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Introduction to linguistic dr. Sherine Abd El-Gelil ppt


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Introduction to linguistic dr. Sherine Abd El-Gelil ppt

  1. 1. Introduction to Linguistics     Dr. Sherine Abd El-Gelil   1
  2. 2. List of topics 1- Introduction   • What is "linguistics"? • Some general principles in linguistics • Animal and Human communication System 2
  3. 3. 2-Phonetics • What is “phonetics” • Speech sounds production, speech organs, sounds of English and phonemic symbols: • Consonants: description and classification in terms of place and manner of articulation • Vowels: description and classification • Transcription of words 3
  4. 4. 3-Phonology • What is "phonology' • What is the difference between phonetics and phonology? • Basic concepts: phonemes, phones, allophones, minimal pairs and sets, assimilation, elision • Syllable-structure, stress, intonation, • An introduction to generative phonology  4
  5. 5. Morphology • An Introduction to morphology: • Morpheme: definition, and types • Basic concepts: tense, person, gender, number, agreement • Differences between inflection and derivation • Morphological analysis of words • Structure of words - Word-formation 5
  6. 6. Syntax • An introduction to syntax: the sentence as a unit of syntactic analysis • a brief idea about Generative grammar • syntactic structures and structural ambiguity • a brief idea about structural syntax, phrase structure rules, and transformation rules 6
  7. 7. Semantics • What is semantics • What is meaning • Semantic features • Semantic roles • Lexical relations : synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy, homophones and homonyms, polysemy, metonymy, and collocation 7
  8. 8. What is Linguistics? The scientific study of language 8
  9. 9. What is Language Nobody has so far been able to come out with any standard definition that fully explains the term language. It is a situation like trying to define the term life Language is better defined in terms of its characteristics. 9
  10. 10. Why do we study language?       The  entire  human  progress  depends  on  language.  Language  is  a  medium  of  literature,  science  and  technology, computers and cultural exchanges between  social  groups  and  the  most  important  means  of  communication in the world. It is present everywhere in  all human activities, thoughts, dreams, prayers, etc. it is  through  language  that  knowledge  and  culture  are  stored and passed on from generation to generation    10
  11. 11. Language: Levels of structure    In studying language, we subdivide the area  in order  to  study  it  in  an  analytical  and  systematic  way.  Language  has  a  hierarchical  structure.  This  means  that  it  is  made  up  of  units  which  are  themselves  made  up  of  smaller  units  which  are  made  of  still  smaller  units  till  we  have  the  smallest  indivisible  unit,  i.e.  a  single  distinguishable  sound  called  a  phoneme.  11
  12. 12. We can put it the other way round:        single sounds                Morpheme  word  Sentence  Unified piece of speech or writing  12
  13. 13. Linguistics: Levels of analysis Each level of language structure is studied within a specific branch of  linguistics (level of linguistic analysis) as follows:  Levels of structure Levels of analysis Sounds Letters (graphology) Phonetics and phonology Word formation Morphology Sentence formation Syntax Meaning Semantics Connected sentences Discourse 13
  14. 14. (1) Phonetics & phonology study language at the level of sound. (2)Morphology studies the internal structure of words (3)Syntax studies the internal structure of sentences    (4)Semantics deals with the level of meaning  (5)Discourse  is  the  study  of  chunks  of  language  which  are  bigger  than  a  single sentence    14
  15. 15. Language characteristics 1) Language is a means of communication 2) Language is arbitrary 3) Language is a system of systems 4) Language is primarily vocal 5) Language is human these characteristics will be studied in detail later on 15
  16. 16. Language is a means of  communication • We use language to communicate our ideas, emotions, beliefs,  feelings, etc.  • Is Language the only means of communication ?       There are other means of communication used by humans  e.g. gestures, winks, smiles, maps, miming, etc. But, all these  systems of communication are extremely limited  16
  17. 17. Language is arbitrary  (arbitrariness( • Language  is  arbitrary  in  the  sense  that  there  is  no  ‘natural’  connection between a linguistic form and its meaning        exception    Onomatopoeic words: words whose sound echoes the sounds of  objects or activities     e.g. crash, hush, etc. But, Onomatopoeic words are relatively rare in human language   17
  18. 18. Language is a system of systems (duality- double  articulation( Language  is  not  a  disorganized  or    a  chaotic  combination  of  sounds  Sounds  are  arranged  in  certain  fixed  systematic  order  to  form  meaningful  units  or  words.  Similarly,  words  are  arranged  in  a  particular system to form acceptable meaningful sentences. 18
  19. 19.   Language is organized at two levels   or layers simultaneously:  1)at one level, we have distinct sounds e.g. t, n, e . As individual sounds,  none of these discrete forms has any intrinsic meaning      2)  at  another  level  we  have  distinct  meanings.  e.g.  ten  has  a  meaning  different from net  Note    This duality of levels is one of the most economical features of human  language because, with a limited set of discrete sounds, we are capable  of  producing  a  very  large  number  of  sound  combinations  (e.g.  words)  which are distinct in meaning.     19
  20. 20. Language is primarily vocal Speech is primary ; writing is secondary We speak first; writing comes much later.  We speak much more than we write   20
  21. 21. Language is human • Language  is  primarily  human.  It  is  humans  alone  that  possess  language  and  use  it  for  communication.  Language  is,  in  that  sense, species-specific – it is specific only to a set of species. • Human Language differs from animal communication system  21
  22. 22. Human Language vs. animal communication  system Human Language animal communication system - Can convey a large number, rather an infinite, number of messages - Conveys a very limited number of messages extendable Open-ended, changeable, modifiable and Closed-systems that permit no change, modification or addition e.g. a bee’s dance is today the same as it was 100 years ago22
  23. 23. Displacement A property of human language that allows language users to talk about things and events not present in the immediate environment Lack of displacement Animal communication system is generally considered to lack this property. It seems to be designed exclusively for this moment, here and now. It cannot effectively be used to relate events that are far removed in time and place. e.g. when your pet comes home and stands at your feet calling meow, you are likely to understand this message as relating to that immediate time and place 23
  24. 24. Arbitrariness Human language is arbitrary  with the exception of  onomatopoeic words Non-arbitrariness -For the majority of animal signals, there does appear  to be a connection between the conveyed message   and the signal used to convey it. -This may be closely connected to the fact that, for  any animal, the set of signals used in communication is  finite. That is , each variety of animal communication  consists of a fixed and limited set of vocal or gestural  forms 24
  25. 25. Productivity (creativity- open- endedness( -Humans are continually creating new expressions and novel utterances by manipulating their linguistic resources to describe new objects and situations -This is linked to the fact that the potential number of utterances in any human language is infinite Fixed reference -The communication systems of other creatures do not appear to have this type of flexibility. -It does not seem possible for creatures to produce new signals to communicate novel experiences or events --this limiting feature of animal communication system is described in terms of fixed reference- a property of a communication system whereby each signal is fixed as relating to a particular object or occasion 25
  26. 26. Cultural transmission -While we inherit physical features such as brown eyes and dark hair from our parents, we do not inherit their language. --We acquire a language in a culture with other speakers and not from parental genes. --This process whereby a language is passed on from one generation to the next is described as cultural transmission --We are born with some kind of predisposition to acquire language in a general sense. However, we are not born with the ability to produce utterances in a specific language. -The general pattern in Creatures are born with a set of specific signals that are produced instinctively. 26
  27. 27. Duality (double articulation-( Language is organized at two levels or layers simultaneously: 1)at one level, we have distinct sounds e.g. t, n, e . As individual sounds, none of these discrete forms has any intrinsic meaning 2) at another level we have distinct meanings. e.g. ten has a meaning different from net Among other creatures, each communicative signal appears to be a single fixed form that cannot be broken down into separate parts 27
  28. 28. Assignment 1 Answer the following questions: 1-what kind of evidence is used to support the idea that language is  culturally transmitted? 2-what is the difference between a communication system with  productivity and one with fixed reference?  3 - Which property of human language enables people to talk about the  future?  28
  29. 29. Do the sounds of spoken English match up with letters of written English? In other words Is each sound represented by a particular letter in the alphabet? 29
  30. 30. The Phonetic alphabet -The sounds of spoken English do not match up, a lot of the time, with  letters of written English.  E.g. fan philosophy cough How can we describe the sounds of a language? One solution  is to produce a separate alphabet with symbols that  represent sounds  - phonetic alphabet i.e. a set of symbols  , each one  representing a distinct sound segment. 30
  31. 31. Phonetics Phonetics is a branch of  linguistics that comprises  the study of the characteristics of speech sounds. The field of phonetics is a multiple layered subject  of linguistics that focuses on speech. In the case of  oral languages there are three basic areas of study: 31
  32. 32. Articulatory phonetics: the study of the production of speech sounds by the articulatory and vocal tract by the speaker Acoustic phonetics: the study of the physical transmission of speech sounds from the speaker to the listener (sound waves( Auditory phonetics: the study of the perception, via the ear, of speech sounds by the listener 32
  33. 33. Voiced vs. voiceless sounds In articulatory phonetics, we investigate how speech sounds are produced using  our oral equipment . We start with the air pushed out by the lungs up through the  windpipe to the larynx . Inside the larynx are the vocal tracts which take two basic  positions 1(When the vocal cords are spread apart  , the air from the lungs passes between  them unimpeded  . Sounds produced in this way are described as voiceless 2(When the vocal cords are drawn together , the air from the lungs repeatedly  pushes them apart as it passes through, creating a vibration effect. Sounds  produced in this way are described as voiced. 33
  34. 34. Voiceless sounds are speech sounds produced without vibration of the vocal cords Voiced sounds are speech sounds produced with vibration of the vocal cords 34
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. Consonants Once  the  air  has  passed  through  the  larynx,  it  comes up and out through the mouth and/or the  nose.  -Most consonant sounds are produced by using  the  tongue  and  other  parts  of  the  mouth  to  constrict,  in  some  way,  the  shape  of  the  oral  cavity through which the air is passing.  --therefore,    a  consonant  is  defined  as  a  speech sound  that  is  articulated  with  complete  or partial closure of the vocal tract. --  consonants  are  described  in  terms  of  their  place and manner of articulation. 36
  37. 37. Place of articulation Place of articulation means the location inside the mouth at which the constriction takes place -To describe the place of articulation of most consonant sounds, we can start at the front of the mouth and work back . -Consonants are classified according to their place of articulation into: 1(Bilabials 2(labiodentals 3(Dentals 4(Alveolars 5(Palatals 6(Velars 7(Glottals 37
  38. 38. b bad, lab d did, lady f find, if g give, flag h how, hello j yes, yellow k cat, back l leg, little m man, lemon n no, ten ŋ sing, finger p pet, map r red, try s sun, miss ʃ she, crash t tea, getting tʃ check, church θ think, both ð this, mother v voice, five w wet, window z zoo, lazy ʒ pleasure, vision 38
  39. 39. Bilabials These are sounds formed using both (+ bi( upper and lower lips (+ labio(: [P]: - V e.g. pat [b]: +V e.g. bat [m]: + V e.g. mat [w]: + V e.g. way Labiodentals These are sounds formed with the upper teeth and the lower lip [f] : -V e.g. Fat , safe, cough , photo [v] : +V e.g. Vat , save39
  40. 40. Dentals These are sounds formed with the tongue tip behind the upper front teeth: [θ]: - V e.g. think, both [ð]: +V e.g. This, mother Note: the term ‘interdentals’ is used for these consonants when they are pronounced with the tongue tip between (= inter) the upper and lower teeth. 40
  41. 41. Alveolars These are sounds formed with the front part of the tongue on the alveolar ridge, which is the rough, bony ridge immediately behind and above the upper teeth: [t]: - V e.g. top [d]: +V e.g. door [s]: -V e.g. sit [z]: + V e.g. zoo , raise [n]: + V e.g. not, knot [l]: + V e.g. let, lap [r]: + V e.g. right , write 41
  42. 42. Palatals (alveo-palatals) Sounds produced with the tongue and the palate, which is a hard area in the roof of the mouth behind the alveolar ridge. [ʃ] – V e.g. she, crash [tʃ] – V e.g. check, church [ʒ ] +V e.g. pleasure, vision, rouge [dʒ] + V e.g. just, large, George [j] +V e.g. yet, you 42
  43. 43. Velars These are sounds produced with the back of the tongue against the velum, which is a soft area beyond the hard palate back in the roof of the mouth [k]: - V e.g. kid, car [g]: + V e.g. go, gun bag plague [ŋ]: + V e.g. sing tongue bang (the velum is lowered so that air flows through the nasal cavity) 43
  44. 44. The voiceless Glottal That is the only sound produced without the active use of the tongue and other parts of the mouth : [h] : - V e.g. have, he, house, who, whose - The glottis is the space between the vocal cords in the larynx 44
  45. 45. Place of articulation Bilabials:[P] [b] [m] [w] Labiodentals: [f] [v] Dentals : [θ] [ð] Alveolars: [t] [d] [s] [z] [n] [l] [r] Palatals: [ ] [t ] [ ] [d ] [j]ʃ ʃ ʒ ʒ Velars : [k] [g] [ŋ] Glottals: [h] 45
  46. 46. Manner of articulation - Consonants are also described in terms of their manner of articulation, i.e. how they are articulated. - Note: sounds which are placed in the same category in terms of their place of articulation might be placed in different categories if we consider their manner of articulation. E.g. [t] and [s] are both voiceless alveolar sounds but they differ in their manner of articulation, i.e. in the way they are pronounced. 46
  47. 47. Manner of articulation Consonants are classified according to their manner of articulation into: 1)Stops 2)Fricatives 3)Affricates 4)Nasals 5)Liquids 6)Glides47
  48. 48. Stops (plosives( Sounds produced by some form of stopping or blocking of the airstream (very briefly) then letting it go abruptly: [p] [b] [t] [d] [k] [g] Fricatives Sounds produced by almost blocking the airstream and having the air push through the very narrow opening. As the air is pushed through, a type of friction is produced: [f] [v] [θ] [ð] [s] [z] [ ] [ ]ʃ ʒ 48
  49. 49. Affricates Sounds produced with a brief stopping of the airstream accompanied with an obstructed release which causes some friction [t ] [d ]ʃ ʒ Nasals Sounds produced when the velum is lowered and the airstream is allowed to flow out through the nose: [m] [n] [ŋ] 49
  50. 50. Liquids Sounds produced by letting air flow around the sides of the tongue: [l] [r] -[l] is a Lateral liquid and is formed by letting the airstream flow around the sides of the tongue as the tip of the tongue makes contact with the middle of the alveolar ridge - [r] is a voiced retroflex formed with the tongue tip raised and curled back near the alveolar ridge 50
  51. 51. Glides: semi-vowels- approximants Sounds typically produced with the tongue in motion (or gliding) to or from the position of a vowel: [w] [j] [h] 51
  52. 52. Manner of articulation 1) Stops : [p] [b] [t] [d] [k] [g] 2) Fricatives: [f] [v] [θ] [ð] [s] [z] [ ] [ ]ʃ ʒ 3) Affricates: [t ] [d ]ʃ ʒ 4) Nasals: [m] [n] [ŋ] 5) Liquids: [l] [r] 6) Glides : [w] [j] [h] 52
  53. 53. The glottal stop and the flap There are two common terms used to describe ways of pronouncing consonants which are not included in the consonants chart: (1)The glottal stop [ʔ] which occurs when the space between the vocal cords (the glottis) is closed completely (very briefly), then released e.g. the sound between oh oh (2)The flap [D]: a sound produced by the tongue tip tapping the alveolar ridge briefly e.g. butter - budder , writer – rider, metal – medal (the consonants between vowels are flapped) 53
  54. 54. Vowels -While the consonant sounds are mostly articulated via closure or obstruction in the vocal tract, vowel sounds are produced with a relatively free flow of air. -To describe vowel sounds, we consider the way in which the tongue influences the ‘shape’ through which the airflow must pass. -To describe their place of articulation , we think of the space inside the mouth as having a front versus a back and a high versus a low area 54
  55. 55. -Examples: the vowels in -heat and hit: are high front vowels because the sound is made with the front part of the tongue in a raised position -Hat : the tongue is in a lower position -Hot: a low back vowel 55
  56. 56. Types of English Vowels • Monophthongs: single vowel sounds. In pronouncing the majority of Monophthongs our vocal organs assume one position • Diphthongs: combined vowel sounds. In pronouncing them, we move from one vocalic position to another as we produce the sound56
  57. 57. English Vowels Monophthongs [i] eat, key, see [ ]ɪ hit, myth wring [e] great, tail, weight [ ]ɛ dead said [æ] ban, sat, laugh [ ]ə above, sofa, support [ ]ʌ blood, tough [u] move, two, too 57
  58. 58. [ᶷ] could, foot, put [o] toe, road, know [ ]Ɔ ball, caught [a] bomb, cot, swan diphthongs Combined vowel sounds that begin with a vowel and end with a glide [j] or [w]: [aj] buy, eye, my [aw] cow, doubt, loud58
  59. 59. Phonetics vs. phonology -In studying phonetics, we investigated the physical production of speech sounds in terms of the articulatory mechanisms of the human vocal tract. -When we considered the human vocal tract, we didn’t have to specify whether we were talking about a fairly large person, or about a rather small person . Yet, those two physically different individuals would inevitably have physically different vocal tracts, in terms of size and shape. In a sense, every individual has a physically different vocal tract. Consequently, in purely physical terms, every individually will pronounce sounds differently. There are potentially millions of physically different ways of saying the simple word me In addition, each individual will not pronounce the word me in a physically identical manner on every occasion - To answer the question about how do we manage to recognize the different versions of me as the form [mi] and not [ni] or [si] ? The answer to that question is provided to a large extent by the study of phonology. 59
  60. 60. phonology - The description of the systems and patterns of speech in a language. - It is based on a theory of what every speaker of a language unconsciously knows about the sound patterns of that language. 60
  61. 61. - Thus, Phonology is concerned with the abstract or mental aspect of the sounds in language rather than with the actual physical articulation of speech sounds. - when we think of the [t] sound in tar , star, writer, and eighth as being the ‘same’ we actually mean that, in the phonology of English, they would be represented in the same way. In actual speech, these [t] sounds are all very different. - However, all these articulation differences in [t] sounds are less important than the distinction between the [t] sounds in general and the [k] sounds or the [f] sounds , or the [b] sounds, because there are meaningful consequences related to the use of one61
  62. 62. Phoneme • Definition • The smallest meaning-distinguishing sound unit in the abstract representation of the sounds of a language. • slash marks / / are used to indicate a phoneme, /t/ , an abstract segment, as opposed to the square brackets [ ], as in [t] used for each phonetic or physically produced segment 62
  63. 63. An essential property of a phoneme is that it functions contrastively. /f/ and /v/ are two phonemes in English because they are the only basis of the contrast in meaning between fat and vat, or fine and vine . This contrastive property is the basic operational test for determining the phonemes that exist in a language. If we substitute one sound for another in a word and there is a change of meaning, then the two sounds represent different phonemes.63 Operational test
  64. 64. Features • The technical terms used in creating sound charts discussed before can be considered “features” that distinguish each phoneme from the next. If the feature is present, we mark it with (+) and if it is not present, we mark it with (-) • E.g. • /p/ is [- v, +bilabial, + stop] • /k/ is [- v, + velar, , + stop] • /v/ is [ +v, + labiodental, + fricative] because these two sounds share some features (both are voiceless stops), they are expected to behave phonologically in64
  65. 65. Phones and allophones The phoneme is the abstract unit or sound-type (in the mind) -There are many different versions of that sound-type produced in actual speech – Phones. -When we have a set of phones, all of which are versions of one phoneme we refer to them as allophones 65
  66. 66. Examples 1- [t] in tar : pronounced with a stronger puff of air (aspiration) than is present in the [t] sound in s tar. This aspirated version is represented more precisely as [t ͪ ]. (one phone) 2- [t] in writer : is flapped. This can be represented as [D] : (another phone) 3- [t] in eighth: the influence of the final dental [ϴ] sound causes a dental articulation of the [t] sound. This can be represented as [t] (another phone) 66
  67. 67. Because these variations are all part of one set of phones, they are typically referred to as allophones of the phoneme /t/ example 2 -There is a subtle difference in the pronunciation of /i/ in the words seed and seen . In seen, the effect of the nasal consonant [n] makes the [i] sound nasalized. This nasalization (i.e. pronunciation of a sound with air flowing through the nose typically before a nasal consonant) is represented with a small mark (~) over the symbol [ĩ] . Thus, there are at least two phones [i] and [ĩ] , used to realize the same phoneme . They are both allophones of /i/ in English. 67
  68. 68. Minimal pair Two words which are identical in form except for a contrast in one phoneme, occurring in the same position. e.g. Pat – bat (this contrast between /p/ and /b/ is not found in Arabic Fan – van Bet – bat Site – side 68
  69. 69. Minimal sets A group of words which are differentiated, each one from the others, by changing one phoneme (always in the same position. e.g. - Feat, fit, fat, fate, fought, foot, - Big, pig, rig, fig, dig, wig 69
  70. 70. Phonotactics This type of exercise involving minimal pair and minimal set is used as a test of phonemic distinctions in a language. -Also, this type of exercise involving minimal set allows us to see that there are definite patterns in types of sound combinations permitted in a language. -- the minimal set list of big, pig, rig, fig, dig, wig does not include forms such as lig or vig which are not English words, but they could be viewed as possible70
  71. 71. Phonotactics On the other hand, forms such as [fsıg] or [rnıg do not exist or are unlikely ever to exist. These Constraints on the permissible combination of sounds in a language are called Phonotactics (i.e. permitted arrangements of sounds) 71
  72. 72. Syllables A syllable is : a unit of sound consisting of a vowel and optional consonants before or after the vowel. thus, a syllable must contain a vowel (V). The most common type of syllable in a language also has a consonant (C) The basic elements of the syllable the onset (one or more consonants) followed by the rhyme. The rhyme consists of a vowel, which is treated as the nucleus, plus any following consonant (s), described as the coda 72
  73. 73. 73
  74. 74. Types of syllables 74
  75. 75. ?????????????? 1- Does a closed syllable contain a vowel? 2- analyze the syllable structure of the following words: green Eggs Do Not Like Them I Am Ham 75
  76. 76. Answer Green: CCVC Eggs: VCC Do: CV Not: CVC Like: CVC Them: CVC I: V Am: VC Ham: CVC 76
  77. 77. Consonant cluster Both the onset and the coda can consist of more than one consonant, known as consonant cluster e.g. /st / is a CC used as onset in stop, as coda in post /bl/ black, /br/ bread /tr/ trick /fl/ flat /tw/ twin Notice: liquids (/l/, and /r/) and a glide (/w/) are77
  78. 78. -English can actually have a larger onset clusters as in: -stress splat (CCC) -1st consonant 2nd consonant /s/ /p/ /t/ /k/ /l/ /r/ /w/ e.g. Splash , spring, strong, scream, and square 78
  79. 79. Co-articulation effect - mostly, our talk is fast and spontaneous, and requires our articulators to move from one sound to the next without stopping. The process of making one sound almost at the same time as the next sound is called coarticulation, - There are two well-known coarticulation effects, described as assimilation and elision 79
  80. 80. assimilation -The process taking place when two phonemes occur in sequence and some aspect of one phoneme is taken or copied by the other -E.g. -[grænd] grand and [græmpa] grandpa : the [n] is changed into [m] before the bilabial [p] - [kæn] can and [ajk ŋgoə ] I can go --[ænd] and and [yu nmi]ə you and me 80
  81. 81. elision The omission of a sound segment which would be present in the deliberate pronunciation of a word in isolation e.g. -[ænd] and - [yu nmi]ə you and me - [fr n ıp]ɛ ʃ friendship -[æsp ks] aspectsɛ -- [him sbi] he must beə 81
  82. 82. Intonation • intonation is variation of spoken pitch that is not used to distinguish words; instead it is used for a range of functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statement and question, and between different types of question, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction. It contrasts with tone,, below). • Although intonation is primarily a matter of pitch variation, it is important to be aware that functions attributed to intonation such as the expression of attitudes and emotions, or highlighting aspects of grammatical structure, almost always involve82
  83. 83. Stress In all languages some syllables are in some sense stronger than other syllables; these are syllables that have the potential to be described as stressed. It is also probably true that the difference between strong and weak syllables is of some linguistic importance in every language - strong and weak syllables do not occur at random. However, languages differ in the linguistic function of such differences: in English, for example, the position of stress can change the meaning of a word, as in the case of 'import' (noun) and 'import' (verb), and so forms part of the phonological composition of the word. However, it is usually claimed that in the case of French there is no possibility of moving the stress to different syllables except in cases of special emphasis or contrast, since stress (if there is any that can be detected) always falls on the last syllable of a word. 83
  84. 84. what factors make a syllable count as stressed It seems likely that stressed syllables are produced with greater effort than unstressed, and that this effort is manifested in the air pressure generated in the lungs for producing the syllable and also in the articulatory movements in the vocal tract. These effects of stress produce in turn various audible results: one is pitch prominence, in which the stressed syllable stands out from its context (for example, being higher if its unstressed neighbours are low in pitch, or lower if those neighbours are high; often a pitch glide such as a fall or rise is used to give greater pitch prominence); another effect of stress is that stressed syllables tend to be longer - this is very noticeable in English, less so in some other languages;84
  85. 85. Generative phonology We have considered so far two different levels of abstraction in representing the sound structure of a language: 1)a phonetic level of representation which includes aspects of pronunciation which are at least shared by a community/dialect group 2) and a phonemic level of representation which is formed from a finite number of phonemic units and which factors out the contextual influences. 85
  86. 86. Generative phonology It has been a particular hallmark of a branch of phonology known as Generative Phonology, that came to prominence with Chomsky & Halle's (1968) Sound Pattern of English, to consider a more abstract representation which will call an underlying representation that allows phonological rules and principles to be more transparently and economically stated 86
  87. 87. Their emphasis in the Sound Pattern of English is to eliminate redundancy from phonological analyses. We already do this to a certain extent, of course, in representing words using the phonemic rather than a phonetic representation: that is, there are some aspects of pronunciation that are redundant (e.g. aspiration of oral stops in English) and so we factor out this redundancy and subsequently fill it in by rule. We therefore of course also necessarily end up with a considerably more abstract sound representation of the word (e.g. /p n/ɪ rather than [p n])ʰɪ 87
  88. 88. Thus, generative phonology is based on the principle of an abstract, underlying phonological representation of speech which needs rules to convert it into phonetic realizations. 88
  89. 89. tense, person, gender, number, agreement Tense: the grammatical category distinguishing forms of the verb such as the present tense and past tense Person: the grammatical category distinguishing first person (involving the speaker, me), second person (involving the hearer, you), and third person (involving any others, she, them) Grammatical Gender: the grammatical category distinguishing classes of nouns as masculine, feminine (or neuter) Number: the grammatical category of nouns as singular or plural. Agreement: the grammatical connection between two parts of a sentence, as in the connection between a subject (Cathy) and89
  90. 90. MORPHOLOGY The study of forms - - The analysis of the structure of words 90
  91. 91. Main Divisions of Word Classes (Parts of Speech(: •Content Words •Function Words • Nouns • Verbs • Adjectives • Adverbs • Conjunctions • Prepositions • Articles • Pronouns
  92. 92. Morpheme: The minimal unit of meaning or grammatical function Example The police reopened the investigation re- : a minimal unit of meaning (meaning ‘again’ Open: a minimal unit of meaning - ed: a minimal unit of grammatical function - (indicating past tense)
  93. 93. Free and bound morphemes Free morpheme: a single morpheme that constitutes a word and can stand alone. E.g. play, man, kind Bound morpheme: a morpheme that must be attached to another morpheme. E.g. un-, dis, in-, -less, -ed, re- 93
  94. 94. Examples: Retroactive = retro + act + ive Free morpheme = act Bound morphemes = retro-, -ive Undressed= un + dress + ed free morpheme: dress Bound morphemes : un-, -ed
  95. 95. English Affixes (based on the position( Prefix: An affix (a bound morpheme) added to the beginning of a word Suffix: An affix (a bound morpheme) added to the end of a word
  96. 96. Affixes (based on the function( Inflections vs. DerivationsInflections vs. Derivations
  97. 97. Definition • Derivational morpheme: • a bound morpheme used to make new words or words of a different grammatical category. • Inflectional morpheme: • a bound morpheme that changes the form of a word because of the rules of syntax.
  98. 98. English Inflectional Morphemes Nouns –s plural –’s possessive Verbs –s third person singular present –ed past tense –en past participle –ing progressive Adjectives –er comparative –est superlative
  99. 99. Describe the italic affixes: 1)impossible 2)terrorized 3)terrorize 4)desks 5)dislike 6)humanity 7)fastest 1) Derivational prefix 2) Inflectional suffix 3) Derivational suffix 4) Inflectional suffix 5) Derivational prefix 6) Derivational suffix 7) Inflectional suffix
  100. 100. Describe the italic affixes: 8) premature 9) untie 10) darken 11) fallen 12) oxen 13) faster 14) lecturer 8) Derivational prefix 9) Derivational prefix 10) Derivational suffix 11) Inflectional suffix 12) Inflectional suffix 13) Inflectional suffix 14) Derivational suffix
  101. 101. Word Formation processes 101
  102. 102. Word Formation processes 1. Coinage 2. Borrowing 3. Compounding 4. Blending 5. Clipping 6. Backformation 7. Conversion 8. Acronyms 9. Derivation
  103. 103. 103 Process Definition Examples Coinage The invention of totally new terms . Aspirin, nylon, Vaseline, Kleenex. Borrowing Taking words from other languages Croissant (French) Lilac (Persian) Sofa (Arabic) Tycoon (Japanese) Compounding Joining two or more words together to form a new word. Home + work = homework Pick + pocket = pickpocket Finger+ print= fingerprint sun + burn=sunburn wall + paper= wallpaper Blending Combining the beginning of one word and the end of another word to form a new word. Smog (smoke + fog) Brunch (breakfast + lunch) Telecast (television + broadcast) Spanglish (Spanish + English)
  104. 104. 104 Process Definition Examples Backformation Reducing a word of one type (e.g. a noun) to form a word of another type (e.g. a verb) Television – televise Babysitter – babysit Emotion – emote Clipping Shortening a polysyllabic word by deleting one or more syllables Flu (influenza) Lab (laboratory) Ad (advertisement Gas (gasoline) Conversion (category change – functional shift) Changing the function of a word, such as a noun to a verb, as a way of forming new words (without any reduction) Bottle, chair, vacation (nouns that come to be used as verbs) Must, guess, spy ( verbs that come to be used as nouns)
  105. 105. 105 Process Definition Examples Acronyms Words derived from the initials of several words CD (compact disk) NATO, NASA, UNESCO , Radar, ATM Derivation (The most common word formation process to be found in the production of new English words ) forming new words by adding affixes Disrespectful, foolishness, Singabloodypore , absogoddamlutely!
  106. 106. Syntax The Sentence Patterns of Language -The analysis of sentence structure 106
  107. 107. 107 The sentence Innumerable definitions of sentence exist, ranging from the vague characterizations of traditional grammar (such as ‘the expression of a complete thought’) to the detailed structural descriptions of contemporary linguistic analysis. Most linguistic definitions of the sentence show the influence of Leonard Bloomfield who pointed to the structural autonomy, or independence, of the notion of sentence: it is ‘not included by virtue of any grammatical construction in any larger linguistic form’.
  108. 108. Linguistic discussion of the sentence has focused on problems of identification, classification and generation. Identifying sentences is relatively straightforward in the written language, (a sentence is defined as a group of words standing between an initial capital letter and a mark of end punctuation), but is often problematic in speech, where intonation and pause may give uncertain clues as to whether a sentence boundary exists. Classification of sentence structure proceeds along many different lines, e.g. the binary constituent procedures of immediate-constituent analysis, or the hierarchical analyses (sentences being seen as composites of clauses, which in turn are analysed into phrases, etc.).108
  109. 109. In generative grammar, likewise, there are several models of analysis for sentence structure, with competing views as to the direction in which a sentence derivation should proceed. Certain analytic problems are shared by all approaches, e.g. how to handle elliptical sentences (or ‘sentence fragments’), such as To town (in answer to Where are you going?); how to handle cross- reference between sentences, such as She’s writing (‘sentence connectivity’); and how to handle the minor, non-productive sentence types in a language (e.g. Yes, Please, How do you do?). 109
  110. 110. Most analysts agree on the need to recognize a functional classification of sentences into statement, question, command and exclamatory types. There is also widespread recognition of a formal classification into declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamative types 110
  111. 111. Most analyses also recognize some such classification of ‘sentence patterns’ into simple v. complex or compound types, i.e. consisting of one subject–predicate unit, as opposed to more than one. Whether one calls this subject–predicate unit a clause or a ‘simple’ sentence, or uses some other term depends on one’s model of analysis – but something analogous to this unit emerges in all theories, e.g. NP + VP, actor–action–goal, Subject– Verb–Object. Likewise, the number of formal sentence types recognized, and how they are best defined, has been and remains controversial. Several linguists insist on making a systematic distinction between sentence (a theoretical unit, defined by a grammar) and utterance (a physical unit, a matter of speech production or performance): in this view, utterances can be analysed in terms of sentences, but utterances do not ‘consist of’ sentences 111
  112. 112. Grammatical vs. Ungrammatical Well-formed or grammatical sentence: a sequence of words that conform to the rules of syntax. Ill-formed or ungrammatical sentence: a sequence of words that violate the rules of syntax. 1. The boy found the ball 2. *The boy found quickly 3.* The boy found in the house 4. The boy found the ball in the house 5. *Disa slept the baby 6. Disa slept soundly 112
  113. 113. Symbols used in syntactic descriptions S: Sentence NP: Noun Phrase: The car, a clever student VP : Verb Phrase: play the guitar PP : Prepositional Phrase; in the class AP : Adjective Phrase: very tall, kind N: Noun man, boy Pro: Pronoun he, she PN: Proper noun Mona V: verb play Art: Article a, an, the Adj: Adjective kind, clear Prep: Preposition in, at Adv: adverb kindly Consists of ( ) optional { } one and only one of these constituents must be selected  Ungrammatical sentence 113
  114. 114. Immediate constituent (IC) Immediate Constituent is a term used in grammatical analysis to refer to the major divisions that can be made within a syntactic construction, at any level. For example, in analyzing the sentence The boy is walking, the immediate constituents would be the boy and is walking. These in turn can be analyzed into immediate constituents (the + boy, is + walking), and the process continues until irreducible constituents are reached. The whole procedure is known as immediate-constituent analysis (or ‘constituent analysis’), and was a major feature of Bloomfieldian structural linguistics.
  115. 115. Immediate constituent analysis  immediate constituent analysis or IC analysis is a method of sentence analysis that was first mentioned by Leonard Bloomfield and developed further by Rulon Wells. The process reached a full blown strategy for analyzing sentence structure in the early works of Noam Chomsky. Most tree structures employed to represent the syntactic structure of sentences are products of some form of IC-analysis
  116. 116. IC-analysis in phrase structure grammars  Given a phrase structure grammar (= constituency grammar), IC-analysis divides up a sentence into major parts or immediate constituents, and these constituents are in turn divided into further immediate constituents. The process continues until irreducible constituents are reached, i.e., until each constituent consists of only a word or a meaningful part of a word. The end result of IC-analysis is often presented in a visual diagrammatic form that reveals the hierarchical immediate constituent structure of the sentence at hand. These diagrams are usually trees.
  117. 117. Phrase structure rules S → NP (Aux) VP NP → art (adj) N NP Pro NP  PN NP { art (adj) N, Pro, PN} VP → V (NP) (PP) (Adv) (CP) PP → Prep NP CP  Comp S / C S 117
  118. 118. Transformational-generative grammar -Transformational Generative Grammar (TGG) is a theoretical grammar designed to explain the process and the rules that enable language users to generate an infinite number of grammatical sentences and to avoid truly ungrammatical ones. -It had its beginning particularly in the work of Zellig Harris and, later, in the work of his student Noam Chomsky. Transformational Generative Grammar (TGG) had its first exponent in Chomsky' s works. In his most notable work Syntactic structures (1957) as an illustration of a generative device more powerful than phrase-structure grammars. In this view, very many sentence types can be economically derived by supplementing the constituent analysis rules of phrase-structure grammars with rules for transforming one sentence into another. The rule of passivization, for instance, is claimed to be a procedure both simpler and intuitively more satisfactory than generating active and passive sentences separately in the same grammar. The arguments were persuasive, and as a result transformational grammars became the most influential type in the development of generative grammatical theory: indeed, the field as a whole for a time came to be variously known as ‘generative grammar’, ‘transformational- generative grammar’ (or simply ‘TG’). 118
  119. 119. Several models of transformational grammar have been presented since its first outline. The standard model, as presented by Chomsky in Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (1965), consists of three components: (a) a syntactic component, comprising a basic set of phrase-structure rules which together with lexical information provides the deep-structure information about sentences, and a set of transformational rules for generating surface structures; (b) a phonological component, which converts strings of syntactic elements into pronounceable utterance; and (c) a semantic component, which provides a representation of the meaning of the lexical items to be used in the sentence. The ways in which these components should be interrelated (especially the relationships between semantics and syntax) have proved to be a source of continuing controversy, since the appearance of Aspects, and alternative models of analysis have developed 119
  120. 120. Generative grammar -- Inspired by the work of Noam Chomsky, linguists attempted to produce a particular type of grammar that has a very explicit system of rules specifying what combinations of basic elements would result in well-formed sentences . Such a set of explicit rules is a generative grammar 120
  121. 121. -The grammar will have a finite (i.e. limited) number of rules, but will be capable of generating an infinte number of well-formed structures. -A generative grammar defines the syntactic structures of a language. The grammar will generate all the well-formed syntactic structures (e.g. sentences) of the language and will not generate any ill-formed structures. This has been called the ‘all and only’ criterion’, that is, all the grammatical sentences and only the grammatical sentences will be produced. -- the grammar should also be capable of revealing the basis of two other phenomena: first, how some superficially different sentences are closely related, and, second, how some superficially similar sentences are in fact different. 121
  122. 122. -Deep and surface structure -Two superficially different sentences are shown in these examples: -Charlie broke the window -The window was broken by Charlie -In traditional grammar, the first is called an active sentence, focusing on what Charlie did, and the second is a passive sentence, focusing on the window and what happened to it. The distinction between them is a difference in their surface structure, i.e. the different syntactic forms they have as individual English sentences. However, this superficial difference in form disguises the fact that the two sentences are very closely related, even identical, at some less superficial level. 122
  123. 123. -The other ‘underlying’ level, where the basic components (noun phrase+ verb + noun phrase) shared by the two sentences can be represented, is called their deep structure. The deep structure is an abstract level of structural organization in which all the elements determining structural interpretation are represented. The same deep structure can be the source of many other surface structures: such as It was Charlie that broke the window. And Was the window broken by Charlie . In short, the grammar must be capable of showing how a single underlying abstract representation can become different surface structures 123
  124. 124. ambiguity -This term refers to a word or sentence which expresses more than one meaning (is ambiguous). Several types of ambiguity are recognized. The most widely discussed -type is grammatical (or structural) ambiguity. In phrase-structure ambiguity, -alternative constituent structures can be assigned to a construction, as in new houses and shops, which could be analysed either as new [houses and shops] (i.e. both are new) or [new houses] and shops (i.e. only the houses are new). 124
  125. 125. In transformational ambiguity, the sentence may have a similar bracketing on the surface for both readings, but is related to more than one structure at a more abstract level of representation. For example, Visiting relatives can be awful is relatable to either It is awful to visit relatives or Relatives who visit are awful. 125
  126. 126. Consider the following example: Ann whacked a man with an umbrella this sentence has two underlying interpretations that have to be represented differently in deep structure: -Ann had an umbrella and she wacked a man with it -Ann whacked a man and the man happened to be carrying an umbrella 126
  127. 127. Exercise In what ways are these expressions structurally ambiguous : -The chickens are ready to eat. -Small boys and girls -We met an English history teacher -Flying planes can be dangerous -Draw two phrase structure trees representing the two meanings of each of the sentences above 127
  128. 128. Transformational rules Remember : -Phrase structure rules can be treated as a representation of the ‘underlying’ or deep structures of sentences in English. -One feature of these underlying structures is that they will always generate sentences with a fixed word order. 128
  129. 129. Examples If we follow the phrase structure rules, adverbs will always come at the end of their sentences, e.g. Mary saw George recently. What about Recently Mary saw George. Here, the adverb recently has been moved to the beginning of the sentence. In order to make this possible in the grammar, we need other rules that will change or move constituents in the structures derived from the phrase structure rules. These rules are called transformational rules . Essentially, what they do is take a specific part of structure , like a branch of the tree, away from one part of the tree diagram and attach it to a different part. E.g. Mary saw George recently.  Recently Mary saw George. V NP Adv  adv V NP 129
  130. 130. Chomsky’s syntactic theories 130
  131. 131. - His main publication on phonology was The Sound Pattern of English (1968), with Morris Halle. Later developments in his linguistic thinking in book form may be found in Reflections on Language (1976), Rules and Representations (1980), Knowledge of Language (1986), Barriers (1986) and The Minimalist Program (1995). 131
  132. 132. By the mid-1960s Chomsky had come to stress the role of language as a key means to the investigation of the human mind. The view that linguistics can be profitably seen as a branch of cognitive psychology is argued especially in Language and Mind (1968). A collection of essays since 1992 is New Horizons in the the Study of Language and Mind (2000). In the 2000s, Chomsky has argued that his whole generative grammar project is an exercise in biolinguistics: a good summary is in On Nature and Language (2002). 132
  133. 133. competence/performance competence (n.) A term used in linguistic theory, and especially in generative grammar, to refer to speakers’ knowledge of their language, the system of rules which they have mastered so that they are able to produce and understand an indefinite number of sentences, and to recognize grammatical mistakes and ambiguities. It is seen as in opposition to the notion of performance, the specific utterances of speech. 133
  134. 134. 134 • Linguistic Competence: What you know about a language. Linguistic Performance: How you use this knowledge in actual speech production and comprehension.
  135. 135. Semantics The study of the meaning of words, phrases and sentences 135
  136. 136. Sense vs. reference sense (n.) In semantics, this term is usually contrasted with reference, as part of an explication of the notion of meaning. Reference, or denotation, is seen as extralinguistic – the entities, states of affairs, etc. in the external world which a linguistic expression stands for. Sense, on the other hand, refers to the system of linguistic relationships (sense relations or semantic relations) which a lexical item contracts with other lexical items – the paradigmatic relationships of synonymy, antonymy, etc., and the relationships of collocation.136
  137. 137. denotation A term used in semantics as part of a classification of types of meaning; often opposed to connotation. It has been given different though overlapping uses in philosophy and branches of linguistics, so it has to be used with care. In one sense, in traditional linguistic terminology, denotational meaning equates roughly with literal meaning, contrasting with the subjective and personal associations of connotation. For example, the denotation of dog would be its dictionary definition of ‘canine quadruped’, etc., while its connotations might include ‘friend’, ‘helper’, ‘competition’, etc. In a second sense, the denotation of an expression is the set of entities that it properly applies to or identifies; so for dog this is the set of all actual dogs. In this case it is equivalent to extension. In a third usage, the denotation of an expression is the set of properties that something has to have to allow the expression to be applied to it. In this case it is equivalent to intension. 137
  138. 138. connotation A term used in semantics as part of a classification of types of meaning; opposed to denotation. Its main application is with reference to the emotional associations (personal or communal) which are suggested by, or are part of the meaning of, a linguistic unit, especially a lexical item. Denotation, by contrast, covers the relationship between a linguistic unit and the non-linguistic entities to which it refers. (The traditional philosophical use of ‘connotation’ and ‘denotation’ is quite different: here, the meanings involved largely correspond to the distinction between sense and reference, the former being concerned with the relationships of equivalence between terms and propositions, the latter with their external-world status and truth-value.) For138
  139. 139. Lexical Semantics Semantic feature: A device for expressing the presence or absence of semantic properties by pluses and minuses. E.g. baby is [+ young], [+ human], [– abstract].139
  140. 140. Identify the features (1( 1. (a) widow, mother, sister, aunt, maid (b) widower, father, brother, uncle, valet The (a) and (b) words are[+ human] The (a) words are [+ female] The (b) words are [+ male] 2.2. (a) bachelor, paperboy, pope, chief(a) bachelor, paperboy, pope, chief (b) bull, rooster, drake, ram(b) bull, rooster, drake, ram The (a) and (b) words are [+ male]The (a) and (b) words are [+ male] The (a) words are [+ human]The (a) words are [+ human]140
  141. 141. Semantic Relations among Words lexical relations Synonymy: words that have the same meanings, e.g. start & begin. big & large Antonymy: words that are opposites in meanings, e.g. hot & cold. Happy & sad Polysemy: A word which has two or more related meanings, e.g. bright: ‘shining’ ; ‘intelligent. Homonymy: A word which has two or more entirely distinct meanings, e.g. club: ‘a social organization’ ; ‘a blunt weapon’. Homophony: Different words pronounced the same but spelled differently, e.g. two and too.141
  142. 142. Identifying Homonyms in Jokes Policeman: Why have you parked your car here?Policeman: Why have you parked your car here? Motorist: Because the sign says “Fine for ParkingMotorist: Because the sign says “Fine for Parking Customer: Have you got half-inch nails?Customer: Have you got half-inch nails? Ironmonger: Yes, sir.Ironmonger: Yes, sir. Customer: Then could you scratch my back. It’s very itchyCustomer: Then could you scratch my back. It’s very itchy 142
  143. 143. More semantic relations among wordsMore semantic relations among words  HyponymyHyponymy: Words whose meanings are specific instances of: Words whose meanings are specific instances of a more general word, i.e. the meaning of one form isa more general word, i.e. the meaning of one form is included in the meaning o another. e.g.included in the meaning o another. e.g. flower/roseflower/rose dog/poodledog/poodle  MetonymyMetonymy: A word substituted for another word with: A word substituted for another word with which it is closely associated, e.g.which it is closely associated, e.g. bottlebottle //water , crownwater , crown // king, car/wheelsking, car/wheels 143
  144. 144. Collocation A relationship between words that frequently occur together Or - the habitual co-occurrence of individual lexical items e.g. salt and pepper, letter and alphabet, graphic, etc. Green and jealousy 144
  145. 145. lexical ambiguity Ambiguity which does not arise from the grammatical analysis of a sentence, but is due solely to the alternative meanings of an individual lexical item, is referred to as lexical ambiguity, e.g. I found the table fascinating (= ‘object of furniture’ or ‘table of figures’. The term needs to be distinguished, in particular, from ‘generality’ of meaning. The word parent, for example, has one reading synonymous with mother and a second reading synonymous with father, but this is not a case of ambiguity because parent has a single, more general meaning which subsumes the two possibilities. Ambiguity also needs to be distinguished from the kind of indeterminacy which surrounds any sentence: in Mary saw a balloon, it is not clear when she saw it, how big the balloon was, what its colour was, and so on. No sentence would be called ambiguous on account of such unstated issues.145
  146. 146. participant role (1) A term used in linguistics, especially in pragmatics, to refer to the functions which can be ascribed to people taking part in a linguistic interaction. Typical roles are speaker and addressee, but several other roles can be recognized, such as the recipient (as opposed to the target) of a message. (2) The term is also sometimes used in grammar, as an alternative to case, to refer to the semantic functions attached to clause elements, such as agent, recipient and affected. 146
  147. 147. Thematic relation semantic role The term thematic role is used for the role performed by each argument (i.e. subject or complement) of a predicate, defined with reference to a restricted universal set of thematic functions (or thematic relations); also known as a theta role e.g. agent, patient/theme, instrument, experiencer, locative, source and goal. 147
  148. 148. Agent and theme Agent: the entity that performs the action – human and non- human Theme/patient: the entity that is involved or affected by the action or is simply described (i.e. not performing an action) --- non-human and human The boy kicked the ball The wind blew the ball away The dog chased the boy 148
  149. 149. Instrument and experiencer Instrument: the entity used by the agent in order to perform an action. e.g. He cut it with a knife The boy cut the rope with an old razor Experiencer: the entity that has the feeling, perception or state described by the verb. e.g. The boy feels sad Did you hear that noise 149
  150. 150. Location, source and goal Location: the noun phrase identifying where an entity is e.g. The boy is sitting in the classroom Source : the noun phrase identifying where an entity moves from e.g. The boy ran from the house Goal: the noun phrase identifying where an entity moves to e.g. The boy walked to the window. 150
  151. 151. Exercise Identifying the semantic roles of the noun phrases in the following sentences: 1- Mary saw a fly on the wall 2- She borrowed a magazine from George 3- She squashed the bug with the magazine 4- She handed the magazine back to George 5-We traveled from Abha to Najran 151
  152. 152. Argument structure Argument: (an entity about which something is ‘said’) and a predicate (what is ‘said’ about the argument). In ‘Pete is tall’, ‘Pete’ is the argument and ‘(is) tall’ is the predicate. Some predicates need more than one argument to form a complete proposition: ‘like’, for instance, requires two (‘Pete likes Liz’) and ‘give’ requires three (‘Pete gave Liz a present’). Predicates may be described as one-place, two-place or three-place according to the number of arguments they take 152
  153. 153. In later generative grammar, the term is used to refer to any noun phrase position within a sentence (i.e. functioning as subject, object, etc.). In government-binding theory, an argument is an expression with a theta role, and the position to which a theta role can be assigned is called an A(rgument)-position. An internal argument is an argument of the verb that does not include the subject; an external argument is an argument of the verb that does include the subject. External arguments may differ depending on how a sentence is understood: for example, in John broke his leg, John is an agent if John and his refer to different people, but it is a patient if his is co-referential. A preferred argument structure is a demonstrable discourse preference in a language for the use of a particular syntactic structure – for example, a tendency for lexical NPs to appear as the subject of an intransitive verb rather than of a transitive verb. An argument which is not overtly expressed (as when the agent of a passive sentence is left unstated) is called an implicit argument. 153
  154. 154. categorization categorization refers to the whole process of organizing human experience into general concepts with their associated linguistic labels. Category: a group with certain features in common 154
  155. 155. The term category in some approaches refers to the classes themselves, e.g. noun, verb, subject, predicate, noun phrase, verb phrase 155