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Cross cultural interactions 1000-1450

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Cross cultural interactions 1000-1450

  1. 1. Cross-Cultural Interactions 1000 CE – 1450 CE
  2. 2. Big Picture <ul><li>The societies of the Eastern Hemisphere begin to travel, trade, and communicate on a much greater scale </li></ul><ul><li>The rise to power of the nomadic tribes such as the Mongols, at first interrupted trade, laid the groundwork for more substantial interraction </li></ul><ul><li>Merchant, missionaries, and diplomats now traveled on safer roads </li></ul><ul><li>Technological innovations led to increased sea exploration and trade </li></ul><ul><li>Religious faiths, technology, and eventually diseases followed the same routes as products </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Crusades <ul><li>Pope Urban II called for a crusade to retake the Holy Land from the Muslims in 1095 </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually four crusades to capture the Holy Land would take place, only the second would capture Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>The political and religious failures of the crusades was offset by the economic and commercial opportunities resulting from increased interaction between Europeans and the Eastern Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristotle, “Arabic numerals”, paper production </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Long-Distance Travel and Trade <ul><li>Two principle trade routes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silk Roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mongols provided political unification and safer roads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create many destinations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All of Eurasia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southeast Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Created many wealthy trading cities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timbuktu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melaka (Malacca) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Long-Distance Travel and Trade <ul><li>Citrus fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul>
  6. 6. Long-Distance Trade and Travel <ul><li>What went with the products???? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missionaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narratives and stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Long-Distance Travel and Trade <ul><li>For the first time merchants began traveling the length of the roads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marco Polo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He served as a governor of Yangzhou in China, according to him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Marco Polo was able to find China by repeatedly shouting his first name and waiting for China to respond with his last name.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>John Stewart, America </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Marco Polo’s Journey
  9. 9. Political and Diplomatic Travel <ul><li>Mongols and Christians recognize common enemy in the 13 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Innocent IV invited the Mongols to convert to Christianity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongols counter-offer: Christians accept Mongol rule or face destruction </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>“ Ring around the rosie, </li></ul><ul><li>Pocket full of posie, </li></ul><ul><li>Ashes, ashes, </li></ul><ul><li>We all fall down” </li></ul>
  11. 12. Bubonic Plague <ul><li>Little Ice Age, c. 1300 CE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter growing season </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline in agricultural output leads to widespread famine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bubonic plague originates in south-west China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carried by fleas on rodents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongol campaigns bring disease to Chinese interior </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Spread of the Bubonic Plague <ul><li>Plague spread with Mongols, merchants, and travelers westward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1346 CE Black Sea Ports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1347 Mediterranean Ports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1348 Western Europe </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Symptoms of the Black Plague <ul><li>Inflamed and discolored lymph nodes in neck, armpits, groin area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buboes, hence Bubonic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>60-70% mortality rate, within days of onset of symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme northern climates less affected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter hard on flea population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>India, sub-Saharan areas unaffected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons unknown </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Population
  15. 16. Black Death European Art
  16. 17. Black Death European Art
  17. 19. Social and Economic Effects <ul><li>Massive labor shortage </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for higher wages </li></ul><ul><li>Population movements </li></ul><ul><li>Governments attempt to freeze wages, stop serf movements </li></ul><ul><li>If something like this happened today: who would suffer the most? What would happen to trade/travel? What would it do to people’s religious views? How would it influence society? </li></ul>
  18. 20. Recovery in China: Ming Dynasty <ul><li>Yuan dynasty collapses 1368, Mongols depart </li></ul><ul><li>Impoverished orphan raised by Buddhist monks, works through military ranks, becomes Emperor Hongwu </li></ul><ul><li>Proclaims new Ming (“Brilliant”) dynasty, 1368-1644 </li></ul>
  19. 21. Ming Centralization <ul><li>Reestablishment of Confucian educational system </li></ul><ul><li>Execution of minister suspected of treason, begins tradition of direct rule by Emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on emissaries called Mandarins </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy reliance on eunuchs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sterile, could not build hereditary power base </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Centralized structure lasts through Qing dynasty to 1911 </li></ul>
  20. 22. Chinese Exploration <ul><li>Ming dynasty hesitant to have large foreign populations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongol experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed small populations in port cities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yongle engaged Admiral Zheng He to mount seven massive naval expeditions, 1405-1433 </li></ul><ul><li>Placed trade under imperial control </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrated strength of Ming dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Successful, but aborted as Mongols presented new threat in the north </li></ul>
  21. 23. Chinese Exploration: Junk
  22. 24. Chinese Exploration: Junk
  23. 25. Zheng He’s Journey’s <ul><li>7 journey’s to gain control of trade and to awe foreign rivals </li></ul><ul><li>His first expedition contained over 300 ships and 28,000 armed troops </li></ul><ul><li>Destinations included: Southeast Asia, India, Arabia, and East Africa </li></ul>

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