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Tuberculosis ( Tb ) Is AAirborne And Contagious...
Chapter One: Introduction
Tuberculosis (TB) is a airborne and contagious–infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium
tuberculosis bacilli, usually establishes its infection in the lungs and known as pulmonary
tuberculosis also can affect other sites and known as extrapulmonary tuberculosis (Rodrigo,2006;
Comas,2009). Human Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global public health problem for both developed
and developing countries , is the second cause of death in worldwide, after the human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In 2014,World Health Organization (WHO) estimated the burden of
TB disease was 9.6 million new cases worldwide and 1.5 million deaths were estimated to be caused
by TB (WHO,2015) .TB resumption is mainly a consequence due to onset of the AIDS pandemic
and emergence of drug resistant strains MDR(WHO,2014 ), therefore TB rates rose once again, and
with that, the need to tackle TB more effectively all over the world .
Patients with active pulmonary TB and its transmission are most serious public health problems
(Morcillo,2008), therefore the prompt detection and treatment of PTB is the main principle aim of
tuberculosis programs and efforts to control TB are hampered by difficulties in prevention, and lack
of accurate laboratory diagnosis and treatment (Dye et al,2008; Kaufmann and McMichael,2005).
The majority of people affected by TB are found in economically poor countries where sputum
microscopy with a conventional light
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Tuberculosis ( Tb ) Is Infectious Disease Caused By...
INTRODUCTION
Tuberculosis (TB) is infectious disease caused by bacterial pathogens from Mycobacterium
tuberculosis Complex. Tuberculosis affects various organs of the body forming granulomas at the
site of infection. The pulmonary TB is the most common form (Anon, 2015).Only the pulmonary
form is infectious with aerosol transmission after a sneeze or cough from an infected individual.
Once an individual is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex, clinically, it can either
lead to a TB infection (Latent/Inactive TB) or an Active TB. In TB infection, the bacteria reside in
the body in an inactive state without causing any symptoms or being contagious. This is due to the
immune system of the body which prevents the bacteria from multiplying and causing local damage
in the body. The active TB is contagious and is characterized by the common clinical symptoms
like, prolonged cough with or without blood and sputum (weeks–months), unintentional weight loss,
chronic fatigue, low grade fever (on and off for weeks–months), and night sweats. A Latent TB can
become active if there is a compromise in the immune system of the body. The time period between
infection and clinical symptoms vary from weeks to years again depending upon the immune system
of the body. In vulnerable groups, the symptoms appear after a few months of infection
(Mayoclinic.org, 2015).
The incidence of TB remains high in the UK as compared to other Western European
Countries.There were 7,892 cases
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Tuberculosis Is A Disease Caused By Mycobacterium...
Introduction
When looking to educate myself on the most commonly seen health conditions in hospitals, I turned
to Mrs. Tonya Simpson RN, a registered nurse at St. Joseph hospital in New Jersey. Mrs. Simpson
informed me that Tuberculosis is a disease that she sees profusely at St. Joseph hospital. During the
interview I gained great insight on why she chose this particular disease, the etiology, the frequency,
prevalence, pathophysiology, signs/symptoms, treatments, and the prognosis of Tuberculosis.
Etiology
During the interview with healthcare provider Mrs. Tonya Simpson, she when in great detail
explaining that Tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This is a
disease that affects the lungs and can be transmitted from person to person by coughing, face–to–
face conversing, sneezing, and even breathing the same air of an infected person can spread the
disease. A profuse amount of people have TB, but the bacteria is not active, which prevents them
from being contagious (T. Simpson, personal communication, March 25, 2015). It is only when the
disease is presented to be active that it can be transmitted. Seniors and children have a greater risk to
be infected with Tuberculosis due to their weak immune systems.
Incidence and Prevalence In 2013 Tuberculosis had a total of 9,588 new tuberculosis (TB) cases
reported in the United States, with an incidence rate of 3.0 cases per 100,000 population, a decrease
of 4.2% from 2012 (Negar Niki Alami,
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Mycobacterium Tuberculosis is a Leading Cause of Death
Introduction:
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of mortality in all over the world. The
infection caused by M. tuberculosis is commonly known as tuberculosis or TB. According to a CDC
report, in 2012, approximately nine million patients were infected globally with TB and the fatality
was around 1.3 million1. It is estimated that nearly one third of the global population is infected
with TB.
M. tuberculosis was first described by Robert Koch in the year 1882 as the "tubercle bacillus". The
bacterium belongs to a special group of microorganisms that contain a thick, waxy, lipid rich layer
of mycolic acid on their cell surface. The mycolic acid makes this bacterium tolerant to a number of
antimicrobials and is one of its major virulence factors. Due to the presence of the mycolic acid
layer, it is very difficult to stain Mycobacterium with conventional Gram staining. Thus, a special
staining technique called acid–fast staining or Ziehl–Neelsen staining is used to stain the TB
pathogen. Although, M. tuberculosis do not stain well during Gram staining, they are often
described as acid–fast Gram positive bacilli. They are called Gram positive as they do not have an
outer cell membrane like Gram negative bacteria. M. tuberculosis are aerobic, non–motile,
intracellular pathogens that most commonly infect the mammalian pulmonary system. It has a very
slow generation time as it undergoes one division every 15 to 20 hours.
As M. tuberculosis is predominantly a
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Tuberculosis As An Infectious Disease
Introduction Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that has afflicted individuals from the Old World
for several thousands of years. This has been well documented in the archaeological record.
However, the origins and development of tuberculosis in the New World have been the subject of
multiple controversies. These controversies have stemmed from the discussion of whether or not
Europeans introduced tuberculosis to the Americas. Evidence from South America has clearly
shown that tuberculosis was present in the New World prior to European contact. The evidence of
pre–contact tuberculosis has raised several questions on the origins of tuberculosis in the Americas
and the possible causes for post–contact tuberculosis epidemics. This essay ... Show more content
on Helpwriting.net ...
Mycobacteria are acid–fast bacilli with a slow rate of replication. They have a waxy cell wall which
allows for their hydrophobicity and resistance to drying, acidity or alkalinity, and several kinds of
antibiotics (Sakamoto, 2012, p. 1863). These bacteria primarily target the respiratory tract however
gastrointestinal infections may occur due to the ingestion of products from infected animals such as
unpasteurized milk (Arrieta et al., 2011, p. 1).
Tuberculosis typically occur in two phases; primary infection and the reinfection or reactivation
phase (Ortner, 2003). The first phase primarily occurs in children and typically results in a brief
period of illness followed by the remission of the disease. That being said, a small percentage of
individuals' immune systems will not be able to limit the replication of bacilli and will succumb to
tuberculosis. Essentially they will proceed directly to the second phase without a latent period. The
second phase can occur several years to decades later and, in some cases, may never occur. This
phase develops due to either the reintroduction of the pathogen in the body, reinfection, or by the
weakening of the individual's immune system from another infection, reactivation (Long and
Jessamine, 2000).
The symptoms of tuberculosis can manifest differently depending on the location of the infection.
The majority of infections are located in the lungs and include
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Sensitivity Of Duplex Real Time Pcr
Sensitivity of duplex Real–time–PCR compared microscopic detection of M. bovis: Results
revealed that out of 600 lymph node sample with lesions suggestive to tuberculosis 580 (96.6%) was
positive for AFB detected by microscopic examination of ZN stained smears. However, by duplex
real–time PCR 588 (98%) was confirmed to M. bovisinfection. Analytical specificity: The
specificity of real–time PCR targeting IS1081 and IS6110 was evaluated to 19 strains of different
Mycobacterial species. The real–time PCR targeting both IS1081 and IS6110 sequences showed
negative result with all Mycobacterial A. Selim et el. 50 species in two concentrations of DNA from
each strain, 5ng/µl and 5pg/µl; while strong positive result with M. bovisBCG was detected.
Furthermore, β–actin internal control showed positive Ct–values with all Mycobacterial species
including M. bovisBCG (table 1). Table 1. Mycobacteria and non–mycobacteria analyzed for the
determination of the specificity of real–time MAP–PCR Target sequence IS1801 IS6110 Template
concentration Species, Sub–species Type Host species / Source 5ng/µl 5pg/µl 5ng/µl 5pg/µl M.
avium subspecies avium (M128/2) TS Cattle – – – – (01A1077/2) FI–J Cattle – – – – (00A0720/2)
FI–J Pig – – – – (03A0910/2) FI–J Poultry – – – – (03A2530/1) FI–J Poultry – – – – M. avium
subspecies hominisuis (01A0554/1) FI–J Pig – – – – (01A1054/1) FI–J Human – – – – (01A0255/1)
FI–J Dog – – – – M. bovisBCG
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Tuberculosis ( Tb ) Is A Airborne And Contagious...

  • 1. Tuberculosis ( Tb ) Is AAirborne And Contagious... Chapter One: Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a airborne and contagious–infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli, usually establishes its infection in the lungs and known as pulmonary tuberculosis also can affect other sites and known as extrapulmonary tuberculosis (Rodrigo,2006; Comas,2009). Human Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global public health problem for both developed and developing countries , is the second cause of death in worldwide, after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In 2014,World Health Organization (WHO) estimated the burden of TB disease was 9.6 million new cases worldwide and 1.5 million deaths were estimated to be caused by TB (WHO,2015) .TB resumption is mainly a consequence due to onset of the AIDS pandemic and emergence of drug resistant strains MDR(WHO,2014 ), therefore TB rates rose once again, and with that, the need to tackle TB more effectively all over the world . Patients with active pulmonary TB and its transmission are most serious public health problems (Morcillo,2008), therefore the prompt detection and treatment of PTB is the main principle aim of tuberculosis programs and efforts to control TB are hampered by difficulties in prevention, and lack of accurate laboratory diagnosis and treatment (Dye et al,2008; Kaufmann and McMichael,2005). The majority of people affected by TB are found in economically poor countries where sputum microscopy with a conventional light ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2. Tuberculosis ( Tb ) Is Infectious Disease Caused By... INTRODUCTION Tuberculosis (TB) is infectious disease caused by bacterial pathogens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex. Tuberculosis affects various organs of the body forming granulomas at the site of infection. The pulmonary TB is the most common form (Anon, 2015).Only the pulmonary form is infectious with aerosol transmission after a sneeze or cough from an infected individual. Once an individual is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex, clinically, it can either lead to a TB infection (Latent/Inactive TB) or an Active TB. In TB infection, the bacteria reside in the body in an inactive state without causing any symptoms or being contagious. This is due to the immune system of the body which prevents the bacteria from multiplying and causing local damage in the body. The active TB is contagious and is characterized by the common clinical symptoms like, prolonged cough with or without blood and sputum (weeks–months), unintentional weight loss, chronic fatigue, low grade fever (on and off for weeks–months), and night sweats. A Latent TB can become active if there is a compromise in the immune system of the body. The time period between infection and clinical symptoms vary from weeks to years again depending upon the immune system of the body. In vulnerable groups, the symptoms appear after a few months of infection (Mayoclinic.org, 2015). The incidence of TB remains high in the UK as compared to other Western European Countries.There were 7,892 cases ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 3. Tuberculosis Is A Disease Caused By Mycobacterium... Introduction When looking to educate myself on the most commonly seen health conditions in hospitals, I turned to Mrs. Tonya Simpson RN, a registered nurse at St. Joseph hospital in New Jersey. Mrs. Simpson informed me that Tuberculosis is a disease that she sees profusely at St. Joseph hospital. During the interview I gained great insight on why she chose this particular disease, the etiology, the frequency, prevalence, pathophysiology, signs/symptoms, treatments, and the prognosis of Tuberculosis. Etiology During the interview with healthcare provider Mrs. Tonya Simpson, she when in great detail explaining that Tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This is a disease that affects the lungs and can be transmitted from person to person by coughing, face–to– face conversing, sneezing, and even breathing the same air of an infected person can spread the disease. A profuse amount of people have TB, but the bacteria is not active, which prevents them from being contagious (T. Simpson, personal communication, March 25, 2015). It is only when the disease is presented to be active that it can be transmitted. Seniors and children have a greater risk to be infected with Tuberculosis due to their weak immune systems. Incidence and Prevalence In 2013 Tuberculosis had a total of 9,588 new tuberculosis (TB) cases reported in the United States, with an incidence rate of 3.0 cases per 100,000 population, a decrease of 4.2% from 2012 (Negar Niki Alami, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis is a Leading Cause of Death Introduction: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of mortality in all over the world. The infection caused by M. tuberculosis is commonly known as tuberculosis or TB. According to a CDC report, in 2012, approximately nine million patients were infected globally with TB and the fatality was around 1.3 million1. It is estimated that nearly one third of the global population is infected with TB. M. tuberculosis was first described by Robert Koch in the year 1882 as the "tubercle bacillus". The bacterium belongs to a special group of microorganisms that contain a thick, waxy, lipid rich layer of mycolic acid on their cell surface. The mycolic acid makes this bacterium tolerant to a number of antimicrobials and is one of its major virulence factors. Due to the presence of the mycolic acid layer, it is very difficult to stain Mycobacterium with conventional Gram staining. Thus, a special staining technique called acid–fast staining or Ziehl–Neelsen staining is used to stain the TB pathogen. Although, M. tuberculosis do not stain well during Gram staining, they are often described as acid–fast Gram positive bacilli. They are called Gram positive as they do not have an outer cell membrane like Gram negative bacteria. M. tuberculosis are aerobic, non–motile, intracellular pathogens that most commonly infect the mammalian pulmonary system. It has a very slow generation time as it undergoes one division every 15 to 20 hours. As M. tuberculosis is predominantly a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 5. Tuberculosis As An Infectious Disease Introduction Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that has afflicted individuals from the Old World for several thousands of years. This has been well documented in the archaeological record. However, the origins and development of tuberculosis in the New World have been the subject of multiple controversies. These controversies have stemmed from the discussion of whether or not Europeans introduced tuberculosis to the Americas. Evidence from South America has clearly shown that tuberculosis was present in the New World prior to European contact. The evidence of pre–contact tuberculosis has raised several questions on the origins of tuberculosis in the Americas and the possible causes for post–contact tuberculosis epidemics. This essay ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Mycobacteria are acid–fast bacilli with a slow rate of replication. They have a waxy cell wall which allows for their hydrophobicity and resistance to drying, acidity or alkalinity, and several kinds of antibiotics (Sakamoto, 2012, p. 1863). These bacteria primarily target the respiratory tract however gastrointestinal infections may occur due to the ingestion of products from infected animals such as unpasteurized milk (Arrieta et al., 2011, p. 1). Tuberculosis typically occur in two phases; primary infection and the reinfection or reactivation phase (Ortner, 2003). The first phase primarily occurs in children and typically results in a brief period of illness followed by the remission of the disease. That being said, a small percentage of individuals' immune systems will not be able to limit the replication of bacilli and will succumb to tuberculosis. Essentially they will proceed directly to the second phase without a latent period. The second phase can occur several years to decades later and, in some cases, may never occur. This phase develops due to either the reintroduction of the pathogen in the body, reinfection, or by the weakening of the individual's immune system from another infection, reactivation (Long and Jessamine, 2000). The symptoms of tuberculosis can manifest differently depending on the location of the infection. The majority of infections are located in the lungs and include ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6. Sensitivity Of Duplex Real Time Pcr Sensitivity of duplex Real–time–PCR compared microscopic detection of M. bovis: Results revealed that out of 600 lymph node sample with lesions suggestive to tuberculosis 580 (96.6%) was positive for AFB detected by microscopic examination of ZN stained smears. However, by duplex real–time PCR 588 (98%) was confirmed to M. bovisinfection. Analytical specificity: The specificity of real–time PCR targeting IS1081 and IS6110 was evaluated to 19 strains of different Mycobacterial species. The real–time PCR targeting both IS1081 and IS6110 sequences showed negative result with all Mycobacterial A. Selim et el. 50 species in two concentrations of DNA from each strain, 5ng/µl and 5pg/µl; while strong positive result with M. bovisBCG was detected. Furthermore, β–actin internal control showed positive Ct–values with all Mycobacterial species including M. bovisBCG (table 1). Table 1. Mycobacteria and non–mycobacteria analyzed for the determination of the specificity of real–time MAP–PCR Target sequence IS1801 IS6110 Template concentration Species, Sub–species Type Host species / Source 5ng/µl 5pg/µl 5ng/µl 5pg/µl M. avium subspecies avium (M128/2) TS Cattle – – – – (01A1077/2) FI–J Cattle – – – – (00A0720/2) FI–J Pig – – – – (03A0910/2) FI–J Poultry – – – – (03A2530/1) FI–J Poultry – – – – M. avium subspecies hominisuis (01A0554/1) FI–J Pig – – – – (01A1054/1) FI–J Human – – – – (01A0255/1) FI–J Dog – – – – M. bovisBCG ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 7. Tuberculosis As A Major Health Problem very common, most prevalent global infectious disease Tuberculosis (TB) known since ancient times by contributing considerably to illness and death around the world. This Disease is caused by bacterium Mycobacterium Tuberculosis ("Tuberculosis (TB) cause," 2012). Mycobacterium tuberculosis extant many years ago and has been found in relics earlier time of ancient Egypt, India, and China. Among Egyptian mummies spinal tuberculosis, known as Pott's disease has been detected by archaeologists (Mandal,2014). Patients from some indigenous communities, are 90% at risk of TB (coulter, 2012) and it still causes 2 million deaths annually worldwide (coulter, 2012). Tuberculosis was a major health problem in U.K, as antibiotics are introduced, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Pulmonary tuberculosis is characterized by classical general symptoms such as night sweats, cough, coughing up with bloody sputum, weight loss, loss of appetite, weakness, inflammation of lymph nodes, fever, pneumonitis and chest pain (Davis, 2016). Mycobacterium leprae is an another common type of bacteria, which causes leprosy by showing symptoms of skin discoloration skin lesions skin nodules skin plaques thickened skin nasal congestion nosebleeds (Davis, 2016). Extra pulmonary tuberculosis have symptoms varies according to localized part of body get infected.Skeletal and arthritis TB (also termed Pott 's disease) shows spinal pain, back stiffness, pain in knees and hip joints while genitourinary TB includes dysuria, flank pain, Gastrointestinal TB shows difficulty in swallowing, nonhealing ulcers, abdominal ache, malabsorption, bloody diarrhea (may be bloody) while Miliary TB and Pleural TB shows many small nodules widespread in organs, empyema and pleural effusions (Davis 2016). Humans are sometimes susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis (M.bovis). Pulmonary Tuberculosis affects directly to lungs and occur most often in young kids who has weaken immune system by showing symptoms with a productive cough more than three weeks with high fever and chest pain which can easily spread to others as bacteria are growing rapidly while Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis does not affect to the lungs. ("Tuberculosis ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8. Tuberculosis ( Tb ) Is Caused By The Bacterium... Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an aerobic non–motile bacillus measuring 3–5µm in length and 0.2–0.6µm in width (Velayati and Farnia., 2012) M. tuberculosis cell wall is made of many lipids including peptidoglycan and mycolic acids. Hydrophobic molecules making up Mycolic acids form a lipid layer surrounding the organism affecting permeability of the cell surface. This layer is responsible for many pathogenic inducing traits of M. tuberculosis by inhibiting attack from lysosomes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cationic proteins in phagocytes. Further pathogenesis of the bacterium is achieved by the presence of other lipids which include cord factor, sulfolipids and phosphatidylinositol ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Such factors include strategies used by M. tuberculosis in preventing itself getting destroyed in the macrophage, vaccination, a weakened host immune system, Antimicrobial resistance as well as economic and environmental factors. The many tactics used by M. tuberculosis to prevent from being destroyed by the alveolar macrophages is its ability to inhibit the fusion of phagosome with lysosome (Meena and Rajini., 2010) Using sulfatides as well as inactivating the Ca2+ dependent effector proteins Calmodulin and Calmodulin dependent protein Kinase 2, M. tuberculosis is able to inhibit the acidification of phagosome by obstructing the Proton ATPase pump on the surface of lysosomes. M. tuberculosis can also produce high amounts of ammonia resulting in the alkalisation of the lysosomal compartment therefore reducing the effectiveness of lysosomal enzymes. M. tuberculosis is able to inhibit phagosome maturation by affecting the Rab protein ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 9. Tuberculosis Is A Disease Caused By The Bacteria Tubercle... Introduction: Tuberculosis is a disease caused by the bacteria tubercle bacilli (NSW Health 2014). It is one of mankind's oldest infections and has plagued humans throughout recorded and archaeological history (Encyclopaedia Britannica 2014). Tuberculosis comes in an infectious and disease form. The infectious form is the result of contraction of TB bacteria that remains dormant and is neither symptomatic nor contagious. The disease form of TB is caused by active TB bacteria and results in the contagious and fatal tuberculosis disease. History of Tuberculosis Tubercle bacilli emerged as a pathogen from East Africa, and as people migrated so did the disease. Tuberculosis lesions contain acid fast bacilli which have been found in Egyptian and Peruvian mummies (Schlossberg page 97). From these findings, historians and microbiologists have concluded that mycobacterium is millions of years old. Physiology of mycobacterium: Tubercle bacilli is a type of mycobacterium. Its' prototrophic, metabolically flexible membrane (US National Library of Medicine 2008) enables it to metabolize and reproduce without specific substances, increasing its' speed of replication and infection. The tubercle bacilli's rod shape enables it to withstand 'a combination of selective pressures' (Kerseik K 2013), including nutrient access and predation. Nutrient absorption is maximised by the cell's ability to match increases in cell size by increasing its' cell length. This maintains its' high surface ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10. Tuberculosis Or Tb Is Caused By Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Tuberculosis or TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacteria are aerobic bacteria, which do not form spores and are non–motile. They are curved, intracellular rods, and have cell walls made of glycolipids and phospholipidglycans that protect them from lysosomal attacks. TB is one of the world's deadliest diseases. Approximately one out of three people worldwide are infected; in 2014, 9.6 million people were diagnosed with TB and there were 1.5 million deaths (CDC, 2014). This disease is highly contagious, and although the number of cases reported has decreased, the decrease was smaller than in previous years. New strains of drug resistant TB pose a threat to the global population as a whole; less than half of those diagnosed with drug–resistant TB are successfully cured. Humans are the only known carrier of Tuberculosis; it is spread from person to person through aerosol droplets released into the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings. The infection cannot be spread by: shaking someone's hand, sharing food or drink, touching bed linens or toilet seats, sharing toothbrushes, or kissing (CDC, 2014). One cough from an infected individual can produce 3,000 infected droplets and it only takes ten bacilli to initiate an infection (Herchline, 2015). Since the disease is spread through the air, micro–epidemics are common in closed communities such as hospitals, nursing homes, prisons, submarines, and on transcontinental flights. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 11. Pathogens: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Although many disease–causing pathogens are rare, it cannot be said that pathogens themselves are rare. In fact, they are rather ubiquitous in nature and include a wide variety of types such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, prion proteins, parasites. Pathogens vary in complexity and those that remain are a direct result of successfully adapting to their environments and evolving over time to overcome selective evolutionary pressures. A more specific example of how disease causing pathogens can vary in virulence involves the mention of antibiotics and their ability throughout history to temporary lessening the virulence of bacterial strains. The relationship between pathogens (i.e. bacteria) and hosts (i.e. humans) has been one of coevolution ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... New discovery of antibiotics has slowed down and the select number of pathogenic bacteria in existence are continuing to increase in virulence due to increased exposure. Although advances have been made to address the issue of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, remaining exist that may not be as obvious a threat to fighting especially virulent bacterial ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12. The Impact of the Tuberculosis Vaccine Essay The Impact of the Tuberculosis Vaccine Abstract Tuberculosis is one of the most infectious diseases in the world. With almost one third of the world infected with this virus, people are striving to help prevent the spread of this disease (NIAID, 2001). One prevention technique for tuberculosis is the BCG (Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin) vaccine. In the early twentieth century Calmette and Guerin worked together to isolate a strain of the disease creating the first BCG vaccine. Throughout the century the scientists improved the BCG vaccine and today there are several different strains of the vaccine available. However, even today its full effects on the disease are unknown. The exploration of the effects of the vaccine, the best ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... When the body is finally faced with the Tuberculosis Vaccine Page 2 organism, it will hopefully have adapted enough to the strain of Mycobacterium bovis to immediately contain the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The goal of the vaccine is to keep the body functioning normally, even after contact with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The BCG vaccine was first created in the early twentieth century. In 1906, in Paris, scientists Calmette and Guerin began experimenting with the vaccine for tuberculosis (NIAID, 2001). They isolated a strain of Mycobacterium bovis from a cow and began their experimentation on the living organism. After running tests on animals for over a decade, genetic changes began occurring in the original strain; this new strain was called the BCG vaccine. In Europe, in 1921, Calmette and Guerin introduced their vaccine to their first human subjects (WHO, 5). They fed the vaccine to baby patients orally. By 1928, the Health Committee of the League of Nations admitted it into use (Pediatric Research, 2002). Tuberculosis got off to a rocky start when it was first administered. In Lubeck, Germany, almost a quarter of the babies given the BCG vaccine got the tuberculosis disease or infection from the vaccine itself. The scandal caused general public to be skeptical of the vaccine. Following the outbreak, it was discovered that the vaccine had been ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 13. Tuberculosis : An Antique, Deadly Infectious Disease... Introduction Tuberculosis is an antique, deadly infectious disease caused by the bacterium baccilus Mycobacterium tuberculosis1. In 2014, a DNA reconstruction study of tuberculosis genome suggested that human tuberculosis is much younger than what was initially thought2. Rather than tracing its origins back to more than 10,000 years ago3,4, this study speculated the origins of human tuberculosis to be around 6,000 years ago2. The first archaeological records of tuberculosis can be traced back to ancient Egyptian arts and mummies, in which signs of Pott's disease (a type of spinal tuberculosis) have been observed5,6. Ever since, numerous incidents of tuberculosis have been recorded and many attempts have been made to identify the cause of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This paper not only aims to provide a comprehensive review about tuberculosis, but also to apply the knowledge that we have obtained to other diseases and to design future directions in approaching our current difficulties against tuberculosis. Epidemiology, transmission, diagnostic tools According to the World Health Organization (WHO), one–third of the world population is or has been infected with M. tuberculosis8. While this rate appears to be exceptionally high, only a few of the infected end up developing active tuberculosis in their lifetime. Most of the infected people have the inactive form (latent tuberculosis infection LTBI) of tuberculosis that poses no immediate problems. Despite numerous encounters throughout human history, tuberculosis still remains one of the biggest causes of death from infectious disease8. Recent estimates from the WHO report that there were 9.0 million new cases of tuberculosis in 2013, while 1.5 million people that carried tuberculosis infection died in the same year8. Regardless of advances in vaccination, tuberculosis remains a disease of poverty that is commonly observed in regions characterized by urban, overcrowdedness, and malnutrition10. Accordingly, cases of tuberculosis are not spread uniformly across the globe. Over 80 per cent of reported ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14. Tuberculosis Is The Disease Of The Lung Caused By A... Tuberculosis is the disease of the lung caused by a bacterium called mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB is transmitted through airborne route when a person with TB coughs or sneeze into the air which is then inhaled by non–infected person and cause TB infection. In people who are co–infected with HIV and TB, about 50% may develop TB disease. There is a difference between TB infection and TB disease. In South Africa about 88% of the adult population is infected with TB be but not sick of a TB disease. Under normal circumstances 10% of people infected with TB will develop TB in their life time. Factors like age, immunological status, malnutrition and stress determine the susceptibility of the host to TB disease. TB is curable even if a person is HIV positive. 2.2 The Global Picture of TB Epidemic There were 8.6million people suffering from TB in the world, where 1.1million were people living with HIV. In 2012 TB accounted for 1.3million deaths where 50% of patients who died were HIV positive women. TB is the top killer of women of reproductive age (Organisation, 2014). Global statistics showed 45% decrease in TB mortality since 1990. The world is likely to reach the MDG target of 50% by 2015 (Ravinglione M, 2006). The report paints a good picture about TB management in the world whereas the reality is that more people are reported to have died of TB when the disease is curable. The number of people diagnosed with MDR in the world doubled between 2011& 2012 with the introduction ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 15. Tuberculosis : Causes And Treatment Of Tuberculosis Tuberculosis, also known by the abbreviation "TB", is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacteria usually attacks the lungs, but tuberculosis bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. Although tuberculosis has not been a major concern in recent years; the disease is now increasing and there are now multiple drug resistant strains that have emerged that many believe may be a massive risk to society with the necessity of routine screenings and new vaccines. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the cause of tuberculosis in humans. The only known carrier of this particular bacterium is humans. Mycobacterium bovis is the etiologic agent of TUBERCULOSIS that's found in cows but found rarely in humans, but ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... When TUBERCULOSIS occurs outside your lungs, signs and symptoms vary according to the organs involved. For example, tuberculosis of the spine may give you back pain, and tuberculosis in your kidneys might cause blood in your urine. The Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology at Aarhus University Hospital has released a study on an interferon–gamma release assay test that has performed well in routine screening for tuberculosis. A positive interferon– gamma release assay, also known as IGRA, is regarded proof of latent mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. They concluded an evaluation of the IGRA test "T–SPOT:T3" to test its performance during clinical routine use by analyzing the positivity rate and odds, as well as the effect of the season and sensitivity. The T–Spot. tuberculosis performs well in routine screening prior to TNFα treatment as well as in control investigation procedures. Furthermore, it is a useful diagnostic aid in low–incidence settings. Test performance is influenced by the age of the patient and by the season of the year in which the test is performed, but mostly in terms of the occurrence of inconclusive results. In majority of inclusive cases, a subsequent test can provide a conclusive result. One false negative result was recorded. Therefore, a negative T–SPOT. Tuberculosis should never overrule the judgment of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16. Evolution Of Drug Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Aniruddha Acharya Term paper – BIOL 554 Spring 2015 Instructor – Dr. Don Ennis Due date – 4/27/2015 Title – Evolution of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Introduction Bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis a complex granulomatous disease which is a global health concern. It is a very slow growing bacteria, thus is extremely time consuming to culture in laboratory. It can survive the attack of the immune arsenal of our body; can successfully hide inside the macrophage. This makes long periods of uninterrupted antibiotic treatment necessary for the patients with tuberculosis and contributes to drug resistance very quickly [WHO 2014]. All this poses an extreme challenge to the scientists and the medical community to develop effective drug, monitor and treat this disease across globe. Before the discovery of anti– tubercular drugs, this disease was one of the most dreaded diseases. In absence of any drugs the only form of treatment recommended was healthy diet, rest and fresh air. Patients were sent to Tuberculosis sanatorium hoping that they might survive. The origin of this pathogen is traced back to Africa around 70,000 years ago and they successfully coevolved with humans as they migrated out of Africa and settled across the globe. Nearly 10,000 years ago there was a sudden change in human demography and the human population density increased suddenly, this is termed as Neolithic Demographic Transition. Genomic data of Mycobacterium across ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 17. Mycobacterial Disease: Tuberculosis Tuberculosis is an infectious bacterial disease that affects the lungs and can often be serious when not treated quickly and properly. Tuberculosis is a miserable illness to have and is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis being spread through the air. Symptoms include severe coughing that can last for longer than three weeks, coughing up blood, chest pain, pain when breathing or coughing, weight loss, fatigue, fever, night sweats, chills, and lack of appetite. This illness can also affect other organs or body parts, which lead to additional symptoms. When it occurs outside the lungs the symptoms correspond to the place it occurs. Examples include back pain when it occurs in your spine and blood in urine when it occurs in the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... When combined they shortened the duration of therapy to nine months, and when pyrazinamide is added it shortens the duration to six months. When there is resistance to isoniazid during the treatment, ethambutol or streptomycin are used instead. This may extend the duration of the therapy, but it will still be successful. When there is a resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin, the patient is in a critical condition. An extended duration of therapy will be required because the loss in early bactericidal action is significant. Treatment is done in a laboratory so there is an increased amount of laboratory support if there is an issue with the treatment. Patients showing a resistance to both have a significantly lower chance at being cured than the patients showing a resistance to one. The chances of being cured are about fifty percent. A resectional surgery is being performed to enhance the cure rates. It has proven to increase the cure rate; however, it is highly complicated and must be performed very precisely by a highly skilled surgeon. Treatments and medications are being invented every day, and hopefully one day there will be an official way to control ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18. The Problem of Badger Control in Great Britain Essay Introduction Since 1973, controlling badgers in Great Britain has been a political problem. Badgers are one of the most well known animals in Britain; hence the Protection of Badgers Act 1992 was designed to protect them (Natural England). However, tuberculosis was discovered in badgers as a result of Mycobacterium bovis (Muirhead et al., 1974). Till this day, some argue that badgers are a significant source of infection for cattle, which raises a concern for the society (Krebs, 1997). Therefore, it raises the issue of whether trials to test the efficacy of badger culling in control of bovine tuberculosis should be permitted. Review Mycobacterium bovis not only causes bovine tuberculosis in badgers but also infects cattle and deer. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The culling of badgers disrupts the structure of their social group, which leads to a widespread of tuberculosis as they move further away to establish new groups (Briggs, 2012). As a result, there is an increase in incidence outside areas where badgers were not culled. Consequently, people are relying on vaccinations and even the government in Devon is providing funds to farmers who are in areas of high risk (Jones, 2013). The vaccination project in Gloucestershire has been "very successful" and in one year it has already immunised 998 badgers. Additionally, improving biosecurity could decrease transmission by preventing badgers from entering farms and coming into contact with cattle (Briggs, 2012). Discussion Even though vaccinations are expensive and require a lot of effort, rather than immunising badgers, cattle would relatively cost less and still be successful in controlling bovine tuberculosis (Jones, 2013). However, at the moment the legislation of the European Union bans the vaccination of cattle because checking for infection in the animals would become challenging (Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs). Farmers need a solution to the problem immediately and they cannot wait for ten years to abolish the ban as incidents in cattle herds are rising increasingly over the past few years (Briggs, 2012). Thus, culling badgers is the most effective method at present when considering ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 19. Molecular Biology Of Drug Resistance In Mycobacterium... Processing of findings Multidrug resistant tuberculosis is defined in two different ways depending on whether or not the patients had previously received treatment for TB. In patients who had never received treatment or who had received treatment for less than a month, their multidrug resistance is defined by the presence of a resistant strain of mycobacterium tuberculosis and in patients that have been previously treated, it is characterised by the failure and relapse (Dhole et al., 2017). Research has also found that there are different strains of multidrug resistant TB, that some strains of MDR–TB may present a resistance to one drug while others with MDR–TB do not present a resistance to that specific drug. This further complicates ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It is essential that the patients' drug treatment always includes more than one drug as the bacteria can easily develop resistance if only one drug is used. The treatment regime for MDR–TB can last up to two years and the second line drugs used are far more expensive and often present more side effects. .As the strain of TB can vary among patients, different strains can have resistance to different drugs and the severity of the MDR–TB can differ. This further increases the difficulty and expenses in finding a treatment. New cases of extensively drug resistant (XDR–TB) have been discovered and diagnosed. New third line drugs are yet to be developed in order to create a treatment regime for XDR–TB. Besides efforts to develop completely new antibiotics that are not affected by the existing resistance mechanisms, other non–traditional approaches such as targeting resistance mechanisms or repurposing old drugs need to be further investigated Conclusion TB has evolved and developed resistance through acquired resistance mechanisms such as chromosomal mutations or through intrinsic resistance mechanisms such as the impermeable cell wall of the bacterium. The bacterium is given a greater chance to develop resistance when there is poor patient compliance and the treatment regime is uncompleted or inconsistent. Moving forward, patients are to be given a better understanding of the importance of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 20. Tuberculosis As A Disease Responsible For Millions Of Deaths Tuberculosis Tuberculosis, a disease responsible for millions of deaths and has been affecting people since Aristotle's and Hippocrates's eras to the present day (Frith, 2014a). Tuberculosis has surged in great epidemics and then receded, Mycobacterium tuberculosis may have killed more persons than any other microbial pathogen (Frith, 2014a). Tuberculosis is an infection by the "bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis which invades the lungs" (Saladin, 2015) and other parts of the body. Tuberculosis is a contagious disease and when left untreated it is fatal (Kalo et al., 2015). "Although [tuberculosis] is a preventable and treatable disease...it still poses a significant threat globally" due to drug resistant strains of the disease (Kalo et al., 2015). Millions of people have contracted Tuberculosis, many now suffering from the drug resistant Tuberculosis, and millions have died from this disease (Kalo et al, 2015). History of Tuberculosis Tuberculosis "has been a scourge throughout known history and may have killed more persons than any other microbial pathogen" (Frith, 2014a). Tuberculosis was known by many different names, phthisis and consumption in the 18th century, white death and the great white plague in the 19th century, the graveyard cough, and the King's Evill in the 17th century (Frith, 2014a) to name a few of the various names. Consumption (a lay term for phthisis) and phthisis were the primary names used for tuberculosis "until the mid–19th century ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 21. Drug Resistance Rising Among Mycobacterium Tuberculosis... Drug Resistance Rising Among Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cases Abstract Drug resistance has been increasing among patients infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Previous miracle drugs that were used in the 1950s have now been proven useless in many cases simply because the bacteria are not susceptible to antibiotics such as isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, etc. when they are taken. This pathogen is easily transmitted through air and has the capability of attacking the respiratory system and creating fatal consequences if not treated properly. A lot of people who contribute to the antibiotic resistant statistics are those that do not take medication accordingly. Even though the bacterium may not be resistant at first, it can ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In many cases, Mycobacterium tuberculosis usually develops because of inconsistent consumptions of drugs. Most of the time, most people don't even know they are infected until symptoms occur because this pathogen is easily transmitted through air exchange (Medline Library, 2005). Although this pathogen usually remains inactive even when it is in the immune system, it becomes Drug Resistance 2 active once the immune system becomes weakened where the once quiescent bacterium has multiplied and has developed in the lungs and has begun destroying lung tissue (Encarta, 2005). Although bacterium may not be antibiotic resistant at first, it can become resistant by mutating and changing its genetic structure and in turn, reproducing rapidly (Davies, 1999). When this happens, it signifies that one's body has become antibiotic resistant, in which particular drugs no longer function properly and no longer does its job correctly. Microbiologists believe that Mycobacterium tuberculosis becomes antibiotic resistant when it exchanges genes with other already resistant bacteria because bacteria mutate and spread rapidly within hours. There are three forms of gene mutations categorized as conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Conjugation permits the transfer of DNA from one cell to another whereas transformation occurs when a cell decays. While its cell wall falls apart, the inner genetic makeup becomes available to other ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22. Function Of Defense Responses And Developmental Programs Introduction Chorismate mutase (CM) is a central enzyme involved in the shikimate pathway. The shikimate pathway is an aromatic biosynthetic pathway that is responsible for converting primary metabolites phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose–4–phosphate into chorismate.! This pathway also converts chorismate to prephenate to produce tyrosine and phenylalanine, as well as tryptophan by the conversion of chorismate to anthranilate by anthranilate synthase. These key aromatic amino acids are produced in bacteria, plants, fungi and other apicomplexan parasites. Chorismate mutase is essential for regulating the balance of these key aromatic amino acids, which are then important for the controlling of defense responses and developmental programs within the cel1.2 The rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate is catalyzed by chorismate mutase, which can be formally known as Claisen rearrangement. It provi~rate acceleration to the Claisen rearrangement and this reaction is the only recognized enzymatically catalyzed pericyclic reaction found in primary metabolism. This has prompted a lot of study and interest in the bioorganic circles.3 Chorismate mutase rearranges the chorismate to prephenate by means of an endo–oxabicyclic transition state.4 It exists in an R state and a T state, which is active and inactive respectively, in which there is a sequence homology between these states. The binding of a chorismate mutase to the endo– oxabicyclic transition state analogue inhibitor keeps the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 23. Biomedical Ethics Involving Cultural Research Biomedical Ethics Involving Cultural Research One Benin girl stood at the shinny bared glass window looking out at the luscious green trees and bright grass. She itched and itched and itched, all the while looking out at what she could not have. The doctor came in saying, "I'm sorry but you just can't go outside. With your Buruli Ulcer case, you could die within minutes by an infection." There was nothing she could say, so she just nodded. His footsteps echoed as he walked out of her stainless white room, with a sullen expression on his face. She knew that he just wanted to help her but every time she heard those footsteps it crushed her heart because there was always bad news. With her arms bare of skin she sat down on the bed and lay ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... One hypothesis is that since it is so easy to transmit to animals this may be why so many people have gotten BU. Even though BU has been reported in 33 countries there are only 15 that have been documented as having a significant amount of cases. In those 15 countries there have been between 5,000–6,000 reported/documented cases of BU (Mycobacterium, www.who.int). Most patients, with this disease, are younger than 15 years old (Buruli Ulcer, Nigeria). In Benin over half of the BU patients are children. There are so many poor families in Benin, and that makes it hard for them to take their children to hospitals, which is why a lot of the patients that go to the hospitals have already had the disease for 2–4 months (Small). If the patient was caught in the early stages of the disease then about 80% of those patients could be cured by a combination of antibiotics (Mycobacterium, www.who.int). For poor families it isn't only that they may not have insurance but it is also the traveling that is an issue. In 1993 Colombia introduced a program called Colombia Regimen Subsidiado (SR) (http://www.nber.org/bah/2009no4/w15456.html). This program was introduced in the hopes that more preventative care would occur, and thus cut down on the expensive costs that occur when a patient already has a disease. This was a great ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24. Tuberculosis ( Tb ) Is Caused By Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is an acid fast bacterium. M. tuberculosis uses the respiratory tract as the principal portal of entry. Tuberculosis is spread from person to person through microscopic droplets released into the air. This can happen when someone that has the active form of tuberculosis in the lungs which has not been treated coughs, speaks, sneezes, spits, laughs, or sings. The majority of active cases result from reactivation of old dormant infections. Although TB is contagious, it 's not that easy to catch. You 're much more likely to get tuberculosis from someone you live with or work with rather than from a stranger. There are two TB–related conditions that exist which are the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... TB can lead to spinal pain and joint destruction, meningitis, impair the liver and kidney's waste filtration functions, cause blood in the urine, and can impair the heart 's ability to pump blood. M. tuberculosis enters the respiratory tract where it travels to the lungs deep into the alveoli and is engulfed by macrophages. One of the major features of M. tuberculosis is its capacity to block the acidification of the phagosome and consequently to disable phagosome– lysosome fusion in phagocytic cells. After time, the tubercles can change to a cheese like consistency called caseous lesions. When caseous lesions calcify they are called Ghon complexes which show up on X–ray's. Tubercles can sometimes liquefy and form air–filled tuberculosis cavities which allows the bacteria to spread. This spreading of the bacteria can affect many parts of body like the bladder, bones, brain, joints, kidneys, lymph nodes, spine, and reproductive organs. Cell mediated immunity then develops and alerts T cells. There are two kinds of tests that are used to conclude if a person has been infected with TB bacteria. These tests are the tuberculin skin test (Mantoux test) and TB blood tests. A positive TB skin test or TB blood test only tells that a person has been infected with TB bacteria. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 25. Tuberculosis Is AAirborne Bacterial Disease Caused By... Overview Tuberculosis is a airborne bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria (Mtb). It is one of the most common diseases worldwide. A person can either have an Mtb infection (inactive) or the TB disease (active). (1, 3) Etiology and Pathology Mtb is mainly found in the human being and in their respiratory tract. It can also be found in the brain, kidneys and spine by leaving the capillaries into the interstitial fluid. TB can be spread person to person when someone who is infected exhales the bacteria. There are two types of Mtb inactive and active. (1, 2) The inactive vision is also known as Mtb infection or latent TB. This means that the bacteria are in the body but not cause the body any harm. The infected person is also not contagious. This could be because the body immune system is properly fighting and contain Mtb. Then, Mtb will become dormant to wait for the immune system to weakened to become infectious. The bacteria can stay dormant for decades with the person infected showing symptoms. (1–2) The active version is called the TB disease. This is where the bacteria are reproducing and attacking the body's organs in a process called consumption. This happens in people who have weakened immune system. (1) TB can become drug resistance. There are to two type of drug resistance that bacteria goes, though. Multidrug–Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) and Extensively Drug– Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR TB). MDR TB is where that bacterium is resistance to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26. Tuberculosis, A Dangerous Pathogen Caused By Mycobacterium... Tuberculosis and its Role in Research Erica Lin July 7th, 2015 I. Background Abstract Tuberculosis, commonly referred to as TB or consumption, is a dangerous pathogen caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). It is the second–highest cause of death, killing off 1.5 million each year. TB victims are normally infected in the lungs by airborne pathogens and fluids, but other organs can be targeted. There are two types of TB: active, in which victims are infectious and show symptoms, and latent, where victims do not show any signs at all, making TB a silent threat that could manifest in the body without warning. Epidemiology Tuberculosis is the second–highest cause of death worldwide, and over one and a half million people ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... tuberculosis complex (MTBC). When these bacteria enter our body, adverse effects could result in potentially lethal consequences. Tuberculosis is normally an airborne infection, although it can also be transmitted through the bloodstream and tissues. Viral TB culminates when mycobacteria enter the airstream and attack the body, particularly the pulmonary alveoli, invading cells and replicating themselves. Although macrophages attempt to engulf the bacteria and destroy them through phagocytosis in a process called autophagy, the bacteria's lipid outer coating allow them to survive and eventually utilize the nutrients originally intended for the cell to sustain replication within the host macrophage. If the mycobacteria find their way in through damaged tissue, they can move throughout the body and infect different areas. Inside of the body, phagocytes and T cells in the body will clump together to surround and attack infected macrophages, but this supposedly beneficial bodily response is actually exploited by mycobacteria, who use clumping to block all of the macrophages at once and ultimately avoid host immune response. TB is usually transmitted through exposure to others with active tuberculosis infections. If the infector has active pulmonary TB and performs any action that expels out salivary or mucous material, that material can transmit the bacteria to others. The bacteria then ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 27. Tuberculosis ( Tb ) Is A Disease Caused By The Bacteria... Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is easily spread through the air. Those infected can spread the germ to others through sneezing, coughing laughing and talking. TB is more of a health threat in Georgia than most people realize. Data from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates there were 335 active cases reported in Georgia during 2014 (CDC, 2016). M. tuberculosis is a nonsporulating rod–shaped bacteria which is classified as gram–positive. The cells in this bacteria inhibit it from being stained so it is classified as gram–positive based on its ability to infect humans. This pathogen causes a challenge to itself; its cell wall is composed of multiple layers and the rod shape makes it hard for the it to maintain its correct structure during the replication process. TB is one of the world's oldest diseases. Early in the 17 century, Dr. Benjamin Martin, an English doctor linked transmission of the germ from a sick individual to others around him through close contact. It was referred to as "Captain Among these Men of Death" during the 18th and 19th centuries due to the number of people in North America and Europe infected and killed by this bacteria (Daniel, 2006). Based on historical evidence, TB can be traced back as far as 5,000 years in Egypt. The germ was continuously spread as those infected migrated to different regions. TB was considered to be a disease that was inherited in Northern Europe and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28. Tuberculosis ( Tb ) Is Caused By The Bacterium... Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the Bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis also called tubercle bacilli which is an aerobic non–motile bacillus which are approximately 2–4 micrometers in length and 0.2–0.5 um in width. M. tuberculosis cell is made of peptidoglycan which is attached to galactofuran which in turn is attached to arabinofuran which is finally attached to mycolic acids. Hydrophobic molecules making up Mycolic acids form a lipid layer surrounding the organism therefore influencing permeability of the cell surface. This layer has been found to be the cause of many pathogenesis inducing traits of M. tuberculosis. They inhibit attack from lysosomes, reactive oxygen species and cationic proteins in phagocytic granule as well as protecting extracellular layer from damage. Further pathogenesis of the bacterium is achieved by the presence of other lipids which include phthiocerol dimycocerosate, cord factor/dimycolyltrehalose, the sulfolipids and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. (Brennan., 2003) TB is spread via inhalation of droplet nuclei containing tubercle bacilli. Transmission occurs when an infected individual sneezes, coughs or even talk to an uninfected individual. Once the tubercle bacilli are inhaled they travel to the alveoli of the lungs where they are ingested by the alveolar macrophages. Most bacilli are destroyed or inhibited. Alveolar macrophages are also able to form a barrier shell called a granuloma around the bacilli. This keeps the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 29. The Success Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis 1.0 Introduction The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) lies in its ability to persist within humans for longer periods without causing any disease symptoms known as latent infection (LTBI). About 2 billion people are estimated to be latently infected and might reactivate into active TB disease (Kasprowicz et al., 2011). Because of the huge reservoir of latently infected individuals, diagnosis and treatment of latent TB infection has obtained increasing importance as a public health measure to control TB. In depth knowledge about the biology of dormant M. tuberculosis is important to develop new therapeutic tools for latent TB (Barry et al., 2009). Several lines of evidence link latent tuberculosis and inhibition of M. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... tuberculosis (Fang et al., 2012; Rustad et al., 2009). The most frequently used experimental model for hypoxia–induced M. tuberculosis dormancy is the defined headspace model of non–replicating persistence (NRP) (Wayne and Hayes, 1996) and is adapted for the present study. Wayne and Hayes (1996) successfully established in vitro experimental model for hypoxia–induced M. tuberculosis dormancy by maintaining 0.5 head to space ratio (HSR) in their bacterial culture method. In vitro Wayne's model is a widely used method and followed for the present study. To date, many in vitro hypoxia experimental models used the common laboratory mycobacterial strains like H37Rv and Erdmann strain (Sherman et al., 2001; Voskuil et al., 2004). But, laboratory strains might not completely represent the virulence of naturally occurring clinical strains involved during disease outbreaks. Very few hypoxia reports (Boon et al., 2001; Starck et al., 2004) used the prevalent clinical strains but these strains are not from TB endemic areas. The unique feature of the present report is, we have used 2 prevalent clinical strains (S7 and S10) from TB endemic region like India and evaluated their adaptation mechanism, in terms of protein expression, under in vitro hypoxia. The strains S7 and S10 were first reported by Das et al., (1995) from a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) study ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30. Eptb Case Study Patterns, Trends and Treatment Outcomes of Extra–Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Sohag, Upper Egypt Abstract Objective: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the main health issues in Egypt. Nationwide collective data on the current trends of infection are scarce. The aim of the study was to evaluate the patterns and trends of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) cases in Sohag, Upper Egypt. Methods: Cross–sectional study involving a retrospective review of all TB cases registered as extra– pulmonary TB (EPTB) from 2010 to 2014, the age and sex of the patients and the categories and types of EPTB registered their treatment outcomes. Results: From 2010 to 2014,, 500 patients were registered with EPTB, of whom 50% were male, 21% were children, and 96% ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The quality of care for people in the latter category is unknown. Of the 480 000 cases of multidrug–resistant TB (MDR–TB) estimated to have occurred in 2014, only about a quarter of these – 123 000 – were detected and reported. The most common site for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is the lungs (representing about 51% of UK cases), but dissemination may occur to any part of the body, resulting in extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB).Most common sites include lymph nodes (19%), pleura (7%), the gastrointestinal tract (4%),bone (6%), CNS (3%) and genitourinary system(1%).Disseminated or miliary disease (3% of UK cases) can also affect any organ. EPTB is under–recognized and diagnosis is often delayed, so it is important to appreciate the variety of different organ–specific clinical scenarios with which It may present, as well as the non–specific systemic symptoms of TB, such as fevers, night sweats and weight loss. The diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis can be elusive, necessitating a high index of suspicion. Physicians should obtain a thorough history focusing on risk behaviors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis. Antituberculous therapy can minimize morbidity and mortality but may need to be initiated empirically. A negative smear for acid–fast bacillus, a lack of granulomas on histopathology, and failure to culture Mycobacterium tuberculosis do not exclude the diagnosis. Novel diagnostic ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 31. Tuberculosis And The Hiv / Aid Epidemic INTRODUCTION Throughout history humans have been plagued with mycobacterial diseases, most notably, Tuberculosis and Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, respectively. [1] However, with the advent of antimicrobial cocktails and public health measures, the incidence of these diseases saw a sharp decline. [1–2] Conversely, with the increase of pulmonary diseases due to smoking, immunosuppressive drug therapies, and the HIV/AID epidemic, the incidence of diseases caused by non–Tuberculosis Mycobacteria (NTM) began to increase. [2] These NTMs are ubiquitous in nature and can be found nearly everywhere (e.g., soil, domestic and wild animals, tap water, surface water, milk, and food.) [3–4] Currently, just ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... [4–5] Though these species are extremely related there relevance to certain disease manifestation is dissimilar. In order to resolve these species modern techniques must be implemented. Probes have been designed to target and amplify uniquely identifiable regions on the genomes of these two species. [5] By using Polymerase chain reactions (PCR) the ratio of M. avium and M. intracelluare can be ascertained for each manifestation of disease. Other members of Mycobacteria can be isolated and identified in the MAC including M. chimaera and M. colombiense. [2] Research shows that M. avium is more predominant in highly disseminated, systemic manifestations whereas M. intracelluare is more predominate in pulmonary, localized manifestations. The importance of this ratio has not yet been discovered; however, the true significance may be important to future research and treatments. [8] ECOLOGY. MAC organisms, much like many of the other NTMs, are found in an extraordinary number of different ecological niches. M. avium and M. intracelluare, as stated above, can be isolated from the environment in soils, water, and on animals. MAC organisms can also be transient flora of healthy humans. [3] EPIDEMIOLOGY TRANSMISSION. Because the reservoir for MAC is environmental, the potential exposure to it is high. [3] Subcutaneous testing of M. intracelluare antigen revealed high levels of exposure especially in the costal regions of the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32. How Does Tuberculosis Affect The Human Body The Study of Infectious Disease, Tuberculosis, and How It Affects the Human BodyAyanna ZaragozaChesterfield High School 2TUBERCULOSISTuberculosis (TB) is spread by a person who is infected by the bacterial infection the water droplets can spread through the body. An infectious disease many organisms that live in the body that can be spread person to person. TB is a rare infectious disease. The younger generation has become more at risk in upcoming countries.The first recorded occurrence of TB was in 1882. TB was first discovered by a physician and scientist, Robert Koch. March 12, 1882 he discovered mycobacterium tuberculosis. A few of the most common symptoms of TB are loss of energy, poor appetite, loss of energy, fever, productive cough, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 33. Effects Of Tuberculosis In The Victorian Era Tuberculosis in the Victorian Era Tuberculosis has been one of the most fatal diseases since the beginning of history. However, it was especially dangerous during the Victorian Era. All Victorians experienced the distress of tuberculosis in some way, making it a tremendous problem for society at the time. The eternal search for an effective, absolute cure of this dreaded disease has lasted for centuries, from the Ancient Egyptians on the Nile, to modern times. Nevertheless, several crucial leaps were made in the medical field during the Victorian Era that helped to curb the toll of tuberculosis on society. Tuberculosis is a potentially lethal, contagious disease, mainly caused by a bacterium known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Mtb. This ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Tuberculosis is spread from person to person through droplet infection. In other words, when an active victim coughs, they eject millions of tiny infected aerosol droplets of sputum into the air, and when another person breathes in the Mtb, the bacteria nestle in the lungs, make themselves at home, and immediately begin multiplying. Contrary to popular belief, although tuberculosis is contagious, it is not as highly contagious as compared to other infectious diseases. Around one in three close contacts, mainly immediate family and intimate friends, and one in ten remote contacts of an infected individual, consequently became infected as well, through exposure to contaminated air (Tuberculosis). This nature of tuberculosis often caused tragedies in households, killing off entire families at a time, since the most frequent visitors were ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34. Tuberculosis As A Socially Determined Disease Background and Discovery Tuberculosis was one of the first infectious diseases to be documented in human history and continues to afflict and co–evolve with humanity today. This disease is prevalent in mankind as well as in other animals through of the genus of bacteria called Mycobacterium. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, also known as "Bacillus of Koch," is the species of tuberculosis most common in humans. It is estimated this causative bacterium evolved 50,000 years ago and was discovered in 1883 by Robert Koch (see figure 1). Koch discovered TB by comparing tuberculosis–infected tissue dissections from guinea pigs, brains, lungs of people who had died from blood–borne tuberculosis, and the lungs of chronically infected ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Still, it is estimated that it reached its peak (as far as the percentage of the affected population) between the late eighteenth and the late nineteenth century. Over time, the various cultures of the world have given different names to the disease: Yaksma (India), Phthisis (Greek), Consumptione (Latin), and Chaky Oncay (Inca), each of which refers to the effect of "drying", "consuming ", Cachexia, which the disease causes. Their high mortality rate among middle–aged adults and the outbreak of romanticism, which emphasized feeling about reason, led many to refer to the disease as the "romantic disease." Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most frequent and widespread form of the disease. However, the tuberculosis bacillus can also affect other areas of our body, such as larynx, bones and joints, skin (lupus vulgaris), lymph glands (scrofula), intestines, the kidneys and the nervous system. Miliary tuberculosis is a spread of infection to various parts of the body through the blood. This type of tuberculosis can reach the meninges (membranes that line the spinal cord and the brain), causing serious infections denominated "tuberculous meningitis".In several countries, there was the idea that many thought that by 2010, the disease would be nearly controlled and non–existent. However, the advent of HIV and AIDS has drastically changed ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 35. Let's Talk about Tuberculosis Introduction Tuberculosis is a chronic infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and occasionally other strains of Mycobacterium. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an acid fast bacteria that has an unusual, waxy coating on its cell surface composed of mycolic acid, which makes the cell impervious to Gram staining. Mycobacterium's tough cell wall, high lipid content, and ability to grow intracellularly are all factors that contribute to its virulence. Additionally, Mycobacterium tuberculosis has very simple growth requirements and is able to grow slowly even in harsh conditions. The bacteria can be found in soil and water, but Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mainly identified as a bacterium that lives inside a host. The bacteria usually affects the lungs, but other organs of the body may also be involved and it is transmitted by airborne droplets. The disease is spread from person to person through very close contact with an infected individual usually a member of the same household. If the infection is not treated properly it may be potentially fatal. It is estimated that one third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There were approximately 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis in 2010 and 1.5 million deaths. Tuberculosis has always been an infection closely linked to poverty and is second only to HIV/AIDS as the greatest killer worldwide due to a single infectious agent. Over ninety five percent of tuberculosis deaths occur in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36. Sterilization and Disinfection in a Dental Office Essays There are two important things to do in a dental office in order to prevent cross infection. These two forms are sterilization and disinfection. According to the CDC and the Food and Drug Administration before either of these forms can be used you have to clean the instruments. This can be done either by hand or by using an ultrasonic cleaner. (http://www.maexamhelp.com/instru_sterilization.htm) Even though both sterilization and disinfection are both important there is a big difference between the two. Sterilization is the process of killing all microorganisms. Where disinfection is the process of destroying pathogenic organisms or rendering them inert. The centers for disease control says there is one cardinal rule for infection ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... When using they system OSHA requires a material safety data sheet on the chemical vapor solution. The reason behind this is because of the chemicals' toxicity. Essentials of dental assisting by Debbie S. Robinson – Doni L. Bird Fourth Edition Chapter 8 page 120. (this is for the bio) The third is dry heat. Dry heat is one of the earliest forms for sterilizing. This form is as it sounds, dry heat utilizes hot air that is either free from water vapor, or has very little of it, and where this moisture plays a minimal or no role in the process. The way dry heat sterilizes is by coagulating the proteins in any organism, thus causing drying of cells. Dry heat can even burn them to ashes. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dry_heat_sterilization The last form of sterilization I am going to talk about is cold sterile. The reason for cold sterile is not all items can go into heat sterilization. Liquid sterilant, such as 2% to 3.4% glutataldehyde, must be used for this type of sterilization. In order for the cold sterile to work the items must be fully submerged for no less than 10 hours, anything less than that would only be disinfection. This form of sterilization also requires a material safety data sheet due to it being a chemical. Essentials of dental assisting by Debbie S. Robinson – Doni L. Bird Fourth Edition Chapter 8 page 122 Disinfection is intended to kill disease–producing microorganisms. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 37. Tuberculosis Is Among the Major Infectious Killer Diseases... Tuberculosis (TB), a deadly contagious disease is among the three major infectious killers that causes high mortality and morbidity, worldwide.1 Tuberculosis infects one–third of the world's population with an estimated 8.7 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths every year (WHO, 2012)2. Tuberculosis prevention has become more complex due to increased resistance against different antibiotics including rifampicin.3 TB is a socio–economic disaster that is occurring worldwide, especially in Asia and Africa.4 Pakistan is ranked 6th in terms of estimated number of the tuberculosis cases by World Health Organization (WHO) among high burden countries.5It is the second leading cause of adult death in impoverished communities of Pakistan.6 ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Immunodiagnostic tests are relatively simple to use, inexpensive and easy to interpret and also better for detecting extra pulmonary tuberculosis and for TB in children. The result from a serological test using the ELISA could be available within hours.14 A new rapid test that overcomes many of the current operational difficulties was recommended for use by WHO in December 2010: the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). The test is based on a real–time heminested PCR test which detects the presence of M. tuberculosis complex bacilli.15By using 5 molecular beacons which span the rpoB gene 81–bp rifampin resistance–determining region (RRDR) in Mycobacterium.16The Xpert MTB/RIF assay represents a paradigm shift in the diagnosis of TB and drug–resistant TB by simultaneously detecting MTB and rifampicin resistance–conferring mutations in mycobacterium in a closed system suitable for use outside conventional laboratory ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38. Tuberculosis ( Tb ) Is A Bacterial Infection Disease... Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection disease caused by the organism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Mtb is an airborne transmission disease, which is spread by the inhalation of small droplet from the infected individual with pulmonary (lung) TB to a non–infected individual. TB has different stages of infections but the major one are active and latent stage. Normally tuberculosis stays dormant inside the granuloma in the host without causing any illness but in 10% in cases when it became activate it become contagious (WHO, 2016). In an infectious stage, it provokes a massive immune response leading to a chronic lesion in the tissue affected. Primarily M. tuberculosis affects lungs but can cause disease in almost any part of the body in an infectious stage (Pai et al., 2016). Tuberculosis is present from an epidemiological aspect in many low–income and middle–income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated in 2015 over 90% cases and has valued that one third of the population is infected with Mtb. This showed the tragic effects of TB when is not cured. In addition, the spread of tuberculosis is greater due to the migration of population, which is also cause the reactivation of remotely acquired latent tuberculosis infection (Xu et al., 2009). The latent TB is difficult to detect and different factors such as HIV can trigger the activation of the bacteria. Tuberculosis can be treatable if it is detected in an early stage by ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 39. Evolving Concepts of Pathogenesis, Transmission,... INTRODUCTION One–forth of this world's people are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is the reason of virtually millions of deaths all over the world every year. This ratio is more than the deaths caused by any other pathogen. From the start of the twentieth century, tuberculosis has become a relatively uncommon disease instead of the most common reason of deaths worldwide [1–3]. The incidence of tuberculosis has waned in the developed countries. The World Health Organization reports that more than ten million cases and two to three million deaths occur annually due to tuberculosis [5]. By another estimate, it is said that at least one billion persons are infected with M. tuberculosis worldwide [6]. PATHOGENESIS There is an alternative complement pathway for opsonization of M. tuberculosis. This pathway is used for the ingestion of the pathogen by monocytes through linking of mycobacteria–bound C3 to complement receptors CR1 and CR3 [7]. This process holds central importance in the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis. The physiologic working of the immunity of host is undermined by the bacterium, so as to facilitate its entry into the cells of the host, where it will probably live for decades. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are the primary cells to reach the position of infection. The neutrophils are the immune cells that have the capability of ingesting and killing M. tuberculosis [8]. The bacteria may survive for ages inside these cells. However, the neutrophils have a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...