4 Entomology New


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4 Entomology New

  1. 1. http://www.earthlife.net/insects/six01.html
  2. 2. What is an insect? <ul><li>air breathing animal </li></ul><ul><li>hard jointed exoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>in the adult, a body divided into three parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the head with one pair of antennae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the thorax which carries three pairs of legs and usually two pairs of wings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and the abdomen which contains the guts and reproductive organs </li></ul></ul>
  3. 6. Head <ul><li>The head is the anterior of the three body regions of an adult insect </li></ul><ul><li>It bears the eyes (usually a pair of compound eyes) </li></ul><ul><li>Antennae </li></ul><ul><li>Mouthparts </li></ul>
  4. 7. Mouthparts <ul><li>Chewing type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grasshoppers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beetles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sucking mouthparts shaped like stylets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aphids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sucking shaped like a coiled tongue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Butterflies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>moths </li></ul></ul>Labrum Mandibles Maxillae Labium
  5. 8. Antennae <ul><li>detect odors </li></ul><ul><li>tactile (touch) organs </li></ul><ul><li>variable in form and size </li></ul>
  6. 9. Thorax <ul><li>middle of the three body regions of an adult insect </li></ul><ul><li>composed of 3 segments </li></ul><ul><li>3 pairs of legs (one on each segment) </li></ul><ul><li>usually 2 pairs of wings </li></ul><ul><li>Some insects have only 1 pair of wings. </li></ul>
  7. 10. Legs <ul><li>Adult insects have 6 legs </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the segments of the thorax bears 1 pair of legs </li></ul><ul><li>The legs are segmented </li></ul><ul><li>Often the last segment of the leg bears a small claw </li></ul><ul><li>In some insects, the legs are specially adapted for jumping. </li></ul>
  8. 11. Wings <ul><li>Most adult insects have 2 pairs of wings </li></ul><ul><li>some (for example flies) have only 1 pair of wings </li></ul><ul><li>Usually the wings are membranous </li></ul><ul><li>in some insects they can be leathery or hard </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes the wings bear hairs or small scales. </li></ul>
  9. 13. Abdomen <ul><li>The abdomen is the posterior of the three body regions of an adult insect </li></ul><ul><li>It is composed of 11 segments </li></ul><ul><li>The abdomen bears the external genitalia </li></ul><ul><li>In female insects these consist of an ovipositor. </li></ul>
  10. 14. Metamorphosis of Insects <ul><li>Several stages in the change from egg to adult </li></ul><ul><li>Instars are stages of larval development </li></ul><ul><li>Four kinds of metamorphosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete </li></ul></ul>
  11. 15. Gradual/Incomplete Metamorphosis
  12. 16. Gradual Metamorphosis <ul><li>In gradual metamorphosis, the nymphal stages resemble the adult except that they do not have wings and the nymphs may be colored differently than the adults </li></ul>
  13. 17. Complete Metamorphosis
  14. 18. Complete Metamorphosis <ul><li>Wings develop internally during the larval stages. </li></ul><ul><li>The larval stages look quite different from the adult </li></ul><ul><li>Between the last larval stage and the adult stage there is a pupal stage which usually is inactive. </li></ul>
  15. 19. Complete Metamorphosis
  16. 20. Insect Orders <ul><li>32 Orders </li></ul><ul><li>We are studying 10 orders </li></ul>
  17. 21. Endopterygota endo = inside; pterygot = little wing <ul><li>Insects with complete, complex metamorphosis in which the wings develop internally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coleoptera – beetle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diptera – flies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hymenoptera – Ants, Bees & Wasps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lepidoptera – Butterflies and Moths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neruoptera - Lacewings </li></ul></ul>
  18. 22. Exopterygota exo =outside; pterygion=little wing <ul><li>Winged insects with incomplete metamorphosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dermaptera – earwigs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemiptera – true bugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homoptera – cicadas, aphids, spittlebugs, leafhoppers, whiteflies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orthoptera – crickets and grasshoppers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thysanoptera – thrips </li></ul></ul>
  19. 23. Endopterygota Inside little wing Complete metamorphosis
  20. 24. Coleoptera kole-ee-OP-tera <ul><li>the largest group of insects (25,000 species in No. America) </li></ul><ul><li>beetles and weevils (snouted beetle) </li></ul><ul><li>2 pairs of wings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer hardened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner membranous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>chewing mouthparts (both adults and larvae) </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae: head capsule, 3 pairs of legs on thorax, no legs on abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>complete metamorphosis </li></ul>
  21. 25. Coleoptera <ul><li>Colorado Potato Beetle </li></ul><ul><li>Ground Beetles </li></ul><ul><li>Ips Beetle </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese Beetle </li></ul><ul><li>Ladybird Beetles </li></ul>
  22. 26. Diptera DIP-tur-ah <ul><li>gnats, mosquitoes, and true flies </li></ul><ul><li>a single pair of membranous wings </li></ul><ul><li>sucking or piercing mouthparts </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae are legless (maggots) </li></ul><ul><li>complete metamorphosis </li></ul>
  23. 27. Diptera <ul><li>Aphid Predator Midge </li></ul><ul><li>Leafminer </li></ul><ul><li>Surphid Fly </li></ul><ul><li>Tachinid Fly </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding habits vary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scavengers (House flies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood feeders (Mosquitos) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant galls (gall midges) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predators (flower files) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aquatic </li></ul></ul>
  24. 28. Hymenoptera hi-men-OP-tare-ah <ul><li>sawflies, ants, bees, and wasps </li></ul><ul><li>2 pairs membranous wings </li></ul><ul><li>chewing or chewing-lapping mouthparts </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae with no legs </li></ul><ul><li>complete metamorphosis </li></ul>
  25. 29. Hymenoptera <ul><li>Leaf-cutter bees </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitic wasps </li></ul><ul><li>Pearslugs </li></ul>
  26. 30. Lepidoptera lep-ih-DOP-ter-ah <ul><li>moths, skippers, and butterflies </li></ul><ul><li>scale-covered wings </li></ul><ul><li>coiled siphoning mouthparts to feed on nectar </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae with chewing mouthparts and are voracious feeders </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae generally have legs on the abdomen as well as thorax </li></ul><ul><li>complete metamorphosis </li></ul>
  27. 31. Lepidoptera <ul><li>Army cutworms </li></ul><ul><li>Borers </li></ul><ul><li>Cabbage loopers </li></ul><ul><li>Codling moths </li></ul><ul><li>Pine Tip Moth </li></ul><ul><li>Pinon Pitch Mass Borer </li></ul><ul><li>Tomato Hornworms </li></ul>
  28. 32. Neruoptera nur-OP-ter-ah <ul><li>Lacewings, antlions, snakeflies </li></ul><ul><li>Insect predators, many are aquatic </li></ul><ul><li>2 pairs of membranous wings </li></ul><ul><li>chewing mouthparts </li></ul><ul><li>complete metamorphosis </li></ul>
  29. 33. Exopterygota Outside little wing Incomplete/gradual metamorphosis
  30. 34. Dermaptera dur-MAP-ter-ah <ul><li>Earwigs </li></ul><ul><li>short, hardened wing covers </li></ul><ul><li>chewing mouthparts </li></ul><ul><li>pincer like abdominal cerci </li></ul><ul><li>gradual metamorphosis </li></ul>
  31. 35. Hemiptera he-MIP-tare-ah <ul><li>true bugs </li></ul><ul><li>2 pairs of wings;half leathery/half membranous forewings </li></ul><ul><li>Piercing - sucking mouthparts </li></ul><ul><li>gradual metamorphosis </li></ul><ul><li>Both adults and nymphs are damaging </li></ul>http://members.aol.com/YESedu/glossary.html#C
  32. 36. Hemiptera <ul><li>Boxelder Bugs </li></ul><ul><li>Minute Pirate Bug </li></ul><ul><li>Spined Soldier Bug </li></ul><ul><li>Squash Bugs </li></ul>
  33. 37. Homoptera ho-MOP-tare-ah <ul><li>Cicada, aphids, spittlebugs, leafhoppers and whiteflies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a jointed beak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but in which the fore-wings are either wholly membranous or wholly leathery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winged and unwinged forms </li></ul></ul>
  34. 38. Homoptera <ul><li>Aphids </li></ul><ul><li>Cooley Spruce Gall Agelid </li></ul><ul><li>Leafhopper </li></ul><ul><li>Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Wooly Apple Aphids </li></ul><ul><li>Phloem feeders </li></ul><ul><li>Vector many pathogens </li></ul>
  35. 39. Orthoptera oar-THOP-tera <ul><li>made up of the grasshoppers, grouse locusts, katydids, crickets, and mole crickets, praying mantid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>leathery forewings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chewing mouthparts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hind legs generally enlarged for jumping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gradual metamorphosis </li></ul></ul>
  36. 40. Thysanoptera thigh-san-OP-ter-ah <ul><li>Thrips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 pairs of fringed wings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small soft-bodies insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rasping-sucking mouthparts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found on flowers or leaves of plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix of gradual and complete metamorphosis </li></ul></ul>
  37. 41. Insect Key <ul><li>With Wings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One Wing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Wings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Without Wings </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.kendall-bioresearch.co.uk/key.htm </li></ul>