Agenda1 Introduction – Goals of our Presentation2 Initial Situation & Approach2 Background – Team and Group Dynamics3 Identified Challenges3 Organizational Change Management and the Role of the OCM Team44 Recommendations The CM Team in the Project Implementation Phase5 Conclusion and Takeaways
Management undertakes projectswhen the gains outweigh the expenses. Assumption: since the project is in everyone‘s best interest, the transition will go smoothly Fact: it is very difficult to introduce change to an organization. Failure to recognize and deal with this fact has been the cause of many project failures.
Source: CSUOrganisational Changeand RenewalFramework: The EightDimensions for EffectiveOrganisational Changeand Renewal
Objectives of this Presentation •To identify the characteristics of a team and how it differs from a group •To identify the role of a CM team during the implementation phase of a project•To discuss the characteristics that lead to a functional and successful CM team as well as the factors that lead to successful project implementation •To present some examples of effective CM teams
B ACKGROUND – GROUP AND2 TEAM DYNAMICS Definition of Groups and Teams Example of groups and teams in the organization Stages of Group and Team Development Characteristics of Effective Work Groups and Teams Potential Problems Within Groups and Teams
What is a group?•Members interact with each other and work towards a common purpose •Has a strong, focused leader •Members haveindividual accountability
What is a team?•A special type of group •Members have complementary skills and a common performance goal •Members have individual and mutual accountability
Source: John R. Katzenbach, Douglas K. Smith „The Discipline of Teams“
Examples of Teams in an Organization Cross-functional Team A group of workers with different specialities drawn from the same level in the organization to blend their talents to acomplish a task.Has individual memebers who think in terms of what is good for the organization Top-Management TeamIs the group of managers at the top of the organization that collaborates in making most major decisions.
Stages of Group and Team Development 1 Forming 2 StormingAdjourning 5 Performing Norming 3 4
Characteristics of Effective Work Groups and Teams Job Design A Feeling of Empowerment Interdependence Right Size and Mix Availability of Sufficient ResourcesEffective Processes within the Group/Team Effectivity Job Satisfaction
Potential Problems within Groups and Teams •Groupthink Occurs when strong group cohesiveness creates an extreme form of consensus /interferes with effective decision making. •Social Loafing Occurs when an under motivated person tries to squeeze by without contributing a fair share of the work. •Group Polarization Shifts in member attitudes to more or less risky positions, which, in turn, reduces intra-group cohesion.
O RGANIZATIONAL C HANGE3 M ANAGEMENT AND THE R OLE OF THE OCM T EAM People Focused Change Teams Characteristics of Change Team Team Structure Team members Roles Initiatives supported by OCM Change Team Recruitment and Mentoring
The OCM Team should focus on the issues in the project that impact people; include process changes, systems changes, organizational structure changes, equipment changes, knowledge requirements changes, etc. Common changes that occur during a major transformation mostly do impact people.
P EOPLE F OCUSED C HANGE TEAMSMultiple research studies have shown that 67% - 75% of major issueson transformation projects are due to people and change managementissues, not software or technical problems. Business Process Systems People
Characteristics of a Change Team CohesiveCommitted The Change Team Representative Organized
T EAM S TRUCTURE Owner Executive Project Business Sponsor Manager Analyst KeyStakeholders Teams Leads Steering Other Committee Members
A T EAM G ENERAL S TRUCTURE OCM Lead OCM Consultant OCM Area OCM Area OCM Area Lead Lead LeadChange Change Change Change Change Agent Agent Agent Agent Agent Change Change Change Agent Agent Agent
Roles of the OCM Change Team Members OCM Change Lead• Responsible for the OCM program.• Helping plan, design, develop and implement all change management initiatives, including training.• Recruiting the OCM Area Team Leads.• Communications with the Management Team and sponsors.• Gaining approval for and supporting implementation.
Roles of the OCM Change Team Members OCM Consultant• Optional.• experienced OCM practitioner.• Supporting and mentoring the OCM Change Lead and OCM Team though the OCM processes and work streams.
Roles of the OCM Change Team MembersOCM Area Leads and Change Agents• Understand the magnitude of site level change and help to assess readiness.• Identify site level issues and obstacles for adoptions.• Help identify messaging needed and help to “localize” the messages• Provide a channel for the engagement.• Provide feedback.• Identify and provide local resources and contacts.
Roles of the OCM Change Team Members OCM Core Team includes the OCM Change Lead, the OCM Consultant and the OCM Area Leads• coordinates all of the OCM efforts and helps to ensure consistency and coordination of initiatives across the project’s various stakeholders.• updating and validating the OCM Strategy and the Stakeholder Assessment.• engaging and mentoring the Change Agents.
I NITIATIVES S UPPORTED BY OCM C HANGE T EAM1. Change Management Initiatives Help assess stakeholder readiness for change and identify methods to increase readiness Visibly exhibit positive, supportive behavior relative to the change Help identify stakeholder concerns and fears Help identify early adaptors and supporters of the change and encourage their active participation in the change initiatives Help identify and mitigate resistance Coach others on the benefits and set expectations for any downsides of the change
I NITIATIVES S UPPORTED BY OCM C HANGE T EAM2. Communications Initiatives Helping localize messages for their team to increase the level of understanding Helping identify effective communications senders and communication media Reinforcing the messages and Providing feedback Monitoring the rumor mill and provide “correct” information immediately, when possible Reporting rumors to the OCM Core Team and working with the OCM Core Team on rumor mitigation strategies
I NITIATIVES S UPPORTED BY OCM C HANGE T EAM3. Organizational Alignment Initiatives Help identify which role should be performing a process in the to-be state and who is performing that role in the current state Help identify the degree of change between the old and new roles and communicate the changes and the reason behind the changes Help map roles to positions (job profiles) and individuals to positions involved in end user training. Coaching and Providing Feedback during Go-Live and Post Go-live
R ECRUITMENT AND M ENTORING R&MIdentify & Culture Mentoring Grow Creation
T HE CM TEAM IN THE PROJECT4 IMPLEMENTATION PHASE Tasks of Implementation Teams When is an Implementation Team of Critical Importance? The Ideal and the Real Situation Why do these problems occur? Strategies that may be used by the CM Team
Tasks of Implementation Teams Implementation teams... ...bring in CHANGE ...are comprised of individuals with the skills andknowledge to implement a new method or process within an organization across single or multiple locations ...are sometimes charged with establishing “best practices” across multiple locations of an organization
Examples of Implementation Projects1. Implementing new processes or implementing new systems2. Integrating new technology into work procedures3. Transferring technical know-how4. Implementing new company practices – Total Quality Management principles, cultural change, etc.
When is the Implementation Team of critical importance?•When the project to be implemented is large and complex •When the project covers multiple functional areas •When multiple stakeholders are involved •When the project is spread out geographically and different cultures and languages are involved •When a high degree of resistance to change has been identified in the organization
Change Management Team „The Ideal Situation“Role Statement of TaskCM Team Members “I develop the change management strategy and plans. I am an integral part of project success.” “We own the change management methodology and support its implementation in the organization.”Executives and “I launch (authorize and fund) changes.”Senior Managers “I sponsor change.”(Sponsors)Middle and “I coach my direct reports through the changes thatFront-line Managers impact their day-to-day work.”Project Support “I support different activities of the changeFunctions management team and project team.” “I manage the technical side of the change. I integrate change management into my project plans.”
Change Management Team „What Really Happens...“Role Statement of TaskCM Team Members “I feel like I’m on an island here – people expect me to do everything and have all the answers.” “I don’t even exist yet.”Executives and “I gave you funding and signed the charter – now goSenior Managers make it happen!”(Sponsors)Middle and “I feel like I’m the direct target for some of theseFront-line Managers changes, and I wish I knew what was going on.”Project Support “I get called in on projects and given one little task,Functions but I’m not sure how I fit in to the overall picture.” “My focus is just the ‘technical’ side. Once I flip the switch, I’m moving on to the next project.”
Why do these problems occur? •Possible problems inherent to the group, such as social loafing or groupthink •The person best suited for the role may not be available•Roles and size of the implementation team does not match the requirements of the implementation project •Ownership and responsibility are not clearly defined •Communication Issues
Strategies that may be used by the OCM TeamName Consists ofEmpirical- Rational • People are rational and will follow their self-interest • Change based on communication and incentivesNormative- • People will adhere to cultural norms and valuesRe-educative • Change consists in reinterpreting and changing the applicable norms and valuesPower-Coercive • People are compliant and will generally do what they are told or can be made to do • Change is based on authority and sanctionsEnvironmental- • People oppose loss and destruction but adapt readily toAdaptive new circumstances • Change is based on building a new organization and transferring people from the old one to the new one Source: Fred Nickols „Change Management 101: A Primer“ Distance ConsultingLLC
Example # 1 •A multinational engineering company acquired some international units (A,B,C) •2 local employees from units A,B,C were included in the implementation teams for standardized company best-practices and systems•Strategy: presentation about the new system and training, units A and B were a success •Unit C had reservations about the new system...
Example # 2 The South African Government decided to outsource the task of disbursements ofGovernment grants during the early 1990s to private companies. Excerpts from the case: •There wasn’t really an opportunity to get toknow each other’s strengths and weaknesses, •There was a mutual and absolute commitment to success •Effective communication was vital and was divided into informal, formal and beneficiary communication
Fundamental Reasons for Team Breakdown and Failure •Lack of Group Rapport •Time Management Issues •Poor Planning and Scheduling of Activities •Lack of Sales and Presentation Skills•Inadequately dealing with Cross-Cultural Issues
Takeaways •When putting together an implementation/changemanagement team, you must carefully consider the role each team member plays and the best person to fill it. •The factors most contributing to the success of animplementation project are good communication, good harmony and balance within the team, and total commitment to success.
We are happy to take your questions! Change is the only constant. – Heraclitus, Greek philosopher