Blue is the colour of the clear sky
and the deep sea.
On the optical spectrum, blue is
located between violet and green
Blue is the colour of light between violet and green on the visible spectrum.
Hues of blue include indigo and ultramarine, closer to violet; pure blue, without
any mixture of other colours; Cyan, which is midway on the spectrum between
blue and green, and the other blue-greens turquoise, teal, and aquamarine.
Blues also vary in shade or tint; darker shades of blue contain black or
grey, while lighter tints contain white. Darker shades of blue include
ultramarine, cobalt blue, navy blue, and Prussian blue; while lighter tints
include sky blue, azure, and Egyptian blue. (For a more complete list see the
List of colours).
Blue pigments were originally made from minerals such as lapis lazuli, cobalt
and azurite, and blue dyes were made from plants; usually woad in
Europe, and Indigofera tinctoria, or True indigo, in Asia and Africa. Today most
blue pigments and dyes are made by a chemical process.
jɛloʊ/) is the color of gold, butter, or ripe
In the spectrum of visible light, and in the
traditional color wheel used by painters, yellow is
located between green and orange.
Yellow is commonly associated with gold, sunshine,
reason, optimism and pleasure, but also with envy,
jealousy and betrayal.
It plays an important part in Asian culture,
particularly in China.
Green is the color of
emeralds, jade, and growing grass.
In the continuum of colors of visible
light it is located between yellow and
blue. Green is the color most
commonly associated with nature and
movement, Ireland, Islam, spring, hop
e and envy.
Aside from chlorophyll, the green pigment of growing grass
and leaves, green pigments are rather rare in nature.
Emeralds, are colored green by trace amounts of
chromium and sometimes vanadium.
Malachite, like many greens, is colored by the presence of
copper, in this case by basic copper(II) carbonate.
Green earth is a natural pigment used since the time of
the Roman Empire. It s composed of clay colored by iron
oxide, magnesium, aluminum silicate, or potassium. Large
deposits were found in the South of France near Nice, and
in Italy around Verona, on Cyprus, and in Bohemia. The
clay was crushed, washed to remove impurities, then
powdered. It was sometimes called Green of Verona
Verdigris is made by placing a plate or blade of copper,
brass or bronze, slightly warmed, into a vat of fermenting
wine, leaving it there for several weeks, and then scraping
off and drying the green powder that forms on the metal.
The process of making verdigris was described in ancient
times by Pliny. It was used by the Romans in the murals of
Pompeii, and in Celtic medieval manuscripts as early as the
5th century AD. It produced a blue-green which no other
pigment could imitate, but it had drawbacks; it was
unstable, it could not resist dampness, it did not mix well
with other colors, it could ruin other colors with which it
came into contact., and it was toxic.
Leonardo DaVinci, in his treatise on painting, warned
artists not to use it. It was widely used in miniature
paintings in Europe and Persia in the 16th and 17th
centuries. Its use largely ended in the late 19th century,
when it was replaced by the safer and more stable chrome
Cobalt green, sometimes known as Rinman's green or Zinc
Green, is a translucent green pigment made by heating a
mixture of cobalt (II) oxide and zinc oxide. Sven Rinman, a
Swedish chemist, discovered this compound in 1780.
Black is the color of coal, ebony, and of outer
space. It is the darkest color, the result of the
absence of or complete absorption of light. It
is the opposite of white and often represents
darkness in contrast with light.
Black was one of the first colors used by
artists in neolithic cave paintings. In the
Roman Empire, it became the color of
mourning, and over the centuries it was
frequently associated with death, evil, witches
and magic. In the 14th century, it began to be
worn by royalty, the clergy, judges and
government officials in much of Europe. It
became the color worn by English romantic
poets, businessmen and statesmen in the
19th century, and a high fashion color in the
In the Western World today, it is the color
most commonly associated with
end, secrets, magic, power, violence, evil, and