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  1. 1. Why did the Camel replace the Wheel?
  2. 4. Evidence One: Characteristics of Camels <ul><li>Camels are indigenous to Arabia and first domesticated in Southern Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>Camels conserve water, they do not store water </li></ul><ul><li>Camels can consume up to 28 gallons of water in a single watering </li></ul><ul><li>Camels can absorb heat up to six degrees F before they begin to perspire </li></ul><ul><li>Camels can be milked, ridden, loaded with baggage, harnessed, exchanged for goods or a wife, exhibited in a zoo, turned into sandals or camel’s hair coats, used in the military </li></ul>
  3. 5. Evidence II: Comparison of Pack Camels and Wheeled Transportation in the First Millennium <ul><li>In Egypt in the 2 nd Century CE, a camel cost twice as much as an ox and four times an ass. </li></ul><ul><li>A Roman ox cart traveled 6-9 miles a day, a pack camel traveled 15-20 miles a day. </li></ul><ul><li>One driver for two oxen, one drive for a string of three to six camels. </li></ul><ul><li>Camel saddle cheaper than ox harness </li></ul>
  4. 6. Evidence III: Roads <ul><li>Carts require roads, camels do not need roads. </li></ul><ul><li>Roman empire, and other empires, maintained roads for transportation, but logically roads did not exist everywhere. </li></ul>
  5. 7. Types of Camels <ul><li>There are two types of camels, both are good tempered and intelligent despite their reputations </li></ul><ul><li>Dromedaries (Arabian, one-hump) </li></ul><ul><li>Bactrian (Asian, two-humped) </li></ul>
  6. 9. The Rise of Trans-Saharan Trade <ul><li>Precipitated by, among other things, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread of Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestication of our friend the camel </li></ul></ul>
  7. 10. Trans-Sahara Trade <ul><li>Goods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What went with the goods? </li></ul>
  8. 11. Trans-Sahara Trade <ul><li>Trans-Saharan Trade opened the trade routes to Sub-Saharan Africa </li></ul>