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Approximately one-fifth of the world's countries are landlocked
and have no access to the oceans.
There are 44 landlocked countries that do not have direct access to
an ocean or ocean-accessible sea (such as the Mediterranean Sea).
~They have the disadvantageous situation of needing to rely upon
neighboring countries for access to seaports.
For example, Ethiopia relies on Eritrea for access to the Red Sea
and recent conflicts have made that access difficult.
The most recent addition to the list of landlocked countries was
Serbia, which formerly had access to the Adriatic Sea but when
Montenegro became an independent country in 2006, Serbia lost
its ocean access.
There are two special landlocked countries that
are known as doubly-landlocked countries, or
completely surrounded by other landlocked
The two doubly-landlocked countries are
Uzbekistan (surrounded by Afghanistan,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and,
Turkmenistan) and Liechtenstein (surrounded by
Austria and Switzerland).
Geography greatly affects a country's economy. Jeff
Sachs proposed the point in his work that being
landlocked clipped around half a percentage point
off the growth rate.
However, being landlocked does not
necessarily condemn a country to either
poverty or to slow growth.
38% of the people living in bottom-billion societies
are countries that are landlocked.
This has become an overwhelming African problem!
Landlocked countries have much higher transport costs according to
Tony Venables from the World Bank's research department.
The transport costs for a landlocked country depend on how much its coastal
neighbor had spent on transport infrastructure.
Landlocked countries are almost like hostages to their neighbors.
Being landlocked makes integration into global markets difficult for any products
that require a lot of transport.
Certain countries have experienced difficulty depending upon the
opportunities they are open to.
A country like Botswana could do well even though it is landlocked because it has a
huge source of natural resources.
A landlocked resource-rich country is not at much of a disadvantage in
exporting its resource wealth, since natural resources are usually so
valuable that they ca be exported even though they have higher transport
Most landlocked countries benefit from the growth of their neighbors from growth
over spills. Countries like Switzerland disproportionately orient their economies to
benefit the markets of their neighbors.
Strategy 1- Increase Neighborhood Growth Spillers
“Cross border Trade-Landlocked countries have a strong
interest in reducing external trade barriers of the region.”
Strategy 2- Improve Neighborhood Economic Policies
“Once trade systems are integrated, the neighboring
landlocked countries can benefit off the growth of its
Strategy 3- Improve of Costal Access
“Access to the sea is a vital interest but the cost of moving to
areas near the sea depends on the transport infrastructure and
the policies of costal neighbors.”
Strategy 4- Become a Haven for the Region
“If one country in the region manages to set policies clearly
superior to those of its neighbors. It will attract these services
and export them around the region.”
Strategy 5- Don’t Be Air-locked, be E-locked
“Reduce the cost of air services and increase their frequency. E-
services help have good telecommunication and having
workers with post primary education.”
Strategy 6- Encourage Remittance
The country should try to educate their people so that they are
employable and enough that they can facilitate the finding of
jobs in the poorer countries.
Strategy 7- Create a Transport and Investor-Friendly
Environment for Resource Prospecting
“Low income countries are more than likely resource-scarce.
The valuable resources haven’t been discovered yet. “
Strategy 8- Rural Development
“Policies for rural development should receive higher priority
than in other countries.”
Strategy 9- Try to Attract Aid
The best way to help a landlocked country is to donate to them.
Landlocked countries will always be poor, unless the attract a
donor who would give them sizable donations.
All of these strategies depend upon
neighboring countries or international actors.
The landlocked countries will be stuck in
poverty unless we, us wealthy nations, help
them more than we have already.
We hope that you learned as much as we did.!!