Substance related disorders

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Substance related disorders

  1. 1. Substance-Related Disorders<br />Chapter 12<br />
  2. 2. Withdrawal & Dependence<br />Withdrawal:Upon stopping use of a drug (after addiction), users may experience the undesirable effects of withdrawal.<br />Dependence: Absence of a drug may lead to a feeling of physical pain, intense cravings (physical dependence), and negative emotions (psychological dependence).<br />
  3. 3. Psychoactive Drugs<br />Psychoactive drugs are divided into three groups<br />Depressants <br />Stimulants<br />Hallucinogens<br />
  4. 4. Depressants<br />Depressantsaredrugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions. They include:<br />Alcohol <br />Barbiturates<br />Tranquilizers- depress nervous system activity<br />Opiates<br />Heroin<br />Morphine <br />
  5. 5. Effects of Alcohol<br />Alcoholaffects motor skills, judgment, and memory…and increases aggressiveness while reducing self awareness.<br />
  6. 6. Stimulants<br />Stimulants are drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions. Examples of stimulants are: <br />Caffeine <br />Nicotine<br />Cocaine<br />Ecstasy<br />Amphetamines<br />Methamphetamines<br />
  7. 7. Why Do People Smoke?<br />People smoke because it is socially rewarding.<br />Smoking is also a result of genetic factors.<br />
  8. 8. Why do people smoke?<br />Nicotine takes away unpleasant cravings (negative reinforcement) by triggering epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and endorphins.<br />Nicotine itself is rewarding (positive reinforcement).<br />
  9. 9. Other Stimulants<br />Cocaine induces immediate euphoria followed by a crash. Crack, a form of cocaine, can be smoked. Other forms of cocaine can be sniffed or injected<br />Ecstasy is a stimulant and mild hallucinogen. It produces a euphoric high and can damage serotonin-producing neurons, which results in a permanent deflation of mood and impairment of memory<br />Hallucinogens are psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.<br />
  10. 10. Chart of Effects<br />

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