Industrial Attachment of Ananta group


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Industrial Attachment of Ananta group

  1. 1. Page 1 of 172 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036
  3. 3. Page 3 of 172 INTRODUCTION: From 1991, Ananta has grown to be one of the leading apparel solution providers in Bangla- desh. Engaged in the marketing, development and manufacturing of apparel, Ananta employs 12500 people and has an annual turnover of over $75 million. Through a wide range of prod- ucts & services, Ananta has earned the goodwill of reputed brands from across the globe. Producing over 12 million pieces of garments per year, it is among the largest vendors in Bangladesh for both Gap and H&M. Ananta has consistently excelled with a strong perfor- mance record of 25% annual growth over the last few years, and has earned several awards & recognitions such as the Bangladesh "Best Exporter Award" in 2002 and the “Wal*Mart” Best Vendor Award" in 2004. Ananta's success is rooted in its investments in human capital and world class manufacturing facilities. Ananta possess the skills, experience, infrastructure and financial strength necessary to attain customer satisfaction through excellence in product quality, flexibility and cost competitiveness. The company is always exploring new markets across the world with an experienced perspective, contemporary professionalism and high- end technology. VISION: To establish as a one stop source for the Global Apparel market and to satisfy and meet cus- tomer's expectation by developing and providing products and services on time, which offer value in terms of Quality, Price, Safety & Environmental impact. Assuring complete com- pliance with the international quality standards and also providing the employees internation- ally acceptable working condition and standards. To promote the development and to use human talent & equal opportunity of employment. Procure the most advanced & sophisti- cated technology suitable for producing desired product and attain highest level of compe- tence through continuous development of the professional management system and to ensure complete transparency in all aspect of business.
  4. 4. Page 4 of 172 MISSION: Ananta is committed to enhancing its capabilities to serve its customers better. It is planning to expand its manufacturing capacity over the next 3 years to reach production of 30 million pieces of woven bottoms a year, with special focus on producing premium denim products which require extensive washing and finishing effects. In addition, it is also starting several new pilot projects for the production of jackets, knitwear and sweaters in order to diversify its product portfolio. Ananta is a trendsetter in the apparels industry. It provides the highest val- ue products and services possible to customers & seeks to foster long term relationships with their partners and provide industry leading benefits and opportunities to employees. To extend its position as a world-class manufacturer, Ananta strives to achieve global stan- dards in quality, cost, service and scale of operation. Ananta focused on using innovative processes, technologies & machines to manufacture the finest products at a reasonable cost. By being responsive to their customers requirements and anticipating changes in market trends, hope to provide a superior level of service than they are accustomed to. They are committed to the success of all the partners that they work with and try best to accommodate their needs.
  5. 5. Page 5 of 172 Location Maps: Banani DOHS Mohakhali Kakoli chourasta Uttara Kamal Attaturk Avenue Gulshan 1 Road no #99 House no #20 SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY Gulshan 2 PREMIER BANK ANANTA HEAD OFFICE WESTIN HOTEL Location map of Ananta Head Office
  6. 6. Page 6 of 172 Saydeabad Jatra bari Narayongonj Demra Kanchpur Bridge Shitalakkshay River Nayabari Norsindi Sonargoan ADTL Location Map of Ananta Denim Technology Limited (ADTL) Chittagong road
  7. 7. Page 7 of 172 Gulshan 2 Asulia  Gazipura bus stand Targach Location Map of Ananta Casual Wear Limited (ACWL) kakoli Abdullapur Gazipur chourasta SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY ACWL
  9. 9. Page 9 of 172 Name of the Factory: ANANTA GROUP AAL- Ananta Apparels Limited ADTL-Ananta Denim Technology Limited ACWL-Ananta Casual Wear Limited Type: 100% export oriented Woven readymade Garments Industry. Year of Establishment: From 1991, Ananta has grown to be one of the leading apparel solution providers in Bangla- desh. Address: AAL- Gulshan 2; house no# 20; road no#99 ADTL-Nayabari, Kanchpur, Narayangonj ACWL-Gazipura, Gazipur. Sponsors: Bank: Prime Bank Limited Branch: Elephant road Branch Account Name: Ananta Apparels Limited Account No: STD-31000303 Account Currency: United States Dollars.
  10. 10. Page 10 of 172 Physical Infrastructure: The organization shall determine and maintain the infrastructure needed to achieve confor- mity to product requirements, infrastructure included, as applicable  Ananta maintains its telecommunication with VOIP connection to its different corporate zones, PABX connections and LAN connections.  It’s others facilities are  Own Network Server,  Own power management;  Own utility management,  Free transport facility,  24 – hour medical centre,  Free meals,  Fire service facility Product type:  Denim.  Non Denim. Capacity: 57 Lines: 1,000,000 pcs/month – E/Rd, Gazipur & Elephant Road factories. Remarks: Ananta is greatest concerned with the quality of its product. For this reason it do not look for the production volume rather the quality of product, this increase its overhead cost. But better quality has welcome buyers with satisfaction. The infrastructure and land asset has the greatest possibility to extension and to create social contributions.
  13. 13. Page 13 of 172 Organogram of manpower management: Organogram of Administration: (Transport, construction, development, operation, security) Asst. Officer Officer Site Engineer Mix m/c Operator Asst. Store in charge Transport Construction Front Desk Operation Security Director (E. Road) Director(ACWL) Administration A.G.M
  14. 14. Page 14 of 172 Organogram of Administration Department :( Rejection, Time section, Floor admin) Computer Operator Time Keeper Officer Peons Cleaner Sweeper In chargeSr. Officer Time ExecutiveIn charge Time section Floor AdminRejection Manager A.G.M Administration Asst. Director (HR)Director (ACWL)
  15. 15. Page 15 of 172 Organogram Of Production Department :( Sewing Section) Director (ACWL) Production Manager Executive Line chief AGM DGM GM Supervisor Worker
  16. 16. Page 16 of 172 Organogram Of Production Department :( Cutting) Director (ACWL) GM Coordinator Cutter man Marker man Supervisor In charge Manager Sr. Manger
  17. 17. Page 17 of 172 Organogram of Production department :( Finishing) Director GM Manager CTPAT Area Button Section Shipment coor- dinator In charge Supervisor In charge Supervisor In charge Supervisor Jr. Coordinator Worker Finishing Unit
  18. 18. Page 18 of 172 Organogram of Production Department: (Store) Director GM Manager Keeper Officer Arranger All Buyer Sub-Contract G. Store Work Arranger Sr. Officer KeeperAsst. OfficerOfficer Officer Manager Keeper Arranger FabricGAP H&M Asst. Manager
  19. 19. Page 19 of 172 Shift Change: There are two shifts for operation personnel in this industry. So the shifts are changed at every 12 hours. The shift timings are as below:  8:00 am to 8:00 pm (“A” Shift)  8:00 pm to 8:00 am (“B” Shift) Administration i.e. Management personnel work on General (G) shift of duration 9:00 am to 7:00 pm and 6 days per week. Responsibilities of Production Executive:  To follow and execute the daily production plan accordingly.  To give the right decision for the minor troubleshooting.  To convey the proper information to the next shift.  To maintain target productivity of every section in his shift  To give job card to maintenance department whenever machine is not working or any other problem with the machine. Job description of Production Executive: Report to: Senior production officer Job Summary: To plan, execute & follow up the production activities & control the quality.
  20. 20. Page 20 of 172 Duties & Responsibilities:  Overall supervision of production.  Batch preparation & PH check.  Write Garment pcs loading & unloading time from m/c.  Program making, sample checking, color measurement.  Control the supervisors, operators’ asst. operator & helpers.  And also any other work as & when required by the management. Management System: Corporate Management System. Remarks: Though Ananta. has more than 12500 manpower. Ananta pay a great attention for providing food and transport, medical, schooling of personnel’s children, their utility and maintain a safe, secured and calm environment. The working condition here is also standardized. These opportunities for the personnel of the industry have a direct positive impact on the production and also motivate the personnel for better and greater efficiency.
  21. 21. Page 21 of 172 CHAPTER– IV GARMENT WASHING
  22. 22. Page 22 of 172 General discussion on Garment washing In line with ever changing human behaviors and longing to be unique in outlook, mankind dress themselves in fashionable as well as comfortable garments. To be or get unique in out- look garment washing is very convenient way. This is a wing of garment wet processing technology. This is the textile technology by which a unique appearance along the seam, size, comfort ability &. Fashion etc. Properties are changed of a solid or multi colored or printed garment. Fabric of the garment may be dyed with reactive dye, direct dye, Sulpher dye, acid dye, basic dye, pigment and even metal complex dye and printed with pigment, direct dye, reactive dye etc. Object for garment washing: These are the main objectives for garments wash- • To develop softness in garment: Size materials in fabric are removed by washing & there is also advantage to add softener. Drape ability also increased. • To introduce unique appearance: washing that introduces fading effects along with the seam on the garments by washing out dyes or pigments in the garments. • To create new fashion: Washing process of garments bring different out looks (faded, color tinted, old look etc.) of garment that is used for creating new fashion. • Special type of finishes are also possible such as wrinkle, wrinkle free, soil retardant finish etc. • To satisfy the customer: As shrinkage occurs so customer can wear it just after pur- chasing/buying. Advantages or garment washing: • Starch or size materials, which are applied during fabric production especially in case of woven fabric are removed by wash as a result the garment become soft and hence the drape ability and comfort ability increased significantly.
  23. 23. Page 23 of 172 • Softness could be increased by addition of softeners by doing soft finish or applying the softener at the end of washing process. • Dirt's, impurities, germs etc. Obviously will be added in the garment during its man- ufacturing^ arc removed due to washing because a variety of chemicals are used such as detergent, bleaching agents etc. • Due to washing, maximum shrinkage occurs; hence there is the zero possibility of further shrinkage. As a result there is no size or fitting problem in washed garments. • Faded effect and a variety of stylish effects produced by different washing tech- niques. Nowadays these faded and stylish effects are accepted as a new fashion for fashion world. • Similar outlook and effect could be produced by different washing techniques or by different process. As a result there is a great scope of implementation of brilliances of technicians. Every machine of a garment washing factory can be used for multi- purpose for this reason total project cost is comparatively lower where as washing add a handsome value to the garments. Limitation of Garment washing: Garments Size Change: This change takes place due to shrinkage properties of the fabric. The amount of shrinkage properties of fabric determines the amount of size changing of the gar- ments. Size materials and finishing partly removed: Different types of washing are done with different types of chemicals and process, which are responsible for the removal of size materials and finishing from the fabric. Color is partly removed: Unfixed dyes may remain on the garment after dyeing. This un-fixed dye will be subsequently removed due to washing. Thus color is partly removed.
  24. 24. Page 24 of 172 The change occure by the following action during washing: 1. Mechanical/Rubbing/Abrade action with a. Garment-to-garment: In case of compact fabric it is more. b. Garment to machine: In this case the degree of abrasion mainly depends on the machine surface. The machine inner drum is perforated and the edges of each perforation create the ab- rasion with garments during processing. The degree of this abrasion is more than the abrasion of Garment-to-garment. 2. Chemical Action: A wide range of chemicals is used in different types of washing and each chemical provide its action as its character. We will know and understand of the actions of different types of chemical from the discussions about different types of wash. In case of above mentioned mechanical actions liquor ratio and machine rotation i.e. rpm also influence the degree of abrasion. There Are Different types Garments washing in our country: Normal wash/Garment wash/Rinse wash /Soft wash, Pigment wash, Silicon wash, Bleach wash. Caustic wash, Acid wash, Enzyme wash, Stone wash, Enzyme washes with stone, Supper white wash, Wash & over dyeing, Wash & Tinting, & Over all wrinkles. Basic machineries of a washing plant: Garments washing m/c for sample, Garments washing m/c for bulk, Hydro extractor,
  25. 25. Page 25 of 172 Tumble Dryer: i) Gas dryer, ii) Steam dryer. Normal wash It is the easiest, shortest and cheapest process as a result it is most popular wash. Size material is removed partially. Dust, dirt, oil spot, impurities etc. are removed that may come from during process i.e. cutting, stitching and the back process. With the addition of softener the softness of the garments can be improved as well as drape ability All types of garment can be washed. Such as: woven and knit garments. No significant fading effect can be achieved. But increasing processing time and de- creasing the liquor ratio we can pronounce the wash effect. Note: White garments should be soften with non-ionic softener and dried in the steam dryer. Otherwise a reddish tone will appear. How to solve Back-staining Problem during Normal Wash We have to follow the bellow sequences: Trial a sample batch (If back-staining occur) Wash another sample batch with anti back-staining chemicals. (If back-staining occur) Wash another sample batch without detergent (If back-staining occure) Wash another sample batch without temperature (If back-staining occure) Wash another sample batch without detergent & temperature and with anti back- staining agent after fixing with fixing chemicals (If back-staining occure). Stop washing and inform customer. Process: Suppose a lot size of 100 kg garments: 1. Load the garment in washing m/c 100kg of garment 2. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 3. Start m/c running Speed 15/12 rpm 4. Add detergent to the liquor 0.3-1% i.e. 0.30-1kg 5. Supply steam to raise temp. 40 c to 60 c
  26. 26. Page 26 of 172 6. If back staining is occur then use anti back staining chemicals to minimize such kind of problem 1-2% i.e. 1.0-2.0 kg 7. Run the process 5-20 min 8. Drop the liquor 9. Hot wash with minimum liquor 1:3 i.e. 300 lt (its temp 40-60c) 10. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 11. Add softener to the liquor 0.1 to 0.5% i.e. 100 gm to 500 gm 12. If back staining & bleeding then use anti back staining & fixing chemical Anti back 1 -2% i.e. 1 -2 kg, Fixing agent 0.5-1 % i.e. 0.5-1 kg 13. Supply steam to raise temp As required (40c to 60c) 14. Continue the process for 2-15 min 15. Drop the liquor 16. Unload the garment 17. Hydro extracts the garment. 18. Dry it in a tumble dryer. Pigment Wash It is also easiest, shortest and cheapest process as a result it is most popular wash like as nor- mal wash. • Pigment dyed/Pigment printed fabric used for making garment can be pigment washed. • Size material is removed partially • Dust, dirt, oil spot, impurities etc. are removed that may come from during process i.e. cutting, stitching and the back process. • With the addition of softener the softness of the garments can be improved as well as drape ability. But as pigments harden the printed or dyed surface softener need more in compare with normal wash. • All types of garment can be washed. Such as: woven knit garments. • Significant fading effect can be achieved. But we can achieve more wash effect by in- creasing processing time and decreasing the liquor ratio. Note: white garments should be soften with non-ionic softener and dried in the steam dryer. Otherwise a reddish tone will appear.
  27. 27. Page 27 of 172 Process: The process is very similar to normal wash. But it always varies company to company and on desired wash effect. Suppose a lot size of 100kg garments: 1. Load the garment in washing m/c 100kg of garment 2. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 3. Start m/c running Speed 15/12 rpm 4. Add detergent to the liquor 0.3-1% i.e. l kg 5. Add Caustic soda (if required) 0.5-1.0gm/ lt i.e. 50-100gm 6. Add Soda Ash (if required) 0.5-1.0 gm/lt i.e. 50-100 gm. 7. Supply steam to raise temp. 40 c to 60 c 8. If back staining is occur then use anti back staining chemicals to minimize it 1-2% i.e. l-2kg 9. Run the process 5-20 min 10. Drop the liquor 11. Hot wash with minimum liquor 1:3 i.e. 3001t (its temp 40-60c) Note: If alkali is used then a neutralization process for alkali should be done. 12. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 13. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 14. Add softener to the liquor 0.1 - 0.5% i.e. l00gm to 500gm 15. If back staining & bleeding then use anti back staining & fixing chemical Anti back 1 -2% i .e. 2kg, Fixing agent 0.5-1% i.e. 500gm-lkg 16. Supply steam to raise temp As required (40c to 60c) 17. Continue the process for 2-15 min 18. Drop the liquor 19. Unload the garment
  28. 28. Page 28 of 172 20. Hydro extracts the garment 21. Dry it in a tumble dryer. Silicon wash Silicon wash is generally done on all type of fabrics i.e. woven and Knit. It is easier, short- er process like normal wash as a result it is also popular wash. Size materials are removed by an extra process named Desizing. i.e. cutting, stitching and the back process. • It gives durable softness, elastic handle anti-pilling effects, dimensional stability and tear resistance. With the addition of softener the softness of the garments can be im- proved as well as drape ability. • It also improves wear and easy-care properties. • All types of garment can be washed. Such as: woven knit garments. • No. significant fading effect can be achieved. But increasing processing time and de- creasing the liquor ratio we can pronounce the wash effect. Process: Suppose a lot size of 100kg garments: Step 01 or Desizing: 1. Load the garment in washing m/c 100kg garment 2. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 3. Start m/c running Speed 1 5/12 rpm 4. Add amylase enzyme 1-3% 1-3 kg 5. Add detergent/anti stain to the liquor; 1% i.e. 1kg 6. Supply steam to raise temp. 60 c 7. Continue the process 20 min 8. Drop the liquor 9. Hot wash with water temp 40-50c for 5 min. Step 02: 1. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 2. Start m/c running Speed 15/12 rpm
  29. 29. Page 29 of 172 3. Add Silicon to the liquor 0.1 to 0.5% i.e. l00gm to 500gm 4. Add softener to the liquor 0.1 to 0.5% i.e. l00gm to 500gm 5. Supply steam to raise temp As required (40c to 60c) 6. Continue the process for 10-15 min 7. Drop the liquor 8. Unload the garment Step 03: 1. Hydrocxtract the garments. 2. Dry in the tumble dryer. In case of knit garments desizing step is not required but a wash for 5 minutes at room temperature is necessary. Caustic wash • Caustic wash generally doing on Reactive dye, Sulpher dye, Direct dyed or printed Garments. • If printed fabric is used for making garments then about 20-30% pigment is washed out, as a result faded color effect is produced. • Size material is removed partially but more then normal wash & pigment wash. • Dust, dirt, oil spot, impurities etc. are removed that may come from during process i.e. cutting, stitching and the back process. • All types of garment can be washed. Such as: woven knit garments. • Significant fading effect can be achieved. But we can achieve more wash effect by increasing processing time and decreasing the liquor ratio. • To improve the color fastness & rubbing fastness. • To increase the hairiness on garments this increases its old look appearance. Process: The washing procedure follows the bellow mentioned steps. Supposed a lot size 100kg garments. 1. Load the garments in the washing m/c= 100kg garments. 2. Load the m/c with water at 1:5 liquor ratio= 500Lt water 3. Start m/c running with moderate speed= 12-15 rpm 4. Add caustic soda to the liquor 4% 4kg
  30. 30. Page 30 of 172 5. Add soda ash to the liquor 2% 2 kg 6. Add detergent to the liquor 1% 1 kg 7. Add H202 to the liquor 4% 4Lt 8. Add stabilizer to the liquor 2% 4Lt 9. Supply steam to raise the temp 70 c 10.Continue the process for achieving the desire shade 60-90 min 11.Drop the liquor 12.Hot wash 50c to remove all unaccepted material for 5 min 13.Drain the liquor 14.Neutralization: a. Add water in 1: 5 Liquor ratio 500 Lt b. Start machine running speed 12-15 rpm c. Add acetic acid to the liquor 1 -2ml/lt 0.50- 1 Lt d. Continue the process 5 min e. Drop the liquor 15.Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 500Lt 16.Run m/c running with moderate speed 12-15 rpm 17.Add softener as required 0.1 to 0.5% 10-50gm 18.Continue the process at 40-50c 5-10 min 19.Drop the liquor 20. Unload the garments. 21. Hydrocxtract & dry the garments with the tumble dryer. Bleach Wash Garments made from indigo, vat, reactive, direct etc dyed fabric can be bleach washed. It is a decolorization process by oxidation action. Color can be removed uniformly from the garment and removal of color done as per re- quirement. In general there are three categories such as light bleach (where maximum color is removed), medium bleach and bleach. All types of garment can be washed. Such as: woven knit garments. In case of woven fabric a pretreatment (Desizing) process is required. Dust, dirt, oil spot, impurities etc. are removed that may come from during process i.e. cut- ting, stitching and the back process.
  31. 31. Page 31 of 172 • Significant fading effect can be achieved. But we can achieve more wash effect by in- creasing processing time and decreasing the liquor ratio. • To improve the color fastness & rubbing fastness. • To increase the hairiness on garments this increases its old-look appearance. • Maximum weight losses occur in case of light bleach. Process This washing process follows the following steps. • Step 01 or Desizing • Step 02 or Bleaching • Step 03 (Neutralization of Chlorine) • Step 04 or Neutralization • Step 05 or Softening • Step 06 or Drying Suppose a lot size 100kg of twill trouser. Step 01 or Desizing: 1. Load the garment in washing m/c 100kg garment 2. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 500It 3. Start m/c running Speed 15/12 rpm v 4. Add amylase enzyme 1-3% l-3kg 5. Add detergent/anti stain to the liquor; 1 % i.e. 1 kg 6. Supply steam to raise temp. 60 c 7. Continue the process 20 min 8. Drop the liquor 9. Hot wash with water temp 40-50c for 5 min. Step 02 or bleaching: 1. Add water in 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 2. Start m/c running Speed 12-15 rpm Add soda to liquor 2% i.e. 2kg 3. Add caustic to liquor 2% i.e. 2kg 4. Add bleaching powder (K.C.I.) 10 gm/lt i.e. 5 gm Rinse thoroughly.
  32. 32. Page 32 of 172 Step 03 (Neutralization of Chlorine"): ' 1. Add water with 1:5 liquor ratio 500Lt 2. Start m/c running with moderate speed 12-15 rpm 3. Add 35% of H202 0.5-1.0% 500gm-lkg 4. Add bisulphate 1-2% lkg-2kg 5. Continue the process at Room temp. 5 min 6. Drop the liquor & a hot wash at 40-60 c 5 min 7. Add water in 1: 5 Liquor ratio 500 Lt 8. Start machine running speed 12-15 rpm 9. Add sodium hyposulphite 3 gm/ltr 1500gm. 10. Supply steam to raise temp As required (40c) 11. Continue the process 10-20 min 12. Drop the liquor, 13. Rinse thoroughly. Step 04 or Neutralization: 1. Add water in 1: 5 Liquor ratio 500 Lt 2. Start machine running speed 12-15 rpm 3. Add acetic acid to the liquor 1 -2ml/lt 0.5-1 Lt 4. Continue the process 5 min 5. Drop the liquor Step 05 or Softening: 1. Add water in 1:5 liquor ratio 500 Lt 2. Start m/c running speed 12-15 rpm 3. Add softener to the liquor 0.1 - 0.5% 100- 500gm 4. Supply steam to raise the temp. As required 40 to 60 c 5. Continue the process 5 min 6. Drop the liquor & unload the garments Step 06 or Drying:
  33. 33. Page 33 of 172 1. Hydroextract the garments. 2. Dry in the tumble dryer. In case of knit garments desizing step is not required but a wash for 5 minutes at room temperature is necessary. Problem- Weight loss Strength loss Shade miss match Stone Wash Stone wash is done on garments made from denim & jeans fabric. Sometimes twill fabric garments are also subjected stone wash. Fading effect is produced in the garments in irregular pattern. Fading effect is more Pronounced across the seam line and the multiple ply position. Stone wash mainly followed by a decolouration process. Garments become comfortable during use. Process: This washing process follows the following steps: Step 01 or Desizing Step 02 or Stone Wash with Bleach wash Step 03 (Neutralization of Chlorine) Step 04 or Neutralization Step 05 or Softening Step 06 or Drying Step 01 or Desizing 1. Load the garment in washing m/c 100kg Step 03 (Neutralization of Chlorine): 1. Add water with 1:5 liquor ratio 500 Lt 2. Start m/c running with moderate speed 12-15 rpm 3. Add 35% of H202 0.5-1.0% = 500gm-lk Or Add bisulphate 1-2% lkg-2kg 4. Continue the process at Room temp. 5 min 5. Drop the liquor & a hot wash at 40-60 c 5 min Note: H202 Neutralization gives brighter tone then the bisulphate.
  34. 34. Page 34 of 172 Step 04: (Neutralization) 1. Add water with 1:5 liquor ratio 500 Lt 2. Start m/c running with moderate speed 12-15 rpm 3. Add acetic acid 1-2% lLt-2Lt 4. Continue the process at Room temp to 60c. 5-8 min 5. Drop the liquor Step 05 or Softening: 1.Add water in 1:5 liquor ratio 500 ltr 2. Start m/c running speed 12-15RPM 3. Add softener to the liquor 0.1 - 0.5% 100-500 gm 4. Supply steam to raise the temp 40-60c 5. Continue the process 5 min 6. Drop the liquor & unload the garments Step 06: 1. Hydroextract the garments. 2. Dry in the tumble dryer Enzyme wash Enzyme wash is done on garments made from denim & jeans fabric, twill fabric garments. Sometimes knit items are also subjected for Enzyme wash Garments made from indigo, vat, direct etc dyed fabric can be enzyme washed. Reactive dyed garments can be washed also but wash effect not pronounced as mentioned earlier. It produces frosty/ice effect on garment and seam abrasion across the*seam. Enzyme works chemically not mechanically for this reason it provide less damage/wastage then stone wash. It improves improve the color fastness & rubbing fastness. Enzyme improves the anti-pilling properties and decrease the hairiness hence it gives a very smooth surface of the garments. Process: It follows the bellow mentioned steps. Suppose 100kg of garments in a lot size. Step 01 or Desizing
  35. 35. Page 35 of 172 1. Load the garment in washing m/c 100kg garment 2. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 3. Start m/c running 15/12 rpm 4. Add amylase enzyme 1 -3% l-3kg 5. Add detergent/antistatic to the liquor; 1 % i .e. 1 kg 6. Supply steam to raise temp. 60 c 7. Continue the process 20 min 8. Drop the liquor 9. Hot wash with water temp 40-50c for 5 min. Step 02 Enzyme 1. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 2. Start m/c running Speed 15/12 rpm 3. Supply steam to raise temp. As required 55-60 C 4. Add acetic acid 1-3% l-3kg 5. Add anti back staining 1% i.e. 1kg 6. Add Acid Enzyme As required 1-3% i.e. 100-300gm 7. Continue the process depending up on the effect 30-50 min 8. Drop the liquor 9. Hot wash with water temp 80-90c run 1 -2 min. (for killing the enzyme). 10.Drain the bath 11.Rinse thoroughly Step 03 or Softening: 1. Add water in 1:5 liquor ratio 500 Lt 2. Start m/c running speed 12-15 rpm 3. Add softener to the liquor 0.1 - 0.5%= 100- 500gm 4. Supply steam to raise the temp As required 40 to 60 c 5. Continue the process 5 min 6. Drop the liquor & unload the garments Step 04:
  36. 36. Page 36 of 172 1. Hydroextract the garments. 2. Dry in the tumble dryer. Note: Enzyme wash usually followed by bleaching; and it depends upon the lightening the gar- ments. Enzyme wash with stone Enzyme wash with stone is done on garments made from denim & jeans fabric, twill fabric garments. Sometimes items are also subjected for Enzyme wash with stone Garments made from indigo, vat, direct etc dyed fabric can be Enzyme washed with stone. Reactive dyed garments can be washed also but wash effect not pronounced as mentioned earlier. It produces frostier/ice effect on garment and seam abrasion across the seam than the enzyme wash. Enzyme works chemically and stone works mechanically for this reason it provide ef- fect more quickly than enzyme wash. It improves improve the color fastness & rubbing fastness. Enzyme improves the anti-pilling properties and decrease the hairiness where as stone mechanically increase hairiness. On the other hand this process shortens the time. For this reason enzyme and stone amount should be used very carefully. Process: It follows the bellow mentioned steps. Suppose 100kg of garments in a lot size. Step 01 or Desizing 1. Load the garment in washing m/c 100kg garment 2. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 3. Stan m/c running Speed 15/12 rpm 4. Add amylase enzyme 1-3% 1 -3kg 5. Add detergent/anti stain to the liquor; 1% i.e. lkg 6. Supply steam to raise temp. 60 c 7. Continue the process 20 min 8. Drop the liquor 9. Hot wash with water temp 40-50c for 5 min. Step 02 Enzyme with stone 1. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 2. Start m/c running Speed 15/12 rpm
  37. 37. Page 37 of 172 Supply steam to raise temp. 55-60 C 3. Add acetic acid 1-3% 1.3kg 4. Add anti back staining 1% i.e. lkg 5. Add Acid Enzyme As required 1-3% i.e. 100-300gm 6. Add pumic stone '/* of volume of garments volume or as required 30kg to 50 kg 7. Continue the process depending up on the effect 30-50 min 8. Drop the liquor 9. Hot wash with water (for killing the enzyme) temp 80-90c run 1-2 min. 10. Drain the bath 11. Rinse thoroughly
  38. 38. Page 38 of 172 FOCUS ON ADTL: Fabric store: ADTL is the central store of the of ANANTA group. 70% of the fabrics are stored and supply to ANANTA group from here. ADTL is totally working on denim washing. Washing is the most important part of the readymade garments. For innovative outlook and fashion based style that doing by washing specially on denim fabric. Fabric store which maintained the fabric roll and its quality. There are some employees with worker whose are working on it. First, they received the roll as per purchase order. Then it counted by order sheet and started inspection. Main things of inspection try to find out the fabric fault and its quality. There are different types of fault. Such as stick mark, missing yarn, thick yarn, slub, knot, spot, and hole. Faults are detected by follow the 4 point system and strictly follow to hold the fabric quality keep the best. 4 point system: Up to 3 inch 1 point 3 inch to 6 inch 2 point 6 inch to 9 inch 3 point Above 9 inch 4 point According to the 4 point system they inspect 10% of the fabric. After counting if average no is 28 then it is granted otherwise then 20% will be the coming in checking. At last if there is more than 28 then inspection will be hold for the total fabric roll. 28 is the granted no of fa- bric fault.
  39. 39. Page 39 of 172 Fig 1: Fabric Quality Inspection Report On the other side from each roll 22˝ cut as width wise and making blanket and then it goes to washing section to measuring its shrinkage. Shrinkage% = (After wash – Before wash) ÷ before wash) ×100. After washing how much fabric shrinked from its previous size that is measuring because when they got shrinkage result then they informed about fabric shrinking measurement. So when a readymade garment made then the percentage of shrinkage measurement put on it be- cause after washing the garment will be shrinked and don’t hold the actual buyer measure- ment which will be one of the main reasons to be rejecting the order. So it is the most impor- tant part of the checking the fabric shrinkage. Also shade will be the marked after washing. 50 cm/sq big blanket is making and send it to washing. Differences come out from the before wash and after wash. Shade variation differences come out from that. Lot card maintain by fabric store. In lot card keep information of different shade of each sample which is going to be easy that what buyer choose for them what they like. Color shade marked by serial no. There have 2 sets of sample of after wash and 3 sets of before wash sample. Then package
  40. 40. Page 40 of 172 will be made by the before wash and after wash sample. A lot card will be also included in the package which contains all information of that fabric samples. Sample Development section: Before going to bulk production of a sample that is trying to develop as per buyer require- ment. Buyer informed different types of styles, color, shades through email, standard body or picture. To achieve buyer requirement there have been followed different types of process. Wet process and dry process is the main process to achieve the different types of styles and outlook. Wet process is direct connected with washing and in dry process whisker, scraping, laser, sand blasting, 3D, wrinkle making, grinding, tagging are followed. Sample section is the miniature of the whole bulk production. First here trial the sample and when it confirmed by the buyer then it goes to bulk production. Sample section consists of: Types of machine: (Wet)  Washing machine  Hydro extracting machine  Drying machine For dry process:  Hand whisker paper  Hand sand  Destroy machine  3D machine  PP spray machine Types of Operation:  Sample Development  Shrinkage test  Blanket test
  41. 41. Page 41 of 172 M/C Used:  Tonello- 1 pc  Tolker- 4 pcs  NGAI shing- 6 pcs  Hydro extracting m/c- 1 pc  no. of Dummy(3D)- 3 pcs  Dryer m/c- 8 pcs Style wise process development: Pattern make Hand whisker Sand blasting Tagging Desize Rinse Engyme wash with stone Rinse Bleach Rinse Neutral
  42. 42. Page 42 of 172 Hydro & Dryer Destroy area mark Destroy Grinding PP spray Neutral GAP style follow up process:  Standard sample comes from the buyer.  Then 1st sample developed and send it to buyer and then buyer approved the sample.  Pattern will be cut down and ready or the bulk production.  As per buyer requirement pattern design made on the marker ready to make the Whisker.  By the help of pattern whisker is made on the both side of the body.
  43. 43. Page 43 of 172  Engyme is done.  Then tearing or destroy will be done if buyer want as their style.  PP spray (make more whiteness for shinning).  Neutralize (Meta by sulphate).  Sample goes to buyer for approved.  If they like then it goes to bulk production or make correction on the sample body.  Before packing for quality control check the finishing.
  44. 44. Page 44 of 172 Flow chart of wet process:
  45. 45. Page 45 of 172 Wet process receipe from a specific buyer:- Buyer: C&A Style: 108B Receipe for: 100 pcs Hand whisker-Hand sanding-Tagging-Tie Process name Chemical Name Water Temp Time Desize D-80 LP-30 600L 60c 20 mins Rinse 800L 2 times Engyme Powder En- gyme LP-30 ID 500L 45c 20 mins Rinse 80L 2 times
  46. 46. Page 46 of 172 Bleach Silicon Paste 700L RT 2 mins Rinse 800L 2 times Neutral Hypo 600L 50c 5 mins Rinse 800L 2 times Then, Hydro, Dryer, 3D, PP Spray After PP spray Process Name Chemical Water Temp Time PP Neutral Meta 600L 50c 3 mins Rinse 800L Cleaning ID 600L 50c 3 mins Rinse 800L Then complete to Hydro dryer, Q/C Check, Audit, then it goes to delivery section.
  47. 47. Page 47 of 172 Flow chart Of Dry Process:
  48. 48. Page 48 of 172 Dry Process: There are different processes followed in dry process. Here try to describe most of them: Hand Whisker: Hand whisker is one type of process by which surface color of garments is [partially removed according to standards with the help of scraping paper which paper is classi- fied as 180, 220, 320, 400&600. But GAP buyer always wants that 400 and 600 scraping paper have been used. For hand whisker first of all make pattern according to buyer design and tent put into the body and make effect on the body side. Fig 2: Different types of pattern according to Buyers specification
  49. 49. Page 49 of 172 Fig 3: Pattern made followed by a Style Fig 4: Try to making effect on the body
  50. 50. Page 50 of 172 Fig 5: Clear effect on the body Fig 6: Standard Body measurement
  51. 51. Page 51 of 172 Needed Equipment:  Dummy  Various types of scraping paper  Rubber pad for pattern  Blade Remidities:  Pattern must be made accurately according to design.  Scraping paper must be used.  Be conscious when scraping is used then careful about the hand pressure. 3D & wrinkle: First have to do spray resin on the specific area we want to create 3D effect. Without resin spray 3D effect is not possible. Then it set to the dummy and make 3D effect by the help of hand of workers manually. Three heating light is used to cure the resin and it is treated into oven for making 3D effect permanent on the body. Light temp is 1000 watt, it deep the resin and then it send to the curing to make wrinkle. Fig 7: 3D Effect Making
  52. 52. Page 52 of 172 Fig 8: Making ready to make wrinkle effect Fig 9: Send it to the curing oven make wrinkle perfect Remidities:  The temp and time set must be perfect.  Time- 26 min and Temp- 155c  Because due to excessive heat or time the garments burn or damage.  In the body where clip will be stuck there using white fabric cause of that aluminum clip may be occure spot on the fabric.
  53. 53. Page 53 of 172 Tagging, Grinding and Destroy: Tagging is done before wash. Grinding and destroy is done before final wash. By tag- ging we got one type of effect after washing. By grinding and d story the warp yarn of the garments is damaged. Its only doing for style or innovative look on garments body. But grinding is only done at the starting or ending point of the garment like; Pockets, opening point, Hemming point, Waist band. The m/c which is used in this section:  Tagging m/c  Destroy m/c  Grinding m/c Fig 10: Tagging effect Fig 11: Destroy Effect
  54. 54. Page 54 of 172 Fig 12: Grinding Effect Sand Blasting: The first sandblasting process was patented the US in 1870. As a cleaning method, it is often used for priming a surface for the application of paint or sealant. For sandblasting nozzle (dia 1-1.5mm), tunnel board, compressor and chemical Al2O3 (sand) used. Aluminum oxide is look like normal sands but very hard and fine gra- nules like sands. These aluminum oxides are blown at very high pressure through a gun. This gun has a switch to start and stop flow of aluminum oxides. Garments to be sandblasted are placed on the bed of a closed chamber. Then the gun is operated by hand, when the switch of the gun is operated, aluminum oxides from a feeding cham- ber through a pipe and gun starts blowing. The blowing of aluminum oxide is done on the garment fabric surface. The area of the garment fabric surface is instantly faded by the blowing action of aluminum oxides due to frictional affect of aluminum oxides. The blow of aluminum oxides on the garment fabric surface is controlled at 10o – 20o angle. This blowing angle is very important. Higher the blowing angle, higher the fad- ing affect and higher the risk of garment fabric damage. In this process fading is done on the pre marked areas of the garments. Fading in the pre marked areas may be done in various patterns or design, by using folding or blocking techniques
  55. 55. Page 55 of 172 Objectives:  To create a new fashion.  To create a fading effect in specific area of garments.  To produce an irregular fading effects or old looking effect.  For soft feeling to wear the garments i.e. to improve softness.  To increase the rubbing fastness. Fig 13: Sand blasting Chamber and used sand
  56. 56. Page 56 of 172 Flow chart of process: At first garments collection. Now select pressure & angle. The garments are placed inside the spray chamber. Highly compressed air supplied through the pipe. Sand poured the tank. Then compressed air & sand passed through the spray nozzle.
  57. 57. Page 57 of 172 Remidities:  Compressed air supply pipe may breakdown.  Often sand scattering or spraying occurs.  Due to high pressure fabric can be damaged.  1% wastage is accepted.  There is a high risk of accident.  The blasting pipe may be jammed with sand.  Working condition is hazardous for health. The garments are placed inside the spray chamber with a hard backing. Then the operator does the spraying according to the requirement. Sandblasting is done before washing and after dyeing.
  58. 58. Page 58 of 172 Laser Section: Laser section is the most modern equipment in the factory. In this machine different effect are making on the body without any touch of chemical or water. By helping Photoshop there design will be developed and send it to the buyer or when buyer give requirement effect of laser. In Bangladesh there are only few factories (Opex, Hams, ABA group, Clombia group, Hamim group) where laser effects have been used. Laser m/c are mainly used for create critical effect. Procedure of development Process:
  59. 59. Page 59 of 172 Fig i: Create design on computer Fig ii: Make the marker on body Fig iii: Chamber box Fig iv: Laser marking on the body Fig 13: Serial working process in laser section
  60. 60. Page 60 of 172 Fig 14: Different types of laser effect
  61. 61. Page 61 of 172 WTP & ETP: WTP means water treatment plant. In Ananta Denim Technology Ltd. the required water for garments washing is delivered form WTP continuously. Here the hard ness of raw water is removed on neutral PH of water is controlled by applying some process. And the meaning of ETP means effluent treatment plant. Here the effluent water form washing and other sector of the factory directly come and applying some process on this wa- ter for getting effluent free water. Then drain the water to the channel. The capacity of WTP and ETP: Capacity of WTP is : 80000 Lt/hour Capacity of ETP is : 65 m3 /hour Capacity of Equalization tank is : 12 lac Lt Required water per day : 15 to 20 lac Lt Process sequence of WTP: Deep machine Raw water tank Oxidation tank Multi-grade filter Softener tank Reserve tank
  62. 62. Page 62 of 172 Fig 15: Diagram of WTP Oxidation filter: Here sand and four steps of stone is used to break the iron of water. The iron is drained by back wash. Multi-grade Filter : The maximum quantity of iron is stored here because of MnO2 and four steps of stone. Based on performance the chemical is changed 2 to 3 years later. Softener tank: Here resin and four steps of stone is used which is also changed 2 to 3 years later. And every 12 hours 400kg salt is used to clean the water.
  63. 63. Page 63 of 172 Process Sequence of ETP: Equalization tank Floculation tank Lamala clarifier -1 PH Correction Sludge pit tank Bio-tower (one type of filter acts as media) Centifuge Aeration tank Lamala Clarifire-2 Chloration Tank Secondary Sludge pit (Deform is used to reduce foam & NACL to de-active bacteria) Out let tank
  66. 66. Page 66 of 172 M/CTYPE: WASHING M/C M/C NO: 13-18 M/C NAME: NGAI SHING MODEL: NS-2250 VOLTAGE: 380 V/ 3PH
  68. 68. Page 68 of 172 DESTROY M/C GRINDING M/C
  69. 69. Page 69 of 172 CHAPTER– V SEWING SECTION
  70. 70. Page 70 of 172 ACWL (ANANTA CASUAL WEAR LIMITED) INTRODUCTION: ACWL operating the sewing section of Ananta group. There are 29 lines which directing the sewing products. It stands in Gazipura of Gazipur district. ACWL is the 7 stored building in which upper 4 stored are sewing section. And rest of floor is containing different types of section. Yearly average target of ACWL is 5,74,167 pcs. Here try to describe different sec- tions of ACWL and it working system. DIFFERENT DEPARTMENT IN GARMENTS:  CUTTING  SEWING  FINISHING  EMBROIDARY  WASH STORE  MAINTENANCE  COMPLIANCE  HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT  WELLFARE  QUALITY CONTROL  ACCOUNTS  ADMIN  TRAINNING  RAW/ WORK STUDY  CENTRAL PLANNING AND CO-ORDINATOR  SECURITY
  71. 71. Page 71 of 172 SEQUENCE OF GARMENTS PRODUCTION: 1. Design/ Sketch 2. Pattern Design 3. Sample Making/Production Pattern/ Grading 4. Marker Making 5. Spreading 6. Fabric Cutting 7. Sorting/ Bundling 8. Sewing or Assembling 9. Inspection 10. Pressing/ Finishing 11. Final Inspection 12. Packing 13. Despatch
  72. 72. Page 72 of 172 1. Design/ Sketch: For the production of any garments design or sketch is so much important to know how the garment followed which style. Design feature is essential to produce on paper so that the manufacturing of that garment could be verified or check whether could be done manually or help of a computer. Here design is developed by computer and then it printed for the different types of size which is ready to make the garments of the first step. 2. Pattern Design: Each part of a garment size is copy by a hard paper which is pattern. Different types of pattern will be made for each part of a garment. This pattern will be used on the fa- bric before cutting. In garments block pattern is the basic pattern which is dependent on the perfect body measure without any style and design. Block pattern is made by three ways  Flat method  Modeling  Garments pattern Different parts of a garment especially body and sleeve is made by drawing on the pattern. It also is doing help of a computer. Actually here CAD system followed. Pat- tern will be made here in two ways. One of them is manual and the other is by soft- ware that is CAD. For CAD Lectra version-5 is used. Flow chart of technical depart- ment: Basic pattern Grading Final pattern making Printing Cutting Section Production
  73. 73. Page 73 of 172 Fig: Pattern making & grading by computer. Fig: Lectra m/c At first Buyer gives order as per different size. Then it send it to the technical section for making sample. First make LA fit sample, next revise, then sealer sample and when every- thing is confirmed then production start. When pattern is making that time Block pattern will made according to follow measurement. In making of sample with actual measurement shrin- kage percentage will made with that. Then inseam, front rise, back rise, bottom opening,
  74. 74. Page 74 of 172 knee, hip all things are made by follow the actual measurement. After that doing the grading. It means making other sizes. Then find out the consumption. Consumption depends on fabric width, thread, YY. Then fabric booked how many need for order. Cutting wastage 2% will be added in fabric booking. 3. Sample garments making/ production pattern/Grading: In garment section any design of garments will be produced in business strategy. So there have been produce a lot of pieces followed by one style. So first of all there need a sample which have been followed. So it is important to make a sample. Every style of each sample going to before bulk production there need to confirmation from buyer. Design of a body Main block Working Pattern Sample body Confirmation Production pattern Design of a garment will be developed by 3 ways:-  Own thinking or creativity  Copy of any design  Add more design with selected previous items. When design or style selected then it will be marking on the paper. It will be manually or with the help of a computer. Then ready to make sample body for selected garments. That will be started from basic block. Basic block means a pattern which defined different shapes of a body. Then a working pattern will be made with the help of computer. Marker is made
  75. 75. Page 75 of 172 with the help of working pattern. At last sample maker will made the sample to follow by the working pattern. Then the sample body checked because to find out any types of mistake which may be occurred a big hamper in bulk production. Then it sends to the buyer for con- firmation and making deal of costing. When everything is confirmed then made counter sam- ple. In bulk production counter samples are followed. Fig: Sample section 4. Marker making: Marker means in which paper all patterns of every sizes are set up in that way in which all sizes of pattern are used by using minimum quantity of fabric. Width of marker selected lowest width of fabric. Marker width is also related with some topic such as:  Length of cutting table  production planning Efficiency of marker: Efficiency of marker maker depends on marker efficiency. Fabric wastage will be reduced if efficiency will be high. Fabric price belongs half cost of a garment, so if effiency will be in- creased 1% then profit will add with the total profit. Related factor of marker effiency:  Marker maker: Marker effiency depends on marker maker. Cause it related with marker mak- er experience, efficiency, honesty.
  76. 76. Page 76 of 172  Sizes of garments: To making time marker making how many sizes have then experience will be upgraded.  Marker length: If marker length have more than efficiency will be increased.  Fabric Specialty: Some fabric is very difficult to identify about its front side and back side. This type of fabric is defined symmetrical fabric. That condition efficiency will be high. Otherwise in asymmetric fabric there tough to increase marker efficien- cy.  Making method of marker: Marker has been made in 2 ways; manually and by computer. With help of computer efficiency comes high. Constraints of marker making: When marker maker placed big pattern first then he trying to placed small pattern between the gap of big pattern for reducing the wastage and increasing the effiency. Some factors are making problem to increase efficiency:  Grain line  Specialty of fabric  Design of a fabric  Cutting quality  Production planning Fabric wastage outside of marker: Actually most use of fabric depends on the efficiency of marker. Sometimes a few wastages are occurred which is out of control of marker. Factors are:  Ends of ply looses: When fabric is spreading on the layout then some restriction of fabric for that there put have some extended fabric. To hold the actual garment measurement. This may causes Wastage of marker.
  77. 77. Page 77 of 172  Loss of fabric ends: When fabric comes into the store then it comes as roll wise. So that time when it in- spected then finds out that fabric ends are loose for fabric quality restriction. It is the one of the cause to wastage of the marker.  Selvedge losses: Every fabric has two edge or selvedge according to widthwise. So most o the time it would be cut down. Using of Width of a fabric depends on the quality of the selvedge.  Purchase loss: In purchase time fabric roll is counted as lengthwise. So in the roll that measurement will be marked by the supplier. But sometime that was not found as per order. so before buying it must be clear that about the measurement of roll. 5.Fabric spreading: In garment business for production fabric will be cut down at a time at a lot. At a time to cut down the lot of fabric need planning and assembling the fabric length and width wise on the marker table that is defined as spreading. After the fabric spreading which fabric part is formed that is known as lay. There are 100 of plies between the lay. Purpose of making of lay is two reasons.  Fabric saving  Time savings Because of more than 100 lays are remaining. So structure of fabric will be hard and top of the table will be smooth. Requirements of fabric spreading: Alignment of the fabric: Fabric will be spreading according to length and width wise. When lay will be set then care- ful about the setting of the fabric. Try to set up the fabric on the table according to length and width. If length or width of the fabric set out of the table then it will be counted as faulted
  78. 78. Page 78 of 172 marking. So when fabric will be set then according to lengthwise 2cm fabric will be taking more. Correct ply tension: Fabric lay is made set the fabric one by one from top. Fabric is spreading by manually or by the machine. In time of spreading be careful about the fabric tension. If in there have no fa- bric tension then cutting will not properly then it turns to fault piece. Otherwise fabric tension is more in fabric lay then after sewing the garments it will be shrinked. So it is a most impor- tant fact of spreading. Fabric must be flat: In fabric spreading must be careful about that fabric will be wrinkle free. In spreading flat is the most important thing. Without flat fabric after spreading it will occure damage situation in cutting. Elimination of fabric flaws Correct ply direction. 6. Fabric cutting: Fabric cutting is the most important part to make a garment. Without cutting the fabric a garment will not ready for the despatch. So it is also important to make that during cutting it will occur without any damage. For good cutting from the fabric have some factors to make sure its cutting quality:  Precession of cut.  Clean Edge.  Infused Edge.  Support of the lay.  Consistent of cutting. Methods of fabric cutting: 1. Manual method  Hand operated scissor  Round knife
  79. 79. Page 79 of 172  Straight knife  Band knife  Die cutting  Notcher  Drill 2. Computerized Method:  Knife cutting.  Cutting by water jet.  Laser cutting.  Plasma torch cutting. 7. Sorting or bundling: After cutting the entire fabric lay, all the garments components in stack form is sorted out as per size and color. To avoid mistake in sorting , it is better to use code number on each pattern. 8. Interlining: An insulation, padding, or stiffening fabric, either sewn to the wrong side of the lining or the inner side of the outer shell fabric. The interlining is used primarily to provide warmth in coats, jackets, and outerwear. Woven or non woven fabric layer between outer cloth and lin- ing of a garment for stiffening or giving warmth. Any One Of A Wide Variety Of Fabrics Used Between The Inner And Outer Layers Of A Garment To Improve Shape Retention, Strength, Warmth Or Bulk. Interlining May Be Of Woven, Knitted, Or Non-woven Material And May Be Produced With Or Without A Fusible Adhesive Coating. A soft, but thick fabric that is inserted between the main fabric and the back lining. Interlining helps fabric drape gracefully. An insulation, padding, or stiffening fabric, either sewn to the wrong side of the lining or the inner side of the outer shell fabric. The interlining is used primarily to provide warmth in coats, jackets, and outerwear. Interfacing - Fabrics used to support, reinforce and give shape to fashion fabrics in sewn products. Often placed between the lining and the outer fabric. It can be made from yarns or directly from fibers, and may be woven, non-woven, or knitted. Inner lining between the lining and fabric of a garment.
  80. 80. Page 80 of 172 9. Sewing: In processing of garments sequences sewing is the most important part. Fabric is attached by sewing. There are different parts in sewing which is most important for this section. Sewing machines of different types are arranged as vertical or zigzag line to assemble the garments. Sequences of types of sewing machine arrangement depend on sequence of assembling op- erations. Number of sewing machine per lines depending on the style of the garment to be produced. Production per line per hour also varies from 100 to 150 pieces depending on spe- cific circumstances. Number of sewing machine arrangement per line may be up to 60 de- pending on design and output quality of garment. There are different types sewing machines are used in line which are:  1 needle lock stitch m/c  2 needle lock stitch m/c  2 needle chain stitch m/c  kansi multi needle m/c  Feed of the arm m/c  1 needle vertical m/c  Bar tack m/c  Button hole m/c  Eyelet hole and button attach m/c  Straight knife cutting m/c  Flat lock m/c  Automatic bon pocket making m/c  Automatic back pocket attach m/c  Fabric end cutter m/c  Compressor m/c 10. Inspection: Each and every garment after sewing passes through the inspection table/point. Where the garments are thoroughly and carefully checked to detect/find any defect if present in the gar- ment. The defects may be for example variation of measurement, sewing defect, fabric de- fects, spots etc. If the defect is possible to overcome, then the garment is sent back to the re-
  81. 81. Page 81 of 172 spective person for correction. If the defect is not correction able, then the garment is sepa- rated as wastage. 11. Pressing or finishing: After passing through the inspection table, each garment is normally ironed/pressed to re- move unwanted crease and to improve the smoothness. So that the garment looks nice to the customer. Folding of the garment is also done here for poly packing of the garments as per required dimension. 12. Final inspection: It is the last stage of inspection of the manufactured garment of behalf of the garment manu- facturing organization, to detect any defective garment before packing. 13. Packing: After final inspection, the garments are poly-packed, dozen-wise, color wise, size ratio wise, bundled and packed in to the cartoon. The cartoon is marked with important information in printed form which is seen from outside the cartoon easily. 14. Despatch: The cartoons of the garments are delivered or placed in the despatch department or finished product godown, from where the garments lot is delivered for shipment.
  82. 82. Page 82 of 172 Literature view of seam and stitch: Seam: In sewing a seam is the line produced by services of stitches and applied to one or more lay- ers of fabric. Properties of a Seam:  Strength  Elasticity  Durability  Security  Comfort  Specialized fabric properties. 1. Seam strength: Seam must be as strong as fabric. If seam is weaker than fabric, it may easily break under force at particular situation. If seam strength is higher than the fabric strength the fabric may break down due to extra pressure on the fabric. 2. Elasticity of Seam: Seam must stretch or recover with fabric. Otherwise, seam may break with stretching of fabric. Normally knit fabric is more stretch able than woven fabric. In swimwear, amount of stretch may be up to about 30%. So seam must be compatible with extensibility of fabric. 3. Durability of seam: Seam must be durable. So that it is not broken or damage for ab- rasion during wearing and washing. 4. Security of seam: Seam must be secured against fraying a part or the unraveling of stitches. 5. Comfort ability of seam: In some special garment such as close fitting or underwear garment, seam must not present an uncomfortable ridge or roughness to the skin. 6. Special properties of seam: If a fabric is coated with Teflon, PVC or polyurethane to make it totally waterproof, seam must be water proof. Needle holes cause gap along the seam. That is why seam must be welded or taped to seal over the join and block up the needle holes. For flame proof garments seam must be constructed with sewing threads which will prevent a flame along the seam.
  83. 83. Page 83 of 172 Seam types: Seam may be hundred types. As per British standard these types are classified into 8 main classes:-  Class1- Super Imposed Seam  Class2- Lapped Seam  Class3- Bound seam  Class4- Flat Seam  Class5:- Decorative Seam  Class6:- Edge Neatening  Class7&8:- Special  Class1- Super Imposed Seam:-  These seams are formed by placing one ply of material above another with the edge together and the seam along one side.  Most commonly used.  Seams are sewn in one or several operation.  Superimposed seams are usually made with two plies of material, although than two plies can be used for special projects. Types of super imposed seam:-  Plain seam: This is the common way of joining fabric. In most cases, fabric edges are neatened first and then sewn or joining and neatening the edges are down simultaneously. Fig: Super imposed seam
  84. 84. Page 84 of 172  Class2- Lapped seam: A lapped seam is achieved with two or more pieces of fabric overlapping each other lapped seam commonly, but not always, have one ply of fabric fold under itself for a fi- nished edge. Types:  Common lapped seam: This is commonly used in joining of panels in sails not commonly used in clothing due to raw edges of fabric.  Lap filled seam: The seam is sewn with two rows of stitches produced by twin needle m/c equipped with a folding device. Most widely used in jeans for inseam or out seam/side seam. Fig: Lapped seam  Class3-Bound seam: Bound seam consist of an edge of material which is bound or enclosed by a stripe of fabric. The binding is usually a bias-cut strip of light-weight fabric. Now a days commercially bias type is used. Uses: To finish the row edges of fabric. A common usage of this finish is seen on the neck line of a collarless garment. For produces decorative edge by using binding of constracting color. To attach elastic. To insert interlining at the waist band of trousers, skirt or jeans.
  85. 85. Page 85 of 172 Fig: Bound Seam  Class4-Flat seam: A flat seam is constructed by having two pieces of fabric which meet preciously at their edge and the fabric edges don’t overlap. Fabric edges may be joined together with or without gap a cover stitch is used to sew the two pieces of fabric together. Uses: Used mainly items made of shear knit fabric such as women stocking and the like. Zigzag stitches gap are used for decorative purpose. Fig: Flat seam  Class5-Decorative seam: Decorative seam may be produced by single or multiple rows of stitches which are sewn through one or more layers of fabric. These several layers can be folds of the same fabric. Used only for decorative sewing on garment.
  86. 86. Page 86 of 172 Fig: Decorative seam  Class6-Edge neatening: The cut edges of fabric, specially woven one, will fray. The fraying of fabric row edge is undesirable because it will affect the accuracy of the seam allowance and will cause diffi- culty in the manufacturing process. Therfore the Raw edges of cut parts should be nea- tened before the seaming process. A finished garment with neatened edges will look neater and tidier and will be more durable for wash and wear. There are various method of neatening:  Over locking  Edge stitching  Binding  Over edging  Lining  Picot Edging  pinking Fig: Seam neatening
  87. 87. Page 87 of 172  Class7- Special: Seams in this class relate to the addition of separate items to the edge of the garment part. They are similar to the lapped seam except that the added component has a definite edge on both sides. Stitch: Every category of sewing machine produces a specific type of stitch formation depending on the number of needles, loppers and threads which combine to construct the stitch. Each of these configurations is known as a stitch type and they are classified according to their main characteristics. There are various national and international standards for stitch types and they all use a similar taxonomy for classifying the main and sub-classes of stitch types. The following is an example of the system used by the British and USA standards, both of which contain the specifications for over 70 different stitch types. The six main classes are identified by the first of the three digits. . Class 100 these are chain stitches formed from a needle thread only and they are typically used for basting, felling and blind stitching. Class 200 originally hand stitches, these are mostly, formed by single threads passed from one side of the material to the other with each successive penetration of the needle. Various classes of this stitch are used for Saddle stitching and the prick stitching of edges. Class 300 these are also referred to as lock stitches because the top and under groups of threads are interlaced to form the stitch. The most widely used stitch formation in this class is no. 301, which is produced by a regular sewing machine. Class 400 formed by two or more groups of threads, the loops of which are interlaced and interloped, stitch no. 401 is a chain stitch formed from two threads and is widely used for knitted materials because the stitch formed from two threads and is widely used for knitted materials because the stitch formation makes for good extensibility and lateral strength. Class 500 these are known as over edge stitches because at least one group of threads covers the edge of the material. In this class, stitch no. 504 is a three
  88. 88. Page 88 of 172 thread over looking stitch used for assembling light weight knits and also for cleaning and finishing the seam and hem edges of garments. Class 600: There are many complex stitch formations in this class because the stitches can be formed from three to nine threads and the use of up to four needles. This class of stitches is characterized by high elasticity and strength.
  89. 89. Page 89 of 172 CHAPTER– VI RAW MATERIALS
  90. 90. Page 90 of 172 Raw materials: Raw materials are most important for product. Cause without good quality raw materials good quality product is impossible. In Ananta merchandising section handle it. Sometime raw material booked on buyer’s specification. Raw Material Suppliers Origin TRIMS  Main Label and Care Label  Paxar BD Ltd.  Bangladesh  Joker Label  City Label  Bangladesh  Zipper  YKK BD Ltd  Bangladesh  Snap Button  YKK Intl.  Thailand  Plastic Button  UD Jindal  India  Adjustable Elastic  Golden Cedar Ltd.  Pakistan  Thread  Coats BD Ltd(UK Based)  Bangladesh  Apparel Clip  Check point System Inc.  Hong kong  Cotton Tape  Wilson Garment  Hong kong  Metal Rimmed Eye- let  Prym  Hong Kong
  91. 91. Page 91 of 172 Raw Material Suppliers Origin NON DENIM  Todds Twill  Bombay Rayon  India  Peached Twill  Vardhaman Tex- tiles Ltd  India  Pocket twill  Golden Fashion  India  Printed Twill  Winnitex Ltd  Hong Kong  Dense Poplin  Kohinoor Weaving mills Ltd.  Pakistan  Light Chambray  PT. Grandtex Ltd  Pakistan  Color Canvas fa- bric.  Nahar Mills  Pakistan
  92. 92. Page 92 of 172 Raw Material Suppliers Origin DENIM  EFFORTO DENIM  Arvind  India  KANSAS DENIM  Arvind  India  DANBEE DENIM  PT APAC INTI- CORPORA  Singapore  SPARROW DENIM  PT TYFOUNTEX LTD  Singapore  LITES OUT DENIM  Naveena  Pakistan  HIGHWAY-2  Arvind  India
  94. 94. Page 94 of 172 Production planning We will be shouldering the responsibilities of executive of tomorrow so it is to understand methods, plans, various techniques that are essential to operate the effectively and efficiently. For this purpose we must have the knowledge of production planning. This is also true that this subject intervene into many departments of industrial organization, their relations with these departments are explained in first few topics. This basic objective of creating the manufacturing organization is to make the products. Thus the production is the nucleus or the centre of entire business operations. It must be empha- sized, however, that on signal system of forecasting, preplanning, planning and control is suited to all industrial enterprises, no matter how well it may meet the needs of this on that special company. Production planning functions look after the manufacturing activities. Pro- duction planning comprise the total planning, routing, dispatching in the manufacturing process so that the movement of material, performance of machines and operation of labor however are subdivided and are directed and coordinated as to quantity, quality, time and place. Planning and control are two basic and interrelated managerial functions. They are so interre- lated that they can be and often are considered as being one function. Planning is the prepara- tion activity of operation function. Planning sets the objectives, goals, targets on the basis of available resources with their given constraints. Planning involves setting up to such stan- dard. The controlling is made by comparing the actual performance with these present stan- dard and deviations are ascertained and analyzed. Production is an organized activity of con- verting raw materials into useful products but before starting that work of actual production, production planning is done in order to anticipated possible difficulties and decide in advance as to how the production should be carried out in the best and economical way. Since mere planning of production is not only sufficient, hence management takes all possi- ble steps to see that project or plan chalked by the planning department are properly adhered to and the standards set are attained in order to achieve it. The aim of production planning is to produce the products of right quality, in right quantity at the right time by using the best and least expensive methods.
  95. 95. Page 95 of 172 Garment Production Planning Garment production planning involves creating a schedule for the mass production of cloth- ing. Producing garments requires a lot of coordination and schedule management. Every pro- duction requires different elements, depending on how large the production is and what is being produced. The time frame for a production depends on the elements of the production, but generally speaking planning for the production is the same. Planning for a production can be very simple if all steps are followed, assuming have already sourced your materials and subcontractors prior to this stage. Be sure to inspect garments tho- roughly before determining a schedule in order to make sure all the elements needed in the garments are included in your production schedule. If you not already a garment manufactur- er, check your local state and city laws regarding certification, permits and licenses that might be needed for garment manufacturing—they vary greatly and many times require certifica- tion. Forecasting • Process of predicting a future event • Underlying basis of all business decisions – Production – Inventory – Personnel – Facilities • FORECASTING APPROACHES – Overview of Qualitative Methods – Overview of Quantitative Methods • TIME-SERIES FORECASTING – Decomposition of Time Series
  96. 96. Page 96 of 172 – Naïve Approach – Moving Averages – Exponential Smoothing – Exponential Smoothing with Trend Adjustment – Trend Projections – Seasonal Variations in Data – Cyclic Variations in Data Types of Forecasts by Time Horizon: • Short-range forecast – Up to 1 year; usually less than 3 months – Job scheduling, worker assignments • Medium-range forecast – 3 months to 3 years – Sales & production planning, budgeting • Long-range forecast – 3+ years – New product planning, facility location Short-term vs. Longer-term Forecasting: • Medium/long range forecasts deal with more comprehensive issues and support man- agement decisions regarding planning and products, plants and processes. • Short-term forecasting usually employs different methodologies than longer-term fo- recasting
  97. 97. Page 97 of 172 • Short-term forecasts tend to be more accurate than longer-term forecasts. • Economic forecasts • Address business cycle, e.g., inflation rate, money supply etc. • Technological forecasts • Predict rate of technological progress • Predict acceptance of new product • Demand forecasts • Predict sales of existing product Seven Steps in Forecasting: • Determine the use of the forecast • Select the items to be forecasted • Determine the time horizon of the forecast • Select the forecasting model(s) • Gather the data • Make the forecast • Validate and implement results Realities of Forecasting: • Forecasts are seldom perfect • Most forecasting methods assume that there is some underlying stability in the system • Both product family and aggregated product forecasts are more accurate than individ- ual product forecasts
  98. 98. Page 98 of 172 Forecasting Approaches: Qualitative Methods : • Used when situation is vague & little data exist – New products – New technology • Involves intuition, experience – e.g., forecasting sales on Internet • Quantitative Methods: • Used when situation is ‘stable’ & historical data exist – Existing products – Current technology • Involves mathematical techniques – e.g., forecasting sales of color televisions Overview of Qualitative Methods: • Jury of executive opinion – Pool opinions of high-level executives, sometimes augment by statistical mod- els • Delphi method – Panel of experts, queried iteratively • Sales force composite – Estimates from individual salespersons are reviewed for reasonableness, then aggregated
  99. 99. Page 99 of 172 • Consumer Market Survey • Ask the customer Jury of Executive Opinion: • Involves small group of high-level managers – Group estimates demand by working together • Combines managerial experience with statistical models • Relatively quick • ‘Group-think’ disadvantage Delphi Method: • Iterative group process • 3 types of people – Decision makers – Staff – Respondents • Reduces ‘group-think
  100. 100. Page 100 of 172 Sales Force Composite: • Each salesperson projects his or her sales • Combined at district & national levels • Sales reps know customers’ wants • Tends to be overly optimistic Consumer Market Survey: • Ask customers about purchasing plans • What consumers say, and what they actually do are often different • Sometimes difficult to answer Time Series: • Set of evenly spaced numerical data – Obtained by observing response variable at regular time periods • Forecast based only on past values – Assumes that factors influencing past and present will continue influence in future • Example Year: 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Sales: 78.7 63.5 89.7 93.2 92.1 Time Series Component Trend Component: • Persistent, overall upward or downward pattern
  101. 101. Page 101 of 172 • Due to population, technology etc. • Several years duration Seasonal Component: • Regular pattern of up & down fluctuations • Due to weather, customs etc. • Occurs within 1 year
  102. 102. Page 102 of 172 Common Seasonal Patterns: Period of Pattern “Season” Length Number of “Sea- sons” in Pattern Week Day 7 Month Week 4 – 4 ½ Month Day 28 – 31 Year Quarter 4 Year Month 12 Year Week 52 Cyclical Component: • Repeating up & down movements • Due to interactions of factors influencing economy • Usually 2-10 years dura- tion Random Com- ponent: • Erratic, unsystematic, ‘residual’ fluctuations • Due to random variation or unforeseen events
  103. 103. Page 103 of 172 – Union strike – Tornado • Short duration and no repeating. Naive Approach: • Assumes demand in next period is the same as demand in most recent period – e.g., If May sales were 48, then June sales will be 48 • Sometimes cost effective & efficient Moving Average Method: • MA is a series of arithmetic means • Used if little or no trend • Used often for smoothing – Provides overall impression of data over time • Equation
  104. 104. Page 104 of 172 Schedule Creating a time frame is the most crucial part of garment production planning. Working backwards is the best way to determine this schedule. Determine a finish date for your pro- duction and move backwards from that. Fabric and Materials Ordering materials is a crucial element in beginning production. If your items require mate- rials from multiple vendors this coordination can become more difficult. Be sure to give ap- propriate lead times for your orders depending on when your sewing contractor needs mate- rials for production. Patterns, Marking and Grading This is the first step of production planning and if often finished after sample making. Once orders are in place, get your patterns and grading completed. Your markers will determine the yield of fabric needed for your order. Once markers are complete, fabric can be ordered. Cutting and Sewing Many sewing contractors also offer cutting services. If this is the case, include this time in your contractor's schedule, otherwise, use a cutting contractor. Once you select a sewing con- tractor for your production, they can tell you the time frame needed to sew your garments. Create a contract stating the schedule with your sewing contractor. Determine what they will provide, such as thread and what you will provide. It is advisable to provide a sewing instruc- tion card along with sewn samples for the contractor. Inspection and Finishing Be sure to allow time to inspect sewn garments before they are finished. Many times, sewing contractors will give only a few days to return items for them to fix. Anybody do not want to send defects to stores.
  105. 105. Page 105 of 172 PLANNING Planning is exercise of intelligent anticipation in order to establish how an objective can be achieved, or a need fulfilled, in circumstances which are invariable restrictive. Planning pro- vides the supporting arithmetic for an objective which has already been decided. It does not establish whether the objective is right or wrong, good or bad, worthwhile or worthless ex- cept in terms which have also been decided beforehand. Consequently, only plan is invariably biased in favor of the chosen objective. Incidentally, to attack it on this count is rather like shooting the plainest and setting fire to the plans, not be- cause the plainest is playing badly or the plans are out of the tune, but simply because one does not like the music which is being played. Planning is an act of prediction, the accuracy of which varies enormously depending upon the kind of objective, kind of circumstances, the skill of the planner and his techniques and chance. Planning is necessary because resources are limited. Production planning activities originate at the aggregate level and consider decisions relevant to a specific planning horizon. A plan- ning horizon can be a period as short as four weeks a month, or a quarter (03 weeks) but more commonly refers to periods of from six months to a year or more. The aggregate planning problem is to determine the production rate which satisfies the anticipated output require- ments; while minimizing the related costs associated with the fluctuation of work force, in- ventories, and other relevant decision variables such as overtime hours subcontracting and capacity utilization. Production planning translated sales forecast into master production schedules. There are three distinct types of production planning: • Project planning. • Lot or batch planning. • Progressive of continuous planning.
  106. 106. Page 106 of 172 PROJECT PLANNING Before starting every project its planning is done. Planning a project is a very important task and should be taken up with great care as the efficiency of the whole project largely depends upon its planning. While planning a project each and every detail should be worked out in anticipation and should be considered carefully considering all the relevant provisions in ad- vance. Project planning consists of the following important steps. 1. Market Survey: Market survey in a broad sense, is a commercial survey for the suitability of business it provides necessary statistics helpful for forecasting planning project. 2. Project Capacity: Capacity of the project must be decided considering the amount of money which can be invested for particular type of product and how the money which can be invested for a par- ticular type of product and how the money can be arranged. While deciding the capacity of the project, following factors must be considered. 1. Demand of the product in the market. 2. Quantity of power, water, land and raw material available. 3. Nature of product. 4. investment capacity 3. Selection of Site: While selecting the site, technical, commercial and financial aspects should thoroughly be considered. Site should be selected in two states; in first stage general location for factory should be selected in this location. Important factors to be considered for the selection of site. a. General location of the factory. b. Selection of exact site. 4.Plant Layout: One of the most important aspects of production system design is layout of facilities primary object of these is to optimize the arrangements " 4 m's" and supporting services.
  107. 107. Page 107 of 172 5.Design and Drawing : After deciding the product its detailed drawing are prepared so that no doubt is left for future. Detailed specifications for raw materials and finished product should be decided carefully along with the specification of the machines required for their manufacture. 6. Material requirement: The list of materials required for manufacture is prepared from the engineering drawings. This list is known as ''Bill of materials" part list". 7. Operation Planning: Work of this is to select the best method of manufacturing, so that the wastage of material, labor, machine and time can be eliminated, to have more production with less fatigue. This work is done in two phases, namely. Method study is conducted to eliminate the wastage due to ill directed and inefficient motions. Time study is the exact estimation of time and is very essential for correct pricing. 8. Machine loading: Number of machines to be installed in a plant should be decided very carefully while plan- ning, proper care should be taken to find out the machining time for each operation as correct as possible, so that arrangement for full utilization of machines can be made and machines loading program is prepared accordingly. 9. Sub-contract consideration: With the development of technology and specialization, it is difficult to manufacture all the components in the same factory, due to fact that specialized machines plants and workers. The decision about particular item, whether to purchase or to manufacture, is taken by plan- ning department after making a through study of the relative merits and demerits. 10.Equipment Requirement: After knowing the number of equipments, their accessories and tools required, cost data can be collected to give and idea of capital requirement. 11.Organizational Layout and staff Requirement: Layout of organization is decided by considering the nature of work, type of industry size of industry, etc and in line of above the stalls are appointed.
  108. 108. Page 108 of 172 12.Material Handling: The material handling problems must be studied before the erection of the factory building and plant layout. 13. Budgeting: Budgeting is forecasting and preplanning for a particular future period using past expe- rience and market trends. 14.Cost Calculation Total cost of a product is calculated by adding the expenses incurred during the period on a product. 15.Procurement of Finance : Generally large industries manage their block capital through partners and shareholders. While the working capital arranged through 'shares debentures, loans and banks. 16.Critical Report on Feasibility : Generally, rate of return on the invested capital is taken as the criteria for analyzing the feasibility of the project. CAPACITY PLANNING:  Capacity Capacity is the maximum rate of output for a process. Capacity is a relative term; in an operations management context, it may be defined as, the amount of resource inputs available relative to output requirements over a particular period of time.  Production capacity is depend on as well as affected by facilities, equipment, processing, method, labor and supplies.  If facility is too large, portions of it sit idle and add cost to existing system.  If facility is too small, customer and perhaps entire markets are lost.
  109. 109. Page 109 of 172 So determining facility size, with an objective of achieving high level of utilization and a high return of investment is critical. Design capacity is the maximum theoretical output of a system in a given period under ideal conditions. Shortly, design capacity is maximum obtainable output. It is normally expressed as a rate, such as number of tons of steel can be produced per week, per month or per year. It is also called peak capacity. Effective capacity is the capacity a firm expects to achieve given its product mix, methods of scheduling, maintenance and standard quality. Measures of Capacity Two measures of the system performance are particularly useful: • Utilization • Efficiency • Utilization is simply the percent of design capacity actually achieved. Utilization is ex- pressed as- Efficiency is the percent of effective capacity actually achieved. capacityDesign OutputActual nUtilizatio  %100 capacityMaximum rateOutputAverage nUtilizatio %100 levelOpeartingBest usedCapacity nUtilizatio capacityEffective OutputActual Efficiency 
  110. 110. Page 110 of 172 • Capacity Cushion is the amount of the reserved capacity that a firm maintains to handle sudden increase in demand or temporary losses of production capacity. • It measures the amount by which the average utilization (in terms of effective capacity) falls below 100 percent. Specially, • Capacity cushion =100% - Utilization rate (%). A Systematic Approach to Capacity Decisions Although each situation is somewhat different, a four step procedure generally can help mangers make sound capacity decisions. • Estimate capacity requirements • Identify gaps by comparing requirements with available capacity. • Develop alternative plans for filling the gaps. • Evaluate the alternatives, both qualitatively and quantitatively and make a final choice. Step-1: Estimate capacity requirements • In determining capacity requirement, the demands for individual product lines, indi- vidual plant capabilities and allocation of production throughout the plant network must be addressed. The foundation of estimating long term capacity need is forecast of de- mand. Then calculate machine and labor requirement to meet product line fore- casts Suppose that capacity is expressed as the number of machines at an operation. When just one product is being processed, the number of machines required, M is- cushiondesireddeductingafteryear,permachineonefromavailableHours demandsyear'forrequiredhoursProcessing requiredMachinesofNumber  cushiondesireddeductingafteryear,permachineonefromavailableHours demandsyear'forrequiredhoursprocessing requiredMachinesofNumber 
  111. 111. Page 111 of 172 Where, D=number of units (customers) forecast per year. p = processing time (in hours per unit or customer). N = total number of hours per year during which the process operates. C = desired capacity cushion rate (%). Step-2: Identify Gaps A capacity gap is any difference (positive or negative) between projected demand and current capacity. Identifying gaps requires use of the correct capacity measure. Complications arise when multiple operations and several resource inputs are involved. Step-3: Develop Alternative The next step is to develop alternative plans to cope with projected gaps. One alternative called, base case is to do nothing and simply lose orders from any demand that exceeds current capacity. Other alternatives are various timing and sizing options for adding new capacity. Step- 4: Evaluate the alternatives Evaluate each alternative in both quantitatively and qualitatively and make a final choice. )] 100 (1[ CN Dp M  
  112. 112. Page 112 of 172 PRODUCTION PLANNING, SEQUENCES & OPERATIONS i) Production parameters ii)Description of production process iii)Daily production report iv) Monthly average production v)Production flow chart vi) Monthly efficiency vii)Remarks. Production planning: Production planning is a suitable & clear study and pre- arranging the technique involve to a long series of operation for achieving best possible time by using men, machine, materials present in industry. Production engineering: The engineering approach which is used applied in every stage of a production process of a product is known as production engineering. Production engineering includes: I. Ensures smooth production. II. Involves with maintenance management. III. It is applied on every stages of production.
  113. 113. Page 113 of 172 WORK STYDY: Work study is defined as- Work study is a collection of techniques used to examine work - what is done and how it is done-so that there is systematic analysis of all the elements, factors, resources and relation- ships affecting the efficiency and effectiveness of the work being studied. OBJECTIVES: • To standardize the method of doing a task. • To determine the standard time for doing a task. • To minimize the materials movements, operators movement, idle time of the workers and machines by proper plant layout. • To eliminate the unnecessary human motions in performing a task. • To utilize the facilities such as men, machines or materials most efficiently and effec- tively. • To establish the standard of performance. WORK STUDY TECHNIQUE: Work Study is a generic term connotes both  methods study and  Work measurement. Method-study concerned with “the way in which work is done (i.e., method)”. Work measurement deals with establishing a time standard. Motion study: Motion study is a technique of analyzing the body motions employed in doing a task in order to eliminate or reduce ineffective movements and facilitates effective movements.
  114. 114. Page 114 of 172 Method study: systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing work as means of developing and applying easier and more effective method and thereby reducing cost. Principles of motion economy: Motion economy provides a set of well-structures guidelines for analyzing and designing (or improving) the jobs. It encompasses a wide set of guidelines for the scientific use of human body, tools and work-place arrangement to increase the efficiency of the man-machine sys- tem. It also covers the aspects for reducing work-related fatigue. There are 3 principles- 1. Principles related to the use of the “human body” 2. Principles related to the “Arrangement of the workplace” 3. Principles related to the “Design of tools and equipment” WORK MEASUREMENT: Work measurement refer to the estimation of standard time, that is the time allowed for com- pleting one piece of job using the given method. International Labor Organization (ILO) de- fines work measurement as, “Work measurement is the application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a specific job at a defined level of performance.” The fundamental purpose of work measurement is to set time standard for a job. OBJECTIVES: • To establish the standard time for various operation • To schedule work and allocate capacity • To provide an objective basis for motivating and measuring workers’ performance • To provide benchmarks for improvement • To determine manpower requirements, and labor cost
  115. 115. Page 115 of 172 • To understand the production capacity of the factory, and to draw up an appropriate target output, suitable range of divided labor and optimum production. • For use as basis for determining the unit cost of manufacture and wage rate. TECHNIQES OF WORK MEASUREMENT: There are four basic techniques for measuring work and setting standards. They are- • Historical experience • Time studies • Predetermined time standards • Work sampling TIME STUDY: Time study is a systematic technique which measures and estimates the standard time of per- forming any task. Time study is defined as a work measurement technique for recording the times and rate of working for the elements of a specified job, carried out under specified con- dition, and for analyzing the data so as to obtain the time necessary for carrying out the job at a defined level of performance. PURPOSE OF TIME STUDY: • To determine the standard time of performing any operation. • To determine the time value for each work component under the motion study, which support improvements and standardization • For use as a yardstick in evaluation the operations • To find out individual worker capacity • Provide information for line balancing.
  116. 116. Page 116 of 172 STANDARD TIME: Standard time is the time required for an average operator, fully qualified and trained, and working at standard pace, to perform the operation. It must include time for all the elements in the operation and in addition it must contain time for all necessary allowances. Standard time is equal to the normal time plus the allowances. Standard time = Normal time + Allowances = Normal time + (Normal time ×Allowances) = NT (1+ Allowances). In garments production world, the terms SMV or SAM used frequently. • SMV stands for Standard Minute Value. • SAM for Standard allocated minute or Standard Allowed Minute. SMV CALCULATION: SMV calculation of a basic T-shirt from a time study sheet of a garments industry. Following formulas are use- • Normal time = (Average observed time) × (Performance rating factor). • SMV (Standard Minute Value) = Basic Time + (Allowances × Basic time). = Basic Time× (1+ Allowance). • Allowances are assumed for this calculation is 20%.
  117. 117. Page 117 of 172 IMPORTANT TERMS: Observed Time: Observed time comes from a direct observation by an observer that an operator takes to com- plete his / her relevant operation or elements. Performance Rating  During the time study, it is necessary to apply some 'adjustment' to the mean observed time to arrive at the time that the normal operator would have needed to do that job when working at an average pace. This 'adjustment' is called Performance Rating.  Rating is the assessment of the worker’s rate of working relative to the observer’s concept of the rate corresponding to the standard pace.  Therefore, the rating of the worker gives the comparison of the rate of working ob- served with respect to the standard level, which is the average rate at which qualified workers will naturally work at a job, when using the correct method and when moti- vated to apply themselves to their work. Standard rating is 10 Performance rating factor= • For example, an operator performs a task in two minutes and the time study analyst estimates to be performing about 20% faster than normal, the operators performance rating would be 120 percent of normal. Flow chart of production planning: Merchandising order sheet Pilot production Per-production meeting
  118. 118. Page 118 of 172 Bulk production Shipment Description of Production process: Merchandising order sheet: Merchandising Department communication with Buyer. Buyer at first asks for a sample to product development department by their specified data. After complete a sample, send to the Buyer by following every instruction given by Buyer. If Buyer is pleased they give the order and if found any problem or change is required Buyer give comments on sample. Product development section again fulfills their com- ments and send sample. Finally when everything is ok, then buyer give instruction about Quantity for bulk production. Pilot Production: When production order is fixed, before going to bulk production. Pilot production /pre-production/trail are done as like bulk production. Pilot production is done before bulk production because reduce wastage. Pre-production meeting: Before going to bulk production planning and material man- agement start working. Planning department make a schedule for which section need how much time and how much line and sequence of line balancing for smooth bulk. Production by organizing a pre-production meeting. Material management section closely related with planning section. Material management section manages all kind of materials for smooth production. Bulk Production: When order Quantity get fixed and all materials are ready authority go for bulk production. Before going to bulk production all calculation (fabric, accessories, line, time, manpower, others) should be perfectly calculate for proper shipment. Materials book- ing and receive schedule taken by merchandiser and coordinate with all team members.