The convergence of Cultural Heritage and the MemoryThe convergence of Cultural Heritage and the MemoryThe case of the Institute of EgyptThe case of the Institute of Egyptوالذاكرة الحضاري التراث التقاءوالذاكرة الحضاري التراث التقاءنموذجا المصري العلمي المجمعنموذجا المصري العلمي المجمعProf. Sherif K. ShaheenProf. Sherif K. ShaheenHead of Dept. of Library, Archives and Information technologyHead of Dept. of Library, Archives and Information technologyFaculty of Arts, Cairo UniversityFaculty of Arts, Cairo UniversityDirector of the New Central LibraryDirector of the New Central Librarysherifshn@yahoo.com
Welcome to the land ofPeace and Love … FreeEGYPT
Cairo University 100 years + 3Cairo University 100 years + 32121ststof December 1908 - 2011of December 1908 - 2011
UNESCO’s World Cultural HeritageUNESCO’s World Cultural Heritage- monuments: architectural works, works of monumental sculpture andpainting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature,inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of features, which are ofOutstanding Universal Value from the point of view of history, art orscience;- groups of buildings: groups of separate or connected buildingswhich, because of their architecture, their homogeneity or their place inthe landscape, are of Outstanding Universal Value from the point ofview of history, art or science;- sites: works of man or the combined works of nature and of man, andareas including archaeological sites which are of Outstanding UniversalValue from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropologicalpoints of view.
World Heritage List:World Heritage List:http://whc.unesco.org/en/listCultural site in dangerCultural site in dangerNatural siteNatural siteCultural siteCultural site
UNESCO – Memory of the WorldUNESCO – Memory of the WorldUNESCO established the Memory of the World Programmein 1992. Impetus came originally from a growingawareness of the parlous state of preservation of, andaccess to, documentary heritage in various parts of theworld. The preparation of General Guidelines for theProgramme was initiated through a contract with IFLAIFLA((International Federation of Library AssociationsInternational Federation of Library Associations)), togetherwith the compilation, by IFLA and ICAICA ((International CouncilInternational Councilon Archiveson Archives)), of lists of irreparably damaged librarycollections and archive holdings. Through its NationalCommissions, UNESCO prepared a list of endangeredlibrary and archive holdings and a world list of nationalcinematic heritage.
The Institutes first projectsThe Institutes first projectsThe Institutes first projects were clearly intended to supportthe French occupation of Egypt. At the inaugural meeting,At the inaugural meeting,held on 23 August, 1798, Napoleon proposed investigationheld on 23 August, 1798, Napoleon proposed investigationof the following questions, relevant to the survival of theof the following questions, relevant to the survival of theFrench in EgyptFrench in Egypt:• Could the ovens used for baking the armys bread beimproved?• Was it possible to make beer without hops in Egypt?• How could water from the Nile be clarified and purified?• Would it be more practical to build a windmill or a watermillin Cairo?• Were there resources in Egypt to manufacture gunpowder?• What was the situation of jurisprudence, civil law, criminallaw and education in Egypt [and] What improvements didthe citizens want?
Between 20 and 22 August, 1798 Napoleon officiallyorganized the Institute of Egypt.The second article of the twenty-six part documentthat created the Institute set forth its purpose: Thisestablishment will have for its principle goal:1) The advancement and propagation of enlightenment inEgypt2) The research, the study and publication of industrial,historical and natural phenomena in Egypt.3) to offer its opinion on different questions which it will beconsulted by the government.http://www.napoleon-series.org/ins/scholarship98/c_institute.html
Like the National Institute, the Institute ofthe Institute ofEgyptEgypt had different sections according tosubject matter: mathematics; physics;political economy and literature and arts.Each section had 12 members.
In late August 1798, on the order of Napoleon, theInstitute of Egypt (lInstitut dÉgypte) was foundedin the palace of Hassan-Kashif on the outskirts ofCairo, with Gaspard Monge as president.The structure of the institute was based on the Institutde France.The institute housed a library, laboratories,workshops, and the savants various Egyptiancollections.Many new instruments were constructed as well, toreplace those lost during the sinking of the Frenchfleet in August 1798 at Aboukir Bay (Battle of theNile) and the Cairo riot of October 1798.
Because a goal of the Institute was to propagate knowledge, itsummarized the savants research in its own journal, La DecadeEgyptienne. In addition, it printed a newspaper, the Courrier dEgypte,which offered general information about the French occupation of Egypt, aswell as specific details about the work of Scientific and Artistic Commissionand the Institute.During and after the campaign, the French government published papersfrom Institute as the Mémoires sur lEgypte. The Mémoires replicated andexpanded on much of what was in the Decade, but included otherscholarship from the Institute as well.Finally, when the scholars returned to France, they began the lengthyprocess of sorting and organizing all of their research includingnotebooks and illustrations for composition of the multi-volumeDescription de lEgypte, which appeared between 1809 and 1821. Itfeatured articles by members of the Institute and members of theScientific and Artistic Commission who were not part of the Institute.http://www.napoleon-series.org/ins/scholarship98/c_institute.html
When the French evacuated Egypt in 1801, the scholars took with themtheir collections of small artifacts, papyri, minerals and preserved floraand fauna, drawings and notes.By the end of the occupation, the savants were eager to return to France,resume their careers, and continue compiling their research, a taskwhich they had already begun under the direction of the Institute.The Institute of Egypt ceased to exist when the French departed.In 1802, Napoleon decreed that the Ministry of the Interior would overseepublication of the scholars work.Former members of the Scientific and Artistic Commission, like Conté andthe engineer Edmé François Jomard served as editors. Though thepublication commission was frequently behind schedule and overbudget, it completed the texts and plates for the multi-volumeDescription de lEgypte by 1822, and issued the atlases in 1828.The plates and maps required velin paper in grand folio format, and were solarge that designers created a special storage cabinet for the completedvolumes. The Description itself was a work of art, and in 1825, theLouvre displayed it in an exhibition on the use of technology in the finearts. A smaller, affordable edition without color illustrations appearedduring the Restoration.http://www.napoleon-series.org/ins/scholarship98/c_institute.html
The Institut dÉgyptes activities resumed in 1836 under thename of The Egyptian Society. The work was carried out byFrench, German and English scholars.It was transferred to Alexandria in 1859, and its name wasagain changed, this time to Institut Égyptien. The newInstitut functioned under the auspices of Egypts viceroySaid Pasha, and had several prominent members, notablythe German botanist Georg August Schweinfurth, as well asEgyptologists Auguste Mariette and Gaston Maspero. Latermembers included Ahmed Kamal, Egypts first nativeEgyptologist, as well as Ahmad Zaki Pasha, a pioneeringphilologist.The Institut returned to Cairo in 1880. Its previous name wasrestored by a royal decree in 1918. Henceforth, it wasdirectly under the Royal Palaces auspices. Some of theInstituts more recent members include famed scholar TahaHussein.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institut_d%27%C3%89gypte
I wish each and every one a most rewardingI wish each and every one a most rewardingintellectually stimulating accommodation, joyfulintellectually stimulating accommodation, joyfulreunions and enriching professionalreunions and enriching professionalrelationships.relationships.Sherif ShaheenSherif ShaheenFinallyFinally