe Name Dyeing Program Name Dunnes 1978 AT Recipe – 1 Program – 1 Dunnes 2006 AT Recipe – 2 Program – 2 Wool Worth 1980 AT Recipe – 3 Program – 3 Details of these recipe and program are given below: Table: Dyeing recipe for aqua color dyeing (Buyer: Dunnes) Table: Dyeing recipe for chocolate color dyeing (Buyer: Dunnes) Table: Dyeing recipe for black color dyeing (Buyer: Wool Worth) Table: Machine Setting for aqua color dyeing
  70. 70. Parameter Setting Pump Speed (Load) 70% Pump Speed (Next all) 80% Winch Speed (Load) 100m/min Winch Speed (Next all) 220m/min Nozzle Speed (For all) 50% Scouring & Bleaching Curve
  71. 71. 3 o C/ min, Rinse/Cooling-10 min 110 o C Leveling 40 o C 50˚C Run Time Rinse &Drain Auxiliaries Dosing Time (min) Color Dosing Curve
  72. 72. Time (min) Washing Curve Time (min)
  73. 73. Table: Machine Setting for chocolate color dyeing Parameter Setting Pump Speed (Load) 70% Pump Speed (Next all) 80% Winch Speed (Load) 100m/min Winch Speed (Next all) 220m/min Nozzle Speed (For all) 50%
  74. 74. Scouring & Bleaching Curve 3 o C/ min, Rinse/Cooling-10 min 110 o C Leveling 40 o C 50˚C Run Time Rinse &Drain Auxiliaries Dosing Time (min) Color Dosing Curve
  75. 75. Time (min) Time (min)
  76. 76. Table: Machine Setting for black color dyeing Parameter Setting Pump Speed (Load) 70% Pump Speed (Next all) 80% Winch Speed (Load) 100m/min Winch Speed (Next all) 220m/min Nozzle Speed (For all) 50%
  77. 77. 50˚C Sample Check 80 20 min C o 80 o C Leveling Rinse Auxiliaries Run &Drain Time (min) Dye Dosing Curve:
  78. 78. Salt Addition Run time Color Dosing at pH 6.5 Run time Alkali Dosing Run time Color Fixation Rinse & Drain (4-5 times) Time (min) Washing Curve:
  79. 79. Time (min) Shade Card (Aqua Color) Buyer: Dunnes Order No.: 1978 AT Color: Aqua
  80. 80. Grey Sample Bath Drop Sample Stenter Sample Compacting Sample
  81. 81. Figure: Shade card for Blck color All fabrics of all orders were processed with Rope Opening & Slitting Machine under same machine setting. Machine settings are given below: Table: Machine setting for rope opening, slitting & Dewatering Machine During stenter finishing, fabrics of different orders were treated under different condition to go to the target. According to different orders the changes and machine settings during sten-tering are given below- Table: Effect of stentering & stenter setting
  82. 82. During compactor finishing, fabrics of different orders were treated under different condition to go to the target. According to different orders the changes and machine settings during compacting are given below- Table Error! No text of specified style in document.-1: Effect of compacting & compactor setting
  83. 83. After the operation of open compactor, the fabric is send to Quality Assurance department for fabric inspection (4 point system) and physical testing lab for Justification of its quality whether it meets the requirements given by the buyers. Order wise average inspection report and physical test result are given below- Finish Fabric Inspection:
  84. 84. Table: Physical test report for aqua color (Buyer: Dunnes) Buyer Name: Dunnes Order No.: 1978 AT Serial No. Name of the Tests Test Result Buyer Requirements Remarks 01 Dimensional Stability (shrinkage) L W Length wise-+ 5 % Width wise-+ 5 % ok -6.3% -2% 02 Dimensional Stability (Spirality) 1 % Spirality up to 5 % acceptable ok 03 Color fastness to wash 4 – 5 Range 4 to 5 ok 04 Color fastness to Rubbing Dry Wet Dry range 4 to 5 Wet range 3 to 5 ok 3 Table: Physical test report for chocolate color (Buyer: Dunnes) Table: Physical test report for Black color (Buyer: Wool Worth)
  85. 85. Monthly Production (March 2011) Date Production quantity in Kgs 01.03.2011 4580 02.03.2011 4578 03.03.2011 3867 04.03.2011 3939 05.03.2011 3711 06.03.2011 - 07.03.2011 4089 08.03.2011 4098 09.03.2011 4450 10.03.2011 5275 11.03.2011 4564 12.03.2011 3975 13.03.2011 - 14.03.2011 3898 15.03.2011 4561 16.03.2011 4037 17.03.2011 4523 18.03.2011 4134 19.03.2011 4168 20.03.2011 - 21.03.2011 4033 22.03.2011 4230 23.03.2011 4315 24.03.2011 4038
  86. 86. 25.03.2011 4062 26.03.2011 - 27.03.2011 5806 28.03.2011 5275 29.03.2011 5998 30.03.2011 5417 31.03.2011 5152 Total 120048
  87. 87. Northern Fashion Ltd. is a state-of-the-art Garment Manufacturing factory. The capacity of the project has been rated annually about 450,000 dozens of garment to be exported world-wide from its Garment unit. NORTHERN FASHION LTD. Machinery Layout Plan of Cutting Section
  89. 89. NORTHERN FASHION LTD. Machinery Layout Plan of Sewing – 1 BIR1 BIR2 BIR3 W QCEX Knitting Section SN E MDM Packaging Finish Goods Store Finishing & Ironing Section Sewing Line – A S ADT C SM Sewing Line – K Sewing Line – JSewing Line – ISewing Line – H Sewing Line – GSewing Line – F Sewing Line – E Sewing Line – DSewing Line – C Sewing Line – B ADMIN AS MMR (G) FTL MTL Page111 Garments
  91. 91. NORTHERN FASHION LTD. Machinery Layout Plan of Sewing – 2 Lift Marketing & Merchandising Section MD & DTR ACC Toilet Sample Section AS MMR (G) CNFR W Packaging Area SN SC E WS INS POFC OFC OFC ADR OFC Sewing Line – Q
  92. 92. Sewing Line – P Sewing Line – O Sewing Line – N Sewing Line – M Sewing Line – L Sewing Line – R Finishing & Ironing Section Sewing Line – S OFC OFC OFC FTL MTL Page113 Garments SOUTHEASTUNIVERSITY DEPARTMENTOFTEXTILEENGINEERING
  93. 93. Garments machinery List:
  94. 94. Flow Process of Garment Manufacturing:
  95. 95. NORTHERN FASHION LTD. Cutting Flow chart: Cutting Flow ProcessFabric Receive From StoreFabric RelaxationQuality Check (G.S.M., Shed, Shrinkage, Twist, Wash)Fabric Spreading (Manual or Automatic)Marker CheckMarker Replace or MakingCuttingQuality CheckNumberingCard WritingBundlingSent for Printing if needCut Panel CheckReady for Input Issue Page118 Garments SOUTHEASTUNIVERSITY DEPARTMENTOFTEXTILEENGINEERING Sewing
  96. 96. Daily Responsibility of a work study officer: Daily time study 5 operation and production study 5 operations.Line balancing at morningDaily process improve document submit.Capacity analysis of each new style.SMV wise line target must be shown to PM and W.S.OMust be follow line discipline (As flow bundle I.S.O. register check of supervisor)Must be follow style finish date delivery date and daily check production of style
  97. 97. finish.Record and summery report of style finish.Approval lay out submit 3days ago of own line.Hourly production report check and signature Maintenance is a procedure by which Maintenance is a process by which equipment is looked after in such a way that trouble free. Service and increased machine life can be ensured and specific product quality required by the customers is sustained. Maintenance of machinery is very important for proper working of machine. Objective of Maintenance:
  98. 98. To keep the factory plants, equipments, machines. Tools in an optimum working con-dition. To ensure specified accuracy to product & time schedule of delivery to customer.To keep the machine down time to minimum thus to have control over the productionprogram. To keep the production cycle within the stipulated range. To modify the machine settings to meet the need for the production. There are Three Types of Maintenance Preventive Maintenance: Preventive maintenance is a predetermined routine actively to ensure on time inspection / checking of facilities to uncover conditions that may lead to production break downs or harm-ful description Break down maintenance: In this case, repairs are made after the equipment is out of order and it cannot perform its normal functions. Routine Maintenance: Maintenance of different m/cs is prepared by expert engineer of maintenance department. Normally in case of dyeing m/c maintenance after 30 days complete checking of different important parts are done. Northern Fashion Ltd. follows the break down maintenance. Maintenance of machinery: 1 Mechanical 2 Electrical
  99. 99. 1 Digital Multimeter. 2 Solaring Iron. 3 Sucker. 4 Cutting player. 5 Nose player. 6 Combination. 7 Spanner set. 8 Adjustable wrange. 9 Star screw driver. 10 Flat screw driver. 11 Pipe range. 12 Hummer 13 Electrical grading machine. 14 Cutting. 15 Hand drill, base drill. 16 Circuit opener and closer. 17 Thread cutter. 18 Measuring tape. 19 Micro meter. 20 Slide calipers. 21 Wilding machine. Manpower set up: In general shift six person and nine person are working in three shift.
  100. 100. Machinery in Utility Section:
  101. 101. Process description The effluent from different sources will be collected in an Equalization tank through a Bar Screen. Bar Screen will remove large floating materials. The equalized effluent is then pumped to a Flocculation tank. Coagulation agents, like Lime, Alum and Polyelectrolyte will be dosed in the Flocculation Tank to agglomerate the suspended particles. The effluent from this tank will pass through the Primary Tube Settler where flocks are removed. After primary tube settler, the effluent flows to the Aeration Tank, where BOD & COD are removed. The pH of the effluent will be corrected to bring to the level of 8 to 8.5. After Aeration Tank, the effluent will pass through a Secondary Clarifier where suspended biological solids are re-moved. From Secondary Clarifier, the effluent will be discharge to drain. Sludge generation from primary clarifier will be taken to sludge pit or sludge drying bed. From sludge pit sludge will be fed to centrifuge followed by filter press unit. Sludge cakes generation from filter press will be dried and can be disposed suitably. Sludge from second-ary clarifier will be re-circulated back to aeration tank and periodically to sludge pit.
  102. 102. Technical Details of the plant 1. Plant capacity The Effluent treatment plant has been designed for 40 m³ per hour capacity. 2. Design Effluent analysis The plant has been designed on the basis of following analysis report:
  103. 103. SL Parameter Unit Value 1 Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) mg/l 500 2 Chemical oxygen Demand (COD) mg/l 800 3 pH 6-8 3. Treated Effluent Quality SL Parameter Unit Value 1 Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) mg/l 50 2 Chemical oxygen Demand (COD) mg/l <200 3 pH 7.5-8.5 At the outlet of the treatment system treated water quality will be as follows: Design Consideration: Variation of Water quality and quality will not be more than 10% The plant is not design to reduce total dissolved solids. Type of Dye used is reactive dye 4. Chemical Consumption Item Dosage Alum 10% solution at 100mg/ltr Lime 10% solution at 100mg/ltr Polyelectrolyte 1% solution at 2-4 ppm Acid As per requirement Urea 5 kg per day( as shock does during long shutdown of the plant) Phosphate 3 kg per day( as shock does during long shutdown of the plant ing trial run. Above given figures of chemical consumption will get reduced if the sewage dis-charge is added.
  104. 104. In case it is not possible to provide sewage discharge to the plant, then some di-ammonium phosphate & urea will be required at time of commissioning. Water treatment plant: Water for a textile plant may come from various sources .These includes surface water from rivers and lakes, and subterranean water from wells. The various salts present in water depend on the geological formations through which the water has flowed. These salts are mainly the carbonates (CO3 2- ), hydrogen carbonates or bicarbonates ( HCO3 - ), Sulphates ( SO4 2- ) and chlorides ( Cl - ) of calcium ( Ca 2+ ), magnesium (Mg 2+ ) . Although calcium and magnesium carbonates in limestone are relatively insoluble in water. So in this reasons, water hardness can be divided into two ways 1) Temporary hardness : Ca(HCO3)2 , Mg(HCO3)2 , Fe(HCO3)2 2) Permanent hardness : CaCl2 , CaSO4 , Ca (NO3)2 , MgCl2 , MgSO4 , Mg(NO3)2 This water hardness causes some serious consequences in a textile dyeing and finishing industries and these are 1 Precipitation of soaps . 2. Redeposit ion of dirt and insoluble soaps on the fabric being washed , a. this can cause yellowing and lead to uneven dyeing and poor handle. 2 Precipitation of some dyes as calcium and magnesium salts. 3 Scale formation on equipment and in boilers and pipelines. 4 Reduction of the activity of the enzymes used in washing. 5 Incompatibility with chemicals in finishing recipes and so on. Hardness expressed by parts per million (ppm) of CaCO3 which is standard hardness scale and it is also called American hardness. Capacity: 60m³ per hour
  105. 105. 2011 are given below- Statement of Closing Stock of Finished FabricMarch,2011 Opening Stock Received Issued Closing Stock Body Rib Body Rib Body Rib Body Rib 22921.00 923.00 89684.00 6462.00 98532.00 6378.50 18134.00 981.00 Accessories Received Status Name of Item Color Order Qty Required Qty Booking Receive Balance Qty. Size Care Level Aqua 4000 4200 4203 4230 27 Sewing Thread Aqua 4000 231 231 Sewing Thread Navy 13008 751 1277 526 Pearl Button-14L White 13008 598 232 -366 Sewing Ticket Aqua 4000 4120 3600 -520 Sewing Ticket Navy 4000 4120 3400 -720 Sewing Ticket White 313 322 800 478 Hanger Black 101008 101008 -101008 Hanger Sticker 101008 106058 106059 13570 -92489 Carton Sticker 13008 1626 1710 -1710
  106. 106. Cost analysis Per unit cost for different process Slitting : 2-3 tk per kg fabric Heat setting : 18-19 tk per kg fabric Finishing : 18-20 tk per kg fabric Compacting : 5-7tk per kg fabric Different Garments item cost Tang Top : $ 2.5-3.5 Basic T-Shirt : $ 3.5-4.5 Polo Shirt : $ 4.00-15.00 Trouser : $ 3.00-12.00 Average Knit item Price: $ 4.00-10.00 S.L. No. Buyer Name Country of Origin Direct Buyer 1 Group Znneir France 2 Best Seller Denmark Indirect Buyer
  107. 107. 1 Target Australia 2 Dunnes Ireland 3 New Look U.K. 4 Wool Worth Australia 5 BC BG France 6 Gekas 7 Mim U.K. 8 Jay Jays Australia 9 Bentone Italy 10 For Ever New U.K/Australia Product label: Product label differs from buyer to buyer. The product labels are prepared according to fabric criteria and the buyer requirements. Product mixed: Northern Fashion Ltd mainly produced Men, Ladies & kids Garments item. These products are including: T-ShirtTang TopPolo ShirtTrouserJacket Etc. Package size and label: Package size and label differs from buyer to buyer. The package size and labels are prepared according to fabric criteria and the buyer requirements. Northern Fashion Ltd. is a100% export oriented industry. All the goods produced in this in-dustry are exported into various foreign countries. So, goods are not supplied into local mar-kets.
  108. 108. Marketing Strategy: Marketing strategy is a very important factors to sale the products to the buyer. Northern Fa-shion Ltd mainly senior marketing officers, merchandiser and higher deal with buyer. There are some fixed buyers of the industry. The buyers give their orders continuously all over the year. The marketing officers and by both side understanding the rate and the order quantity are fixed. Duties& responsibilities of marketing officer: The main duties and responsibilities of a marketing officer are given bellow: To prepare cost sheet by dealing with the buyer. To take different steps by discussing with the high officials and merchandiser. To maintain a regular & good relationship between commercial officer & merchan-diser. To maintain a regular communication with the buyers & buying houses. Communicate with the new buyer. • Display the criteria of the products. Actually the responsibilities & duties of marketing officer begins from getting order of buyer & ends after receiving goods by the buyer. So he should be always smart, energetic & sin-cere. Conclusion:
  109. 109. Technical education and its adoption in practical field. Inextricably , without the implemen-tation of the knowledge gathered in technical education its success bound to suffer . Therefore , this two months long industrial as a partial fulfillment of our B.Sc in tex-tile Engineering course helped us to accomplish the gap between the theoretical and practical knowledge by providing an elementary idea about industrial environment processing machines , tools , equipments production system and maintenance , administra-tion and management system . We completed our industrial training at Northern Fashion Ltd. It was established just a few years ago with latest model of different machinery within a very short time it earned name and fame at home and abroad for its quality in production and administrative facilities . The industry has been a setting up of a 100% export oriented composite knit gar-ment unit. The project is set up with Knitting, Dyeing finishing and garments facilities. Two month is not long period and it not sufficient time to learn all area in a factory but can achieve an idea and can introduced with factory environment. In factory all the employs were very busy to his/ her own responsibility, so they cannot supervise us properly, but they were very cordial to us. Northern Fashion Ltd also called a training house of Textile Engineer. At our training period we gather some knowledge which can be play a vital role in our pro-fessional life. Beside the theoretical knowledge, by industrial training a student can increase his/her knowledge properly. At training period if a student can supervise by a experience person at industry with university he can appropriately learn vast knowledge. We successful-ly completed our training, we try to gather all necessary information but it is true that within this short period it is quiet impossible to achieve 100% success but as a whole this industry training was a satisfactory one again I would like to thank the authority of Northern Fashion Ltd. as well as my honorable teachers for their altruistic help and advice .