2 Plant Health Care Fungal Pathogens Old Test


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2 Plant Health Care Fungal Pathogens Old Test

  1. 1. Plant Health Care Fungal Pathogens
  2. 3. Fungi <ul><li>Majority of fungi are NOT plant pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily survive on non-living organic material, are called SAPROPHYTES </li></ul><ul><li>The non-reproductive &quot;body&quot; of most fungi (called the vegetative phase) is composed of a mass of a fungal threads called HYPHAE (singular = HYPHA ) </li></ul><ul><li>This mass of hyphae is called a MYCELIUM (plural = MYCELIA ). While an individual hypha is microscopic, mycelia are often visible with the naked eye. </li></ul>
  3. 4. HYPHAE (singular = HYPHA ) are the threadlike structures that comprise the major body of a fungus. You can think of a hypha as a long tube. Many hyphae in a mass are called MYCELIUM (plural = MYCELIA ).
  4. 5. Fungi Identification <ul><li>Most fungi produce hyphae, as the one shown here, that have CROSS WALLS (partitions dividing the tubes into individual cells) </li></ul><ul><li>presence or absence of cross walls can be important in distinguishing and identifying some plant pathogenic fungi. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Fungal Fruiting Structures <ul><li>Fungi produce a wide range of reproductive structures (generically called FRUITING BODIES ) </li></ul><ul><li>Within fruiting bodies, a fungus produces spores </li></ul>
  6. 7. Powdery Mildew Fruiting Bodies <ul><li>Black – fruiting body </li></ul><ul><li>Red – sacks </li></ul><ul><li>Blue – spores </li></ul><ul><li>Green - appendages </li></ul>
  7. 8. Phaeosphaeria spartinicola Pithomyces
  8. 9. Spore (Botrytis)
  9. 10. Group I – Primarily Affecting Leaves <ul><li>Coryneum Blight </li></ul><ul><li>Early Blight </li></ul><ul><li>Fusarium Wilt </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf Spot </li></ul><ul><li>Powdery Mildew </li></ul><ul><li>Rust </li></ul><ul><li>Sooty Mold </li></ul>
  10. 11. Blight Symptoms <ul><li>When spots or lesions enlarge and merge so that large areas of a leaf are necrotic and diseased, then we call this a BLIGHT . </li></ul>
  11. 12. Coryneum Blight <ul><li>Affects stone fruits in Colorado </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Shothole’ disease </li></ul><ul><li>Affects fruit, stems, and leaves </li></ul>
  12. 13. Coryneum Blight http://www.coopext.colostate.edu/TRA/PLANTS/coryneumblight.html
  13. 14. Early Blight Tomato early blight target-like leaf spot  <ul><li>Tomato early blight target like leaf spots </li></ul><ul><li>Starts with small spots </li></ul>
  14. 15. Early Blight
  15. 16. Fusarium Wilt of Tomato
  16. 17. Fusarium Wilt of Tobacco
  17. 18. Fusarium Root Rot
  18. 19. Fusarium Wilt
  19. 20. Fungal Leaf Spot <ul><li>Redbud </li></ul>
  20. 21. Marssonina leaf spot of Aspen
  21. 22. Marssonina Leaf Spot of Poplar
  22. 23. Powdery Mildew <ul><li>The white that you see is a combination of hyphae and asexual spores. </li></ul><ul><li>‘Powdery Mildew’ is a group of closely related fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Host specific </li></ul><ul><li>High humidity is the key </li></ul>
  23. 24. Powdery Mildew on Lilac
  24. 25. Powdery Mildew on Pumpkin
  25. 27. Powdery Mildew overwinters in Apple buds <ul><li>Overwintering apple powdery mildew deforms the buds creating a feathered appearance (right) rather than a smooth round healthy bud (left). </li></ul>
  26. 28. Powdery mildew on apple foliage <ul><li>Powdery mildew symptoms on apple foliage (right), notice upward curling of leaves and white appearance. Healthy foliage (left). </li></ul>
  27. 29. Rust <ul><li>rusty-orange, powdery PUSTULES </li></ul><ul><li>Easily rubbed off </li></ul><ul><li>Often requires two hosts </li></ul>
  28. 30. May Apple Rust
  29. 31. Rose Rust
  30. 32. Rust on Spruce
  31. 33. Rust on Lawn & Shoes
  32. 34. Cedar Apple Rust
  33. 37. Sooty Mold Linden
  34. 38. Scale & Sooty Mold on Pine
  35. 40. Group II – Primarily Affecting Stems <ul><li>Anthracnose </li></ul><ul><li>Botrytis Blight </li></ul><ul><li>Cytospora Canker </li></ul><ul><li>Verticillium Wilt </li></ul>
  36. 41. Cankers <ul><li>Lesions that occur on the stems of herbaceous plants or on the trunks and branches of woody plants are called CANKERS </li></ul><ul><li>Often cankers are sunken and discolored, or, as in this example of a canker disease on honey locust, the outer bark layer has totally fallen away. </li></ul>http://www.plantpath.wisc.edu/PDDCEducation/MasterGardener/General/Slide15.htm
  37. 42. Anthracnose of Maple & Sycamore Enlarged leaf vein
  38. 43. Anthracnose                                                                                   
  39. 44. Anthracnose on Twig
  40. 45. Botrytis Blight
  41. 46. Cytospora Canker in Aspen                             
  42. 47. Cytospora Canker <ul><li>Orange-stained bark and sap flow are indicative of early cytospora canker infection </li></ul>
  43. 48. Cytospora Canker <ul><li>As infected tissue dies, pimple-like fruiting bodies called pycnidia form </li></ul>
  44. 49. Cytospora Canker <ul><li>Under moist conditions small orange tendrils of a jellylike material oozes from the pycnidia. </li></ul>
  45. 50. Cytospera Canker in Spruce
  46. 51. Fungal Canker Nectria galligena on apple
  47. 52. Lantern canker on birch with nail
  48. 53. Vascular Wilt <ul><li>Vascular wilt pathogens invade the plant's water-conducting tissue (called the XYLEM ). </li></ul><ul><li>These pathogens either cause blockages in the xylem themselves </li></ul><ul><li>or the plant itself blocks off the xylem in an effort to localize the pathogen. </li></ul>
  49. 54. Verticillium Wilt of Maple <ul><li>VASCULAR DISCOLORATION or BROWNING </li></ul>
  50. 55. Verticillium Wilt
  51. 56. Verticillium Wilt – Tomato
  52. 57. Group III - Primarily Affecting Roots <ul><li>Pythophera </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizoctonia </li></ul>
  53. 58. Phytophthora Root Rot
  54. 59. Phytophthora Root Rot                                                                                            
  55. 60. Phytophthora Stem Rot
  56. 61. Phytophthera in Soy Beans
  57. 62. Rhizoctonia
  58. 63. Rhizoctonia lesions                                         
  59. 64. Group IV – Fungal Diseases of Turf <ul><li>Ascochyta Leaf Blight </li></ul><ul><li>Dollar Spot </li></ul><ul><li>Fairy Rings </li></ul><ul><li>Melting Out Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Necrotic Ring Spot </li></ul>
  60. 65. Ascochyta Leaf Blight
  61. 67. Fairy Rings
  62. 68. Melting Out Disease of Turf
  63. 69. Necrotic Ring Spot