(6 May 1856 – 23
and one of the
Unconscious motives and internal conflicts
determine our behavior (our mind split into 3
Id: Basic drives like hunger (think of a 2 year old…”I
want it now!!! Id is the kid) Present at birth
Ego: Stands for “reason and good sense” and tries to
satisfy the id. “I’m hungry but I can’t get a sandwich
out of the trash.”
Superego: Acts as the conscience/moral sense and
floods ego with guilt if we think/do something
defined as wrong (“Super”ego is “super” moral)
Conflicts between id, ego, and superego lead to
anxiety/stress, so we deal with this with:
Denial (most common) Refusing to accept realities of
a situation (not an addict, sick, etc.)
Displacement (common) Taking out anger on a
person who didn’t cause it (mad at coach, yell at
Projection- Taboo urges are seen in others; not in self
(you want to steal but decide not to, but then you
notice others do it).
Rationalization-Making logical excuses for
illogical behavior (I got fired because boss is
sexist; not because of the fact that I stole).
Reaction formation: Compensate for
unacceptable impulses by displaying the
TOTAL OPPOSITE in great excess (boy likes
girl, afraid of being judged, treats her mean).
Regression-Reverting to childlike behavior to
get attention you got when you were young
(adult acting like teen, child when sister is
Sublimation- the process of transforming libido
into "socially useful" achievements
information that is too painful to recall (child
abuse or attack).
Freud believed the sex drive was most
motivating force (humans strive for pleasure
from birth—infants with sucking, toddler &
using restroom, child & pleasure with genitals,
adults & intercourse)
Oral stage: Birth-18 months. Sucking & biting
are favorite activities.
Anal stage: 18 months-4 years. Focus of
pleasure is using restroom (hold in, let go).
Phallic stage: 4ish-7. Focus is genitalia.
Touching self might occur during this stage.
Latent stage: 7ish-12ish-Sexual impulses are
Genital stage: Puberty–Resurgence of sex drive
Phallic: Fixation & possible narcissistic
personality (boys). Implied that women never
progress past this & maintain sense of
Oedipus/Electra Complexes occur in phallic
stage (subconscious desire to have sex with
parent of opposite sex & kill parent of same
Penis envy….girls are jealous of men & scarred
(may blame mom).
Freudian slips-Stem from unconscious
Oral: Could result in oral fixation (smoking,
chewing pens, nail biting, thumb sucking,
excessive gum chewing, overeating or
drinking….attempt to fill emotional emptiness
Anal: Explosiveness-Very sloppy & non-
*Retentive-Obsessively clean & orderly