Raising New Plants Through Cuttings 2002

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Raising New Plants Through Cuttings 2002

  1. 1. The Secret of Starting New Plants From Cuttings Delta Montrose Voc Tech Presented by Sheryl Williams
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Growing a piece of a plant and inducing it to grow it’s own roots </li></ul><ul><li>Cuttings are the most successful way of propagating many plants </li></ul><ul><li>Cuttings are an exact replica of the parent – genetically identical </li></ul>
  3. 3. Secret to Success <ul><li>Timing & Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Taking cuttings is pretty easy </li></ul><ul><li>Timing is critical Based on How a Plant Grows </li></ul>
  4. 4. Agenda <ul><li>How a plant grows </li></ul><ul><li>How to take different kinds of cuttings </li></ul><ul><li>Tools and Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting Care </li></ul><ul><li>How it works – scientifically </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested plants for fall cuttings </li></ul><ul><li>Where to get more information </li></ul>
  5. 5. How a Plant Grows <ul><li>Woody plants need wood to support height </li></ul><ul><li>New growth is soft and pliable </li></ul><ul><li>Several stages of ‘woodiness’ </li></ul>
  6. 6. Annuals <ul><li>Soft tissue only </li></ul><ul><li>Set seed and die </li></ul>
  7. 7. Herbaceous Perennials <ul><li>Soft tissue dies to the ground each year </li></ul><ul><li>New soft tissue comes from the crown </li></ul>
  8. 8. Shrubs and Woody Perennials <ul><li>Multi-trunk/stem </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue ‘lignifies’ at the end of the growing season </li></ul><ul><li>New tissue emerges from the woody stems </li></ul>
  9. 9. Trees <ul><li>Single trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue ‘lignifies’ at the end of the growing season </li></ul><ul><li>New tissue emerges from the woody stems </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stages of Woodiness <ul><li>All on this year’s growth </li></ul><ul><li>Softwood – New green shoots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Spring to Late Summer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semi-ripe – Stems are just hardening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not yet woody </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can bend but won’t snap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid Summer – Mid Autumn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardwood (Ripewood)– Hard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Late Summer - Autumn </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Lab 1 – Examine stages of Growth/Woodiness <ul><li>Take a grape vine and and elm branch </li></ul><ul><li>Cut into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Softwood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-ripe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardwood </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Grape Vine
  13. 13. Siberian Elm Branch
  14. 14. Technique - Tools and Equipment <ul><li>Taking cuttings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knife or razorblade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rooting Hormone powders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sterile Potting soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pencil or wooden dowel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unheated propagators </li></ul>
  15. 15. Softwood (Stem Tip) Cuttings <ul><li>Usually in late spring and early summer from young shoots before they start to become “ripe” or woody </li></ul><ul><li>Soft and fleshy and easily lose moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Need to be kept in a close, damp atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Need a bit of bottom heat 65-70 deg F </li></ul>
  16. 16. Softwood Cutting Step 1 <ul><li>Work in a cool, shady place under cover or indoors </li></ul><ul><li>Collect pieces of stems around 6 inches long </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a strong, healthy shoot </li></ul>
  17. 17. Softwood Cutting Step 2 <ul><li>Take sharp knife or razorblade and cut each shoot below a node </li></ul><ul><li>Strip lower third or half of of foliage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t take a strip of bark or stem skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave two to four leaves </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Softwood Cutting Step 3 <ul><li>If the leaves have a large surface </li></ul><ul><li>Cut the leaves to make them smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Limit the amount of transpiration from the leaves </li></ul>
  19. 19. Softwood Cuttings Step 4 <ul><li>Treat with rooting hormone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower ¼ inch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tap off extra </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use a wooden dowel or pencil to make a hole in the potting soil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If using pots should get 6 –10 in a 4 inch pot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If using a seed tray should get 28 </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Softwood Cutting Step 5 <ul><li>Insert cuttings touching the bottom of the hole </li></ul><ul><li>Lower leaves are just above the surface of the potting soil </li></ul><ul><li>Firm the soil around the stem </li></ul><ul><li>Water and allow to drain </li></ul>
  21. 21. Lab 2 – Softwood Cuttings <ul><li>Scented geraniums </li></ul><ul><li>Coleus </li></ul><ul><li>Hoya </li></ul><ul><li>Plectranthus </li></ul><ul><li>Swedish ivy </li></ul><ul><li>Cuban oregano </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatherna </li></ul>
  22. 22. Semi-ripe Cuttings <ul><li>Taken mid summer to mid autumn </li></ul><ul><li>When plant is becoming woody at the base and tops are still soft </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure no pests or diseases </li></ul>
  23. 23. Semi-ripe Differences from softwood <ul><li>Include heel </li></ul><ul><li>Remove flowers and fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Wound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut away a thin sliver of bark from one side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Score with a knife at the cutting’s base </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Semi-ripe Differences from softwood <ul><li>Add a layer of fine sand on the soil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>improve drainage immediately around each cutting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep in high humidity for the first few days </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilate if temperature over 75deg F </li></ul><ul><li>Will take 5 to 25 weeks, more growth in spring </li></ul>
  25. 25. Lab 3 – Semi-ripe Cuttings <ul><li>Rosemary </li></ul><ul><li>Lavender </li></ul><ul><li>Lemon verbena </li></ul><ul><li>Sages </li></ul><ul><li>Hyssop </li></ul><ul><li>Helichrysum (curry) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Hardwood Cuttings Step 1 <ul><li>From fully ripened wood </li></ul><ul><li>Take 8 to 10 inches of one year old healthy wood </li></ul><ul><li>Bark is fully colored and firm enough not to ‘give’ when squeezed </li></ul>
  27. 27. Hardwood Cuttings Step 2 <ul><li>Bottom - Straight cut below a bud or leaf joint </li></ul><ul><li>Top - Sloping cut just above a bud at the top </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This will let you know the top from the bottom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any tissue above the bud will die back to the top node </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dip in rooting hormone and tap off excess </li></ul>
  28. 28. Hardwood Cuttings – If ground freezes Step 3 <ul><li>Store the cuttings, bundled together in a box filled with slightly moist vermiculite, sawdust, or sand (cover the cuttings completely) </li></ul><ul><li>Place the box in an unheated (but not freezing) garage or shed . </li></ul>
  29. 29. Hardwood Cuttings Trench option Step 3 <ul><li>Space cutting 6 inches apart </li></ul><ul><li>Press into trench to touch bottom – ½ to 2/3 of their length </li></ul><ul><li>Firm soil around cuttings </li></ul>
  30. 30. Hardwood Cuttings – Spring <ul><li>Takes months to form a callous at the base and then to make roots </li></ul><ul><li>Transplant before they break dormancy </li></ul><ul><li>Water well in the spring and protect from the sun </li></ul>
  31. 31. Lab 4 – Hardwood Cutting <ul><li>Grape vine </li></ul>
  32. 32. Whole-Leaf Cuttings Step 1 <ul><li>Cut a healthy, mature leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Close to the base of the leaf stalk </li></ul><ul><li>Insert in posts of equal parts peat and coarse sand </li></ul><ul><li>Base of leaf just touches the surface </li></ul>
  33. 33. Whole-Leaf Cuttings Step 2 <ul><li>Water the cuttings </li></ul><ul><li>Allow to drain </li></ul><ul><li>Label </li></ul><ul><li>Cover to prevent moisture loss </li></ul><ul><li>Shade from direct sunlight </li></ul>
  34. 34. Whole-Leaf Cutting <ul><li>African Violet </li></ul>
  35. 35. Succulent Leaf Cuttings <ul><li>Remove a healthy leaf by pulling it sideways </li></ul><ul><li>Allow the wound to callus </li></ul><ul><li>Leave in a warm dry place for a few days </li></ul>
  36. 36. Succulent Leaf Cuttings <ul><li>Push the based of each leaf deep enough into grit for the leaf to stand up </li></ul><ul><li>Label and place in a bright warm, airy position </li></ul><ul><li>Keep slightly moist </li></ul>
  37. 37. Succulent Leaf Cuttings <ul><li>After 1-6 months the leaves should have rooted </li></ul>
  38. 38. Lab 6 – Succulent Leaf Cutting <ul><li>Practice even though the leaves have not yet callused </li></ul>
  39. 39. Root Cuttings – Step 1 <ul><li>Best if the plant is mostly dormant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mid autumn or early winter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use pencil thick roots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If thinner make them longer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose those roots with lots of buds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cut into 1 ½ - 3 inch sections </li></ul><ul><li>Top slanted, bottom straight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To tell the difference </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Root Cuttings – Step 2 <ul><li>Make holes in a pot 1 inch apart </li></ul><ul><li>Insert the cuttings vertically </li></ul><ul><li>Cover with ½ inch of medium </li></ul><ul><li>Firm and water </li></ul>
  41. 41. Root Cuttings – Step 3 <ul><li>Place cuttings in a warm bright area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 50 degrees or more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not in direct sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will take 2 to 3 weeks to show growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As growth starts water with liquid fertilizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often get shoots before new roots </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Root Cuttings <ul><li>Oriental poppies </li></ul><ul><li>Crambe cordifolia </li></ul><ul><li>Verbascum </li></ul><ul><li>Horseradish </li></ul><ul><li>Mint </li></ul>
  43. 43. Lab 7 Root Cutting of Mint <ul><li>Water mint – Mentha aquatica </li></ul>On Land In Water
  44. 44. Lab 7 Water Mint <ul><li>Roots in water </li></ul>
  45. 45. Roses – Softwood Cuttings <ul><li>Best for Miniatures, Climbing </li></ul><ul><li>Early to midsummer </li></ul><ul><li>Cut just above a node </li></ul><ul><li>Cut each shoot into sections </li></ul><ul><li>Cut above each node along the stem </li></ul><ul><li>Retain one leaf at the top </li></ul><ul><li>Discard growing tip </li></ul>
  46. 46. Roses – Softwood Cuttings <ul><li>Trim the leaflets to reduce moisture loss </li></ul><ul><li>Immerse cutting in fungicidal solution </li></ul><ul><li>Dip in hormone rooting powder </li></ul><ul><li>Tent in plastic bag </li></ul><ul><li>Provide bottom heat of 80 degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce heat to 65-70 after 4 weeks </li></ul>
  47. 47. Roses – Hardwood Cuttings Method 1 <ul><li>For Miniature, Groundcover, Climbing, Modern Shrub, Old Garden and Species roses </li></ul><ul><li>Late summer or autumn </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a trench in semi-shade 8 in deep </li></ul><ul><li>Take well-ripened woody shoots from the current season’s growth </li></ul><ul><li>12-24 in long </li></ul>
  48. 48. Roses – Hardwood Cuttings Method 2 <ul><li>For Miniature and ground cover roses </li></ul><ul><li>Late summer or autumn </li></ul><ul><li>Place 3” cuttings in rooting medium </li></ul><ul><li>3” pots under cover </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom heat of 70 degrees </li></ul>
  49. 49. Tools and Equipment Maintenance and Care <ul><li>Soil warming cables </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial light </li></ul><ul><li>Thermometer </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic wrap, freezer bags, plastic bags </li></ul><ul><li>Wooden or wire supports for plastic wrap </li></ul>
  50. 50. Tools and Equipment optional <ul><li>Anti-transpirant – to inhibit transpiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilt Pruf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Wilt – cloning wax </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Willow Water ? </li></ul>
  51. 51. Potting Mix <ul><li>Sphagnum peat and horticultural sand </li></ul><ul><li>Fill to ½ inch of rim </li></ul><ul><li>Moisten thoroughly, but not too wet or the cuttings will rot </li></ul>
  52. 52. Cutting Care <ul><li>Create a warm, moist environment </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal temperature is 64 degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom heat </li></ul><ul><li>Cover with glass or plastic </li></ul>
  53. 53. Cutting Care <ul><li>Open plastic daily to vent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If drops of water on the plastic, punch a few small air holes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remove any dropped leaves to prevent disease </li></ul><ul><li>Remove any cutting that has dried up </li></ul>
  54. 54. How to tell when roots have formed <ul><li>When tips start to grow rapidly rooting has probably taken place </li></ul><ul><li>Look for roots through bottom of the pots </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t pull them out yet </li></ul><ul><li>Remove plastic covers and allow the plants to harden off </li></ul>
  55. 55. Scientific side – How it works
  56. 56. <ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>06/07/09 Leaf Cutting <ul><li>The leaf blade produces a hormone (auxin) </li></ul><ul><li>The hormone accumulates at the the base of the petiole to create a callus </li></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>06/07/09 Leaf Cutting <ul><li>The callus can become any kind of structure </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of hormone causes the callus to initiate roots </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>06/07/09 Leaf Cutting <ul><li>The roots produce another hormone (cytokinin) that is accumulated in the callus </li></ul><ul><li>The concentration of cytokinin stimulates shoot formation </li></ul><ul><li>You have a whole plant! </li></ul>
  59. 59. Callus Without Callus With Callus
  60. 60. Softwood (Stem Tip) Cutting <ul><li>Stem Cuttings are faster than leaf cuttings because the leaves contribute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The hormone auxin (IAA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugars and starches through photosynthesis </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>06/07/09 Softwood (Stem Tip) Cutting How it works <ul><li>The hormone accumulates at the basal end of the cutting </li></ul><ul><li>Callus and ultimately roots are formed </li></ul>
  62. 62. Early Fall Cuttings - Softwood <ul><li>Tender Perennials </li></ul><ul><li>Softwood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veronica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatherna </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Early Fall Semi-Ripe <ul><li>Rosemary </li></ul><ul><li>Lavender </li></ul><ul><li>Santolina </li></ul><ul><li>Pelargoniums (Geraniums) </li></ul><ul><li>Lemon Verbena </li></ul><ul><li>Dianthus </li></ul><ul><li>Lupine </li></ul><ul><li>Verbena </li></ul><ul><li>Artemisia </li></ul>
  64. 64. Suggested Plants for Late Fall Cuttings <ul><li>Hardwood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arctic Willow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Butterfly Bush </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Softwood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persian Shield </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Where to Get More Information <ul><li>Gardening Indoors with Cuttings </li></ul><ul><li>George F. Van Patten and Alyssa F. Bust </li></ul><ul><li>The Complete Book of Plant propagation by Graham Clarke & Alan Toogood </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.freeplants.com/ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by Mike McGroarty </li></ul></ul>

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