RFID based indoor tracking system


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Details on RFID and its application for tracking of objects or people in houses,buildings etc

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RFID based indoor tracking system

  1. 1. Presented by: Sherwin Rodrigues 1
  2. 2. Introduction With the popularity of indoor location sensing systems and numerous research on positioning in wireless networks, the indoor RFID positioning issue has emerged and it is a significant research topic. There are many different kinds of positioning technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS), cellular phone tracking system, Wi‐Fi positioning system and RFID Positioning System. RFID Positioning System is an accurate positioning technology which can identify the movement and location of personnel and goods to provide real time information that supports Location‐Based Services (LBS) to offer a low cost indoor positioning solution for locating large number of items, passive tags are chosen rather than active ones. 2
  3. 3. Abstract Radio frequency identification (RFID) is the technology that put an RFID tag on objects or people, so that they can be identified, tracked, and managed automatically. With its wide application in the automobile assembly industry, warehouse management and the supply chain network, RFID has been recognized as the next promising technology in serving the positioning purpose. Existing positioning technologies such as GPS are not available indoors as the terminal cannot get the signal from satellites. Results of experiment show that readability of the passive RFID positioning system is satisfactory, and it is a more cost effective solution when compared with other positioning technologies. 3
  4. 4. What is RFID? • Radio-frequency identification ( RFID ) is an automatic identification method using radio waves. • It is the use of a wireless non-contact system that uses radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer data from a tag attached to an object or person. • It can be used to monitor animal movement as well as objects movement 4
  5. 5. History • First Bar code patents – 1930s • 1945, Leon Theremin used it as an espionage tool for the Soviet government • First use of RFID device – 2nd world war – British used RFID-like technology for Identify- Friend or Foe • Harry Stockman October 1948 Paper – Communication by means of reflected power ( The proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers) • First RFID Patent - 1973 by Mario Cardullo • Auto-ID center founded at MIT – 1999 • Standardization effort taken over by EPC Global (Electronic Product Code) • Current thrust primarily driven by Wal-Mart and DoD 5
  6. 6. RFID System Three Main Components: 1. Tags, or transponders, affixed to objects and carry identifying data. 2. Readers, or transceivers, read or write tag data and interface with back-end databases. 3. Back-end databases, correlate data stored on tags with physical objects i.e. a host and system software. 6
  7. 7. Components of RFID System Host Computer Host Memory Space Antenna Customer-Specific Application Software Application Application Program Program Interface Interface (API) (API) RFID API Software (Communicates with the RFID Reader) Reader 7
  8. 8. Tags •An RFID tag is a device that can store and transmit data to a reader in a contact less manner using radio waves. •RFID tags can be classified in two different ways. • Passive • Active RFID Adhesive Labels 8
  9. 9. • Passive • No on-board power source • Uses the power emitted from the reader to energize itself and transmit its stored data to the reader • Smaller than an active tag • Cheaper • Range: 10-12 feet • Active • Has on-board power source • No need for reader's emitted power for data transmission. • Can broadcast its data to its surroundings even in the absence of a reader • Range: 100 feet 9
  10. 10. Reader •An RFID reader can read from and write data to compatible RFID tags. •A reader thus doubles up as a writer. The act of writing the tag data by a reader is called creating a tag. •It energizes tags(passive tags) 10
  11. 11. RFID Operation • A radio device called a tag is attached to the object that needs to be identified. • When this tagged object is presented in front of a suitable RFID reader, the tag transmits this data to the reader (via the reader antenna). • The reader then reads the data and has the capability to forward it over suitable communication channels. • This application can then use this unique data to identify the object presented to the reader. Network Data Processing Reader 01.203D2A.916E8B.8719BAE03C Tag Database 11
  12. 12. •The RFID signals (i.e. RSSI) of an object attached with a passive tag is automatically detected and recorded in the database for location detection. •. The selected area for carrying out the experiments would be divided equally into cells formed by a grid. •. Four RFID readers will be installed at each corner of the selected area Look Up Table (LUT) 12
  13. 13. • When an object is placed inside one of the cells within the selected experimental area, the RFID Positioning System will notify the RFID readers and then record the RSSI of the object picked up by the four readers. • From the LUT, each cell has a fixed set of four average values of RSSI. The system will then calculate the Euclidean distance of that object to the readers. • The cell that has the smallest Euclidean distance would mean that it is nearest to the current position of the detected object. Tag readability performance 13
  14. 14. RFID Advantages • Contactless. An RFID tag can be read without any physical contact between the tag and the reader. • Writable data. The data of a read-write (RW) RFID tag can be rewritten a large number of times. • Absence of line of sight. A line of sight is generally not required for an RFID reader to read an RFID tag. • Variety of read ranges. • Wide data-capacity range. • Support for multiple tag reads. • Perform smart tasks. 14
  15. 15. RFID Applications • Tracking of goods. • Tracking of persons and animals. • Toll collection and contactless payment. • Tracking Books in Libraries. • Machine readable travel documents. • Passport & Airport baggage tracking logistics. • Car keys, wireless entry and ignition 15
  16. 16. Conclusion • RFID has been widely applied in supply chain for tracking goods, the technology of RFID applications is quite mature, and there is a trend of developing positioning systems to meet the demands of indoor location sensing applications, driving more research topics on RFID positioning issues. Therefore, there is a need to develop a positioning system that employs RFID technology. • This Passive RFID Positioning System is based on RSSI which is a measurement of the power present in a received radio signal to determine the location of an object with passive tags. • Cost effectiveness • Feasibility 16
  17. 17. References •Bekkali, H. Sanson, M. Matsumoto, (2007).RFID indoor positioning based on probabilistic RFID map and kalman filtering, In: Proceedings of the WiMOB, 2007. •Chang N., Rashidzadeh, R., Ahmadi, M., (2010). Robust indoor positioning using differential wi‐fi access points, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics,56(3), 1860‐1867, 2010 Daito, M. and Tanida, N., (2008). •Agent‐based simulation approach for disaster rescue using active RFID. An overview of location‐based services, BT Technology Journal 21 (1) ,2007. •Fu A. and Retscher, G., (2009). Active RFID Trilateration and Location Fingerprinting Based on RSSI for Pedestrian Navigation, Journal of Navigation. •Hazas, M., Scott J. and Krumm, J. (2004), Location‐aware computing comes of age, IEEE Computer 37 (2) (2006) •Yim J., Jeong S., Gwon K. and Joo J. (2010). Improvement of Kalman filters for WLAN based indoor tracking. Expert Systems with Applications, 2010 •Yu, K., Sharp, I. and Y. J. (2009). Guo, Ground‐Based Wireless Positioning. Wiley‐IEEE Press, 2009 17
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