The examination room• Surrounded by 160 other students• Surrounded by good examples of design• Surrounded by loads of materials and finishes• Surrounded by standard components• Surrounded by different examples ofmanufacturing
Just a polo shirt?• Designed by René Lacoste in 1926 andoriginally known as the tennis shirt the design forthe polo shirt has been copied by manufacturersthroughout the world.It’s a Design ClassicA Design Icon!
What else do we know?• Made from piqué cotton jersey knit (whichmeans the fabric is knitted not woven)• The logo is CNC embroidered in small batchesA great example ofbatch productionbecause only smallquantities are needed.
And the sweatshirt?• Also batch produced• The fabric is a mixture of cotton and polyesterA good example of acombined material
What else are you wearing?• Just check out how many standard componentsyou are wearing• It is usually cheaper to manufacture these inlarge quantities in specialist factories rather thanfor each manufacturer to make their own• Repairs are much easier when standardcomponents are usedStandard components generallyhelp products to be consideredas environmentally better
Just a school chair?• The school chair is based upon another ClassicDesign by Robin Day “The Polypropylene Chair”• Over 14 million of the original chairs have beenproduced• Loads of copiesA Design Icon becauseit was so innovativewhen first designed
Why so popular?• Very cheap to produce in large quantities• Ergonomically very good – fits almost everyone!• Seat is flexible• Stacks so easy to store/transportVery easy to copy once Robinday had done the hard work.Copies are made under licenseas the design is patented.
Design features• Seat is injection moulded in one piece in polypropylene–can you see the injection point?• Legs are fabricated in mild steel – welded together thenpowder coated• Screwed to seat (an example of a standard component!)Try feeling thesefeatures when youare sitting on thechair!
The exam desk• Made from mild steel tubing with a plywood orMDF top• Designed to stack for easy storage/transportationSaving space is a vital as they areonly used for a few weeks a year
Ergonomics continues• Designed to complement the school chair• Correct working height• Regulation size work areaDesigned to fit the5th-95thpercentile
Materials and manufacturing• The desk top is a good example of acombined material• Most are MDF with a veneer on top• Some are plywood with a melaminelaminate on top• The edges and the slot have beenrouteredUsing standard materials has helpedkeep the cost down
Materials and manufacturing• The frame has been fabricated from mild steeltubing• It has been welded together and powder coatedto give a hard durable finish• The top is held in place using screwsThe screws are astandard component!
BIC pen• László and George Bíró designed the firstballpoint pen in 1931 and we continue to use theword Biro to describe all ballpoint pens.• In 1950 Marcel Bich bought from Bíró the patentfor the pen, which soon became the mainproduct of his BIC company.Another Design Icon!
Safety• Have a look at the pen top• Most are now manufactured with a hole in them• This is to prevent children choking to death ifthey swallow themThis is a great example ofrisk assessment!
Don’t take spectacles for granted• They are a great example of flexiblemanufacturing.• The frames are mass produced (but adjustedfor each customer)• The lenses are sometimes made as one-offs• They are assembled using standardcomponents such as screwsEvery pair built to matchyour own prescription!
Human factors - adjustmentDesigned to be adjusted to fit a range of sizes:• Belts• Watch straps• Bras....
Even jewellery• Jewellery is often constructed using standardcomponents. These are known as “findings”.Using standardcomponents make itmuch easier to repairor replace lost parts
Watches as well• Many watch parts are standard componentssuch as straps, hands etc.Think about all of thehuman factors which havebeen taken account of
Keys• The keys in your pocket are also a resource• Standard blanks are manufactured in largequantities• They are usually cut in small batches• Replacement keys are cut as one-offs• Most commonly made from brass or nickel alloyThe blanks are usually forgedor stamped out
Key cutting• Usually done with a grinding operation• This is an example of the general manufacturinggroup “wastage”• It is easy to remember as the bits of metal thatare cut off the blank are waste materialsGrinding is a type of abrading
Water bottle• Take a water bottle into the exam?• Blow moulded from PET (think of it with a furry tail!)• The top has been injection moulded from HIPS• Every year over 50 billion plastic water bottles are sent tolandfill in this countryA great example of a productwhich should be recycled orreused!
The exam paper itself!• The exam paper booklet has been printed usingoffset lithography• The colours are produced from 4 processcolours – yellow, cyan, magenta and black• It is made from A3 paper which has beencreased and stapledStaples are a standardcomponent!
Offset lithography• Flat aluminium plates (speciallytreated)• Photographically exposed thenwrapped around roller• Exposed parts attract water• Non exposed parts allow ink tostick• Print onto plain roller to reverseimage• Transfers to the paperThis is the correctanswer for anyprinting question!
The exam room• The doors are made from blockboard as theyneed to be very strong• The door furniture (handles etc.) are all standardcomponents• The doors and frame are finished in gloss paint• Walls eggshell paint on concrete block• Climbing bars varnishedWhat other finishes can youidentify?How many other components?
There is always a clock• Made from standard components• Clock mechanisms are now standardcomponents!• Clock face screen printed• Powered by batteryBatteries cause bigenvironmental problems!
Instruction board• Usually a flip chart to record start and finish time• Aluminium frame• The whiteboard surface is melamine coveredchipboard or MDF and is a good example of acombined materialLots of human factors to consider –size weight etc.
Feel better?• No other exam has so many resources to assistyou• But don’t turn around to look around!You are being watched!