Research notes

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Research notes

  1. 1. Chapter 1<br />Research: Case Study, Surveys, and Naturalistic Observation<br />
  2. 2. Case Study<br />Examines one individual in great depth<br />Example: study of people who have lost specific abilities after damage to certain parts of the brain<br />Can be misleading because individuals involved in case studies may be atypical<br />
  3. 3. Survey<br />Looks at many cases in less depth, asking people to report their behaviors or opinions<br />Wording of questions can greatly impact the results of a survey<br />Should the government be able to censor television programs?<br />Should violence be allowed to appear on children’s television programs?<br />Sampling- for an accurate picture, you need a representative sample (a small group that accurately reflects a larger population)<br />Random sample- a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion<br />
  4. 4. Survey- continued <br />Problems with surveys<br />Volunteer bias- people who volunteer have different ideas than those who would not volunteer<br />People are often not honest <br />They may answer in a way to please the interviewer <br />
  5. 5. Naturalistic Observation<br />A way to describe behavior by watching, recording, and analyzing it in a natural environment<br />
  6. 6. Correlation<br />A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts the other <br />Positive correlation- shows a direct correlation, meaning that two things increase together or decrease together <br />As children get taller, they also weigh more <br />Negative correlation- shows an inverse relationship, as one factor increases, the other decreases<br />Low self esteem equals higher depression<br />Correlation can help us predict but does not show causation<br />Does low esteem CAUSE depression?<br />

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