wash ACTIVE SENTENCE Doer of the action (Subject) The action The object The kid The dishes The kid washes the dishes.
Passive Sentence Object Action The dishes wash Doer of the action The kid The dishes are wash ed by the kid.
THE PASSIVE <ul><li>The uses of Passive </li></ul><ul><li>Forming the Passive </li></ul><ul><li>The place of time adverbials in a passive sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Using “by phrase” exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Using passive in interrogatives </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Object as Passive subjects </li></ul><ul><li> The passive forms of modals and similar expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Ergatives </li></ul><ul><li>Stative Passive </li></ul><ul><li>The passive with “get” </li></ul><ul><li> “by phrase” or another preposition </li></ul><ul><li>It’s said that/ He is said to...... </li></ul><ul><li>CHOCOLATE: FOOD OF THE GODS </li></ul><ul><li> Example from KPDS </li></ul>
THE USES OF PASSIVE <ul><li>1. Last year, more than eleven children was kidnapped. </li></ul><ul><li>Coal is mined in Zonguldak. </li></ul><ul><li>First, water is boiled and then it is poured into the pot where tea is already put into. </li></ul><ul><li>The actual birthday of Sheakespeare is not known . </li></ul><ul><li>“ Doer” eylemi gerçekleştiren ister insan ister başka birşey belli değilse, </li></ul><ul><li>“ Doer” önemli olmadığı durumlarda veya “doer” belli olduğu durumlardır ama bahsedilmeye ihtiyaç yoktur </li></ul><ul><li>Süreçler veya bilimsel deneyler anlatılırken, </li></ul><ul><li>Akademik ve bilimsel yazılarda </li></ul><ul><li>çoğunlukla kullanılır. </li></ul>
FORMING THE PASSIVE Active: The school custodian opens the door everyday. Passive: The door is opened by the school custodian everyday. Etken bir fiili(active), edilgen bir fiile(passive) dönüştürebilmemiz için, o fiilin geçişli bir fiil(transitive) olması gerekir. Yani, “open, close, give, buy, invite, gibi nesne alabilen bir fiil olması gerekir . “happen, come, go, seem, cry” gibi nesne alamayan fiiller(intransitive), passive yapılamaz. Active: An acciden happens at this crossroads nearly everyday. (No passive, because there isn’t an object in the sentence)
FORMING THE PASSIVE Active cümlenin nesne si, passive cümlede özne yerine geçer ve cümlenin tense’ine uygun olarak “ be+past participle ” kullanılır. He is washing the car OBJECT The car is being washed by him. SUBJECT She cooked the dinner. OBJECT The dinner was cooked by her. SUBJECT He makes the sandwiches. OBJECT The sandwiches are made by him. SUBJECT
FORMING THE PASSIVE TIMES ACTIVE PASSIVE Present Progressive He is washing the car. The car is being washed by him. Simple Present He washes the car The car is washed by him. Simple Past He washed the car. The car was washed by him. Past Progressive He was washing the car. The car was being washed by him. Present Perfect He has washed the car. The car has been washed by him. Past Perfect He had washed the car. The car had been washed by him. Simple Future He will wash the car The car will be washed by him. Be going to He is going to wash the car. The car is going to be washed by him. Future Perfect He will have washed the car. The car will have been washed by him.
<ul><li>Change the active to the passive. </li></ul><ul><li>The housekeeper is cleaning the windows at the moment. </li></ul><ul><li>The windows______________________________by the housekeeper at the moment. </li></ul><ul><li>The housekeeper cleans the windows every week. </li></ul><ul><li>The windows______________________________by the housekeeper every week. </li></ul><ul><li>The housekeeper cleaned the windows last week. </li></ul><ul><li>The windows______________________________by the housekeeper last week. </li></ul><ul><li>The housekeeper was cleaning the windows. </li></ul><ul><li>The windows______________________________by the housekeeper. </li></ul><ul><li>The house keeper has cleaned the windows. </li></ul><ul><li>The windows______________________________by the housekeeper. </li></ul><ul><li>The housekeeper had cleaned the windows. </li></ul><ul><li>The windows_____________________________by the housekeeper. </li></ul><ul><li>The housekeeper will clean the windows. </li></ul><ul><li>The windows_____________________________by the house keeper. </li></ul><ul><li>The housekeeper is going to clean the windows. </li></ul><ul><li>The windows_____________________________by the housekeeper. </li></ul>are being cleaned are cleaned were cleaned were being cleaned have been cleaned had been cleaned will be cleaned are going to be cleaned
THE PLACE OF TIME ADVERBIALS A. “by phrase” den sonra gelir. Active: Jack washed the car yesterday. Passive: The car was washed by Jack yesterday. NOTE; Bu zaman zarfları, vurguyu artırmak için cümle başınada gelebilir. Yesterday, the car was washed by Jack.
THE PLACE OF TIME ADVERBIALS B. 1) “always, usually, often, just, already” gibi zaman zarfları eğer Cümlede başka bir yardımcı fiil yoksa “be” fiilinden sonra gelir. Active: Jack usually washes the car in the afternoon. Passive: The car is usually washed by Jack in the afternoon. 2) Eğer cümlede başka bi yardımcı fiil daha varsa iki şekilde gelir. Active: Jack has just washed the car. Passive: The car has just been washed by Jack. (1. yardımcı fiilden sonra) Passive: The car has been just washed by Jack. (2. yardımcı fiilden sonra)
THE PLACE OF TIME ADVERBIALS C. “carefully, easily,deeply” gibi “adverbs of manner” genellikle be fiili ile asıl fiil arasına gelir. Active: The horror film affected the children badly. Passive: The children were badly affected by the horror film. NOTE; “ probably” nin olumuz cümledeki yerine dikkat edelim. Active: Jack probably won’t wash the car. Passive: The car will probably not be washed by Jack. Passive: The car probably won’t be washed by Jack.
“ BY PHRASE” EXERCISES A 32-year-old white Dutchman murdered a Dutch nationalist in May 2002. In May 2002, a Dutch nationalist____________________________________________ was murdered by a 32-year-old white Dutchman. Drug dealers are dealing drugs in the Buttermarket night club. Drugs_________________________________________________________________ are being dealt in the Buttermarket night club.
USING THE PASSIVE IN INTERROGATIVES Active bir cümleyi passive dönüştürürken yine aynı kurallar geçerlidir. Active: Did Einstein develope the theory of relativity? Passive: Was the theory of relativity developed by Einstein? “ Who” ile sorulan sorulara dikkat etmek gerekir. Eğer “who” yapan kişiyi (Agent) soruyorsa “Who.......by?” veya “by whom......” kullanılır. Active: Who discovered America? Passive: Who was America discovered by? Passive: By whom was America discovered? Ama; eğer “who” yapan kişiyi değilde nesneyi soruyorsa “by” kullanılmaz; ancak nesneye ait bir preposition varsa o kullanılır. Active: Who will you invite to the party? Passive: Who will be invited to the party? Active: Who are you going to borrow money from? Passive: Who is money going to be borrowed from? Passive: From whom is money going to be borrowed?
USING THE PASSIVE IN INTERROGATIVES “ What” bir cümlede nesneyi sorduğu için”what” ile sorulmuş bir passive soruda nesne yoktur. Bu durumda cümleyi passive yaparken, özne durumuna getirebileceğimiz bir sözcük yok demektir. Böyle bir cümleyi şu şekilde passive yaparız: Active: What are they doing about the case? Passive: What is being done about the case? Active: What did they eat at dinner? Passive: What was eaten at the dinner? Active: What have you found about the crime? Passive: What has been found about the crime? Note; Passive cümlede “What” tan sonra gelen fiil tekildir.
PRACTICE ON INTERREGOTIVES Which machines are they inspecting today? What have they deduced from the research data? Why are they throwing good desks away? Are they going to give their final decision this morning? Who picked him for the role of hero last night? Which machines are being inspected today? What has been deduced from the research data? Why are good desks being throwen away? Who was he picked for the role of hero by last night? Is their final decision be going to be given this morning?
INDIRECT OBJECTS AS PASSIVE SUBJECTS Bazı fiiler 2 object alabilir. “ Indirec t” ve “ Direc t” object olarak. Dolayısıyla bu tür cümlelerde passive cümleyi 2 farklı şekilde yapabiliriz. I gave him some money yesterday. I.O D.O I gave some money to him yesterday. D.O I.O I will buy her a book. I will buy a book for her. Örneklerde gördüğümüz gibi indirect object fiilden hemen sonra geldiğinde diğer object e geçerken preposition kullanılmaz . Öteki türlü, fiilin gerektirdiğine göre to veya for kullanılır.
INDIRECT OBJECTS AS PASSIVE SUBJECTS Active: American government awarded the victims of September 11th 2001 compensation. Passive 1: The victims of September 11th 2001 were awarded compensation by American goverment. Passive 2: Compensation was awarded to the victims of September 11th 2001 by American government. The head teacher gave her a severe warning. She was given a severe warning by the head teacher. A severe warning was given to her.
The passive forms of modals and similar expressions Will Can May Should Ought not to Had better Have to Must Are supposed to ...... ...... ...... BE + VERB3 These books have to be read until morning. The walls had better be painted . The results of the exam are supposed to be anounced until tomorrow.
MODAL + PHRASAL MODAL By the end of the semester, all the grammatical rules will be able to be studied The murderer m ust be going to be publicized. MODALITY + PROGRASSIVE modal + be + being + done ( bu kullanım hemen hemen hiç yoktur onun yerine progressive “get + V3” ile yapılır. You will be getting informed very soon.
MODALITY PERFECT modal + have been + done She shouldn’t have been told the bed news. He can’t have been seen with her. This book must have been left here by a student. You ought to have been allowed to go there. This kid might have been killed by the same serial killer. The assigment will have been finished in two hours. NEED, WANT, DESERVE + Ving passive anlam verir.
STATIVE PASSIVE İngilizcede fillierin 3. halleri aslında bir bakıma sıfat işlevi görür. Aslında yapıca passive olmalarına rağmen kullanılan past participle eylemin nasıl veya kimin tarafından yapıldığını belirtmez. Yani sadece ismi tanımlar ki bu da onları sıfat yapar. The window is large ./ The window is green. /The window is broken. Cam büyük. Cam yeşil. Cam kırık. Bunların eylem mi yoksa sıfat mı olduğunu cümlelenin akışından rahatça çıkartabiliriz. Yesterday, the window of the classrom was broken by one of the students. (action passive) (Dün, öğrencilerin biri tarafından, sınıfın camı kırıldı. ) When I entered the classrom yesterday, the window was broken. (stative passive) (Dün sınıfa girdiğimde cam kırıktı .)
STATIVE PASSIVE WITH PREPOSITIONS “ Stative passive” bildiren fiiller genellikle bir preposition ile kullanılır. I’m interested in music, especially folk music. She is married to an American I’m satisfied with the progress you have made in English. When the teacher gave the exam results, Ann was dissappointed with her score. Note exercise yapmadan önce lütfen listeyi inceleyin.
Preposition combinations with participial adjectives A absorbed in accustomed to acquainted with addicted to amazed at annoyed with someone annoyed at/about something associated with astonished at B based on blessed with bored with C commited to composed of concerned about confused with connected to/with convinced of coordinated with covered with/in crowded with D dedicated to delighted at/with derived from disgusted at/with devoted to disapponted with/at discriminated against divorced from done with dressed in E engaged to equipped with excited about exposed to F filled with finished with furnished with I impressed with interested with involved in K-L known for limited to M made of made from made out of married to O-P-R-S obliged to someone opposed to pleased with/about prepared for provided with satisfied with scared of seperated from shocked at surprised at synchronized with T-U-W thrilled at/with terrified of tired from/of troubled with upset with someone used to worried about
PASSIVE WITH “GET” I couldn’t wear my jeans because they were still wet. (“were wet” kotun o anki durumunu belirtiyor. (Bu sabah kotumu giyemedin çünki hala ıslaktı. ) When I stepped into a hole full of water yesterday, my jeans got wet. (“got wet” o anda olan bir olayı belirtiyor.) (Dün su dolu bi çukura basınca, kotum ıslandı ) !!! Gördüğünüz gibi bazı sıfatları get ile kullandığımızda durum halinden action haline getirebiliriz. GET + PAST PARTICIPLE Aynı şekilde kullanılır. When she came homei she was annoyed .( öfkeliydi ) She got very annoyed when she heard the news. (haberleri duyunca çok öfkelendi. ) She didn’t want to go out because she was tired.( yorgundu ) Having worked for three hours, she got tired . (3 saat çalıştıktan sonra, yoruldu.)
PASSIVE WITH GET “ annoy, please, surprise, frighten , etc.” gibi fiilleri kullanırken dikkat etmek gerek. bu filler active biçimlerde “ kızdırmak, memnun etmek, şaşırtmak, korkutmak vb” anlamlarına gelir. bunları, kızmak, memnun olmak, şaşırmak, korkmak anlamlarında kullanmak istiyorsak, “ be+past participle ” yada “ get+past participle ” olarak kullanmak gerekiyor. She disapponited me with her low grades. (düşük notlarıyla beni hayal kırıklığına uğrattı. ) I was disapponited with her low grades. (düşük notlarıyla hayal kırıklığına uğradım )
“ by phrase” or another preposition Bazı cümlelerde eylemin kimin yaptığı söylemek istediğimiz gibi hangi araçla Yapıldığını da söylemek isteriz bu gibi durumlarda eylemin yapan “by phrase” Araç ise kendine özgü bir preposition ile kullanılır. Eğer eylem kendiliğinden gerçekleşmişşe yine “by phrase” kullanılır. Active: He chopped the woods with an axe. Passive: The woods were choped with an axe by him. He was hit on the head with a stone by the burglar. (Vurma eylemini taş değil de, kişi yapıyor.) A stone rolled down the cliffs, and he was injured by the falling stone. (Taş kendiliğinden düşüyor.)
EXERCISES Don’t use any cleaner on the table. It should be cleaned________a damp cloth. Aaron was raised in a small house made______________an old railway carriage. The mineral water is taken ____________________a local spring. The cakes were made only______________the best fresh ingredients. with out of from with
IT’S SAID THAT/ HE’S SAID TO..........etc. “ Main clause + noun clause” biçiminde kurulmuş cümleleri iki şekilde passive yapabiliriz. Active: People say that he lives abroad now. Passive: It is said that he lives abroad now. Passive: He is said to l ive abroad now. ( Her ikisinin de Türkçe çevirisi aynıdır=Onun şimdi yurtdışında yaşadığı söyleniyor) Birinci passive şekline “It’s + past participle” şeklinde başlar ve “that clause” gelir. İkinci tip te ise, “noun clause” daki özne ile başlar.
IT’S SAID THAT/ HE’S SAID TO..........etc. <ul><li>Present “be” (am, is, are) & VERB </li></ul><ul><li>They say that the man upstairs is a thief </li></ul><ul><li>It’s said that the man upstairs is a thief. </li></ul><ul><li>The man upstairs is said to be a thief. </li></ul><ul><li>We understand that he dislikes children. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s understood that he dislikes children. </li></ul><ul><li>He is understood to dislike children. </li></ul>B) Past “be” (was, were) & VERB They say that he was very rich in the past. It is said that he was very rich in the past. He is said to have been very rich in the past. People say that he left the country two years ago. It is said that he left the country two years ago. He is said to have left the country two years ago.
IT’S SAID THAT/ HE’S SAID TO..........etc. C) Present Perfect People think that he has deseted the country. It’s thought that he has deseted the country. He is though to have deserted the country. D) Present Progressive We think he is waiting there now. It’s thought that he is waiting there now. He is thought to be waiting there now. E) Past Progressive People say he was working very hard. It’s said that he was working very hard. He is thought to have been working very hard..
IT’S SAID THAT/ HE’S SAID TO..........etc. F) Future(will/be going to) People expect that the rate of exchange will go down soon. It is expected that the rate of excahange will go down soon. The rate of exchange is expected to go down.
NOTE; Temel cümlenin yüklemi present yan cümlenin yüklemi past olduğunda passive Yapının “to have done” yapısı kullandık. Bunun nedeni eylemler arasındaki zaman İlişkisini vurgulamaktır. They believe she acted deliberately. It is believed that she acted deliberately. She is believed to have acted deliberately. Eğer temel cümlenin yüklemi present ve diğer fiil de present sa veya temel cümle past Ve yan cümlede past ise arada zaman farkı olmadığı için “ to do” biçimini kullanarak Passive elde ederiz; ama şu cümleye bir bakalım. They believed that she knew the truth. It was believed that she knew the truth. She was believed to know the truth. They believed that she had acted on purpose. It was believed that she had acted on pırpose. She was believed to have acted on purpose.
CHOCOLATE: FOOD OF THE GODS Today, it(believe)___________that the cacao tree(originate)________________in the Amazon or Orinoco basin at least 4.000 years ago. In 1502, Christopher Columbus(encounter)_ __________the beans---becoming the first European to come across them-----but he virtually (ignore)_____________them. In 1528, drinking chocolate(introduce)__________________to Spain by Hernan Cortes. Aztecs(offer)________________Cortes this bitter watery drink on his visit to the New World. The cacao tree(name)___________ Theobrama , which(mean)__________ “ food of gods”, by the 18th century botanist,Linnaeus. The Aztects(consider)_______________the drink so prestigious that it(serve)_________________in golden cups. Cortes(take)________________the beans back as a present for his King, Charles V. Since it(introduce)__________________________into Europe, chocolate(make)________________in many forms, and chocolate manufacture(be)______________now a multibillion-dollar industry. When chocolate(sweep)_______________17th century Europe, it(meet)________________with both praise and scorn. The English(mix)_____________the drink with milk for a smoother result. In 1828, Conrad van Houten, a Dutch chemist,(learn)_____________how to press out the chocolate’s fat, which(create)_________________chocolate powder and cocoa butter. In 1875, a method of making solid milk chocolate(develope)_____________by the Swiss. Today, an average of twenty-two pounds of chocolate(consume)_____________________per person per year in Switzerland. Chocolate lovers(range)_________________from seekers of good life to the child at the sweet counter. is believed originated encountered ignored was introduced had offered was named means considered was served took was introduced has been made is swept was met mixed learnt created was developed are consumed range
EXAMPLE <ul><li>This poem is generally supposed _______________in the fifth century, but some people </li></ul><ul><li>date it even earlier. </li></ul><ul><li>being composed </li></ul><ul><li>to be omposed </li></ul><ul><li>having been composed </li></ul><ul><li>to have composed </li></ul><ul><li>to have been composed </li></ul>