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Collection of scientific_works_of_the_rshu

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Збірник наукових праць РДГУ "Філософія. Педагогіка. Суспільство"

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Collection of scientific_works_of_the_rshu

  1. 1. Ministry of education and science, youth and sports of Ukraine Rivne State Humanitarian University Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society Collection of scientific works of the RSHU 2nd Issue Established in 2011
  2. 2.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  Rivne – 2012 2
  3. 3.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  UDC 1+37+316.3 BBК 87+74+60 F-561 Reviewers: M. M. Zakovych – Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), professor of the culture studies department of National Teacher Training University named after M. Drahomanov; S. V. Lisova – Doctor of Sciences (Pedagogics), professor, director of the Institute of Pedagogical Education of International Economics and Humanitarian University named by academician Stepan Demyanchuk, actual member of APSS S. S. Troyan – Doctor of Sciences (History), professor, the head of the International Relations and country studies department of Rivne Institute of Slavonic Studies of Kyiv Slavic University. F-561 Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society: Collection of scientific works of the Rivne state humanitarian university. – Rivne : publisher O. Zen’, 2012. –347 s. ISBN 978-617-601-024-1 Conception of the collection is based on scientific actualization of methodological principles of humanitarian knowledge and illumination of inner-practical potential of sciences about a man and society. Created for the specialists of humanitarian and socio-political sciences. UDC 1+37+316.3 BBК 87+74+60 ISBN 978-617-601-024-1 © Rivne State Humanitarian University, 2012 3
  4. 4.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  4
  5. 5.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  Editor in Chief: L. M. Shugaeva – Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), Professor, Head of Philosophy Department of Rivne State Humanitarian University Editorial Board: I. I. Bulyha – Candidate of Philosophy, assistant professor of philosophy of Rivne State Humanitarian University (Executive Editor). V. V. Verbets’ – Doctor оf Sciences (Pedagogy), Professor, Head of Arts and Pedagogics Department of Rivne State Humanitarian University M. M. Hon – Doctor of Sciences (Political Sciences), Professor, Head of of Political Sciences Department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. V.I. Dokash – Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), Professor, Head of Sociology Department of Chernivtsi National University named after Yuriy Fed’kovych T. D. Demjaniuk – Candidate of Pedagogy, Professor, Head of Theory and methods of education Department of Rivne State Humanitarian University, Honored Worker of Education of Ukraine. I. M. Dychkivs’ka – Candidate of Pedagogy, Associate Professor of the Department of Pedagogy and Psychology (preschool) of Rivne State Humanitarian University, corresponding member of APSS (executive editor). S. I. Zhyliuk – Doctor of Sciences (History), Professor, Head of the Department of Religious Studies of National University "Ostrog Academy" S. A. Lytvynenko – Doctor оf Sciences (Pedagogy), Professor, Professor of Applied Psychology and Psychotherapy Department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. I. V. Malafiyik – Doctor оf Sciences (Pedagogy), Professor, Head of Department of General an Social Pedagogy and acmeology of Rivne State Humanitarian University, corresponding member of APSN. R. V. Pavelkiv – Doctor оf Sciences (Psychology), Professor, academician of the Academy of Sciences of Higher School of Ukraine, Director of the Institute of Psychology and Education, the head of the age and pedagogical psychology department of Rivne State Humanitarian University, honored Educator of Ukraine. 5
  6. 6.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  S. S. Pal’chevsky – Doctor оf Sciences (Pedagogy), Professor, Professor of general education and acmeology Department of Rivne State Humanitarian University, honored teacher of Ukraine. O. B. Petrenko – Doctor оf Sciences (Pedagogy), Professor, Professor of age and educational psychology Department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. T. I. Ponimans’ka – Candidate of Pedagogy, Professor, Vice-Rector, Head of Department of Pedagogy and Psychology (preschool) of Rivne State Humanitarian University, corresponding member of APSS, excellent public educator of Ukraine. R. M. Postolovs’ky – Candidate of History, Professor, Rector, Head of World History Department of Rivne State Humanitarian University, Honored Scientist of Ukraine, Corresponding member of International Slavic Academy of Sciences, corresponding member of APSS. P. Y. Sauh – Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), professor, academician of the Academy of Sciences of High School of Ukraine, Honored Academician of the International Academy of Personnel, Rector, Head of the Philosophy Department of Zhytomyr State Ivan Franko University named after I. Franko, honored educator of Ukraine. N. H. Stokolos – Doctor of Sciences (History), Professor, Head of Philosophy and Social Sciences Department of Rivne Institute of Slavonic Studies of Kyiv Slavic University. G. M. Shvetsova-Vodka – Doctor of Sciences (History), Professor, Professor of library and bibliography sciences Department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. P. L. Yarots’ky – Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), Professor, Chief Research Specialist of Religious Studies Department of the Institute of Philosophy named after H. Skovoroda of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Published under decision of the Academic Council of Rivne State Humanitarian University Protocol № 7 dated 27 January 2012. Editorial address: Department of Philosophy of Rivne State Humanitarian University, Ostafov Str., 29, Rivne, 33027 6
  7. 7.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  CONTENT Philosophy Babak I. V. 9 Phenomenology of national and ethnic identity in the context of individual self-awareness development Dokash V. I. 17 Predestinational Eschatology Lishchuk N. D. 24 Believer’s Existential Motives of Confessional Membership Option in the Content of Modern Religious Life Transformation Mel’nychuk M. S. 33 Philosophical and religious analysis of modernization trends in the Protestantism’s art Mel’nychuk Y. I. 42 Orthodox sermon as a socio-cultural achievement of the Ukrainian nation Myshkov V. Y. 52 Old Believers polemical literature of the 18th century and its philosophical meaning Kobernik N. I. 62 Social-cultural factors influencing the worldview formation of cyril and methodius Rudenko N. M. 71 Problem of non-violence in Christianity Sugayeva L. M. 77 The main trends of religious development in global world Shamsutdynova- Lebediuk T. N. 86 Modern relations of men and women in Islam 7
  8. 8.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  Shevchuk K. S. 96 The main problems of Georgii Chelpanov creative work in his Kyiv period Pedagogics Verbets’ V. V. 109 Phenomenological principles of students’ spiritual world Dziubyshyna N. B. 119 Reformation of education in the context of Czech national revival (the end of 18th – the first half of 19th century) Domanyuk O. M. 128 Forms of work of preschool educational establishment and family on issue of social development of preschool children in the theory and practice of preschool education Kokareva A. M. 135 On the Problem of the Peculiarities of Educational Process Organization according to the Credit Module Training Technology Lytvynenko S. A., Pavelkiv K. M. 141 Formation of reflexive culture in the professional training of future teachers Mysyk I. H. 149 The peculiarities of the Institute of Continuing Education in Ukraine Myshkariova S. V. 162 Organizational basis of the orthodox societies in Western Ukraine in the interwar period (1921-1939) Nechyporuk L. I. 169 Dialogue in the personality communicative activities as a social requirement of the 21 century 8
  9. 9.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  Pal’chevsky S. S. 178 The problems of the educational content in the light of it’s modern philosophy Petruk L. P. 185 Thinking-speech culture formation for specialists’ for humanities in the course of rhetoric studies Rudenko V. M. 192 Pedagogical reflection of culture under the educational globalization Smolinchuk L. S. 201 Tests as a vital part of methodological system in evaluation of educational standards Sorochyns’ka T. A. 207 Principles of moral culture formation of Soviet for teachers in Rivne pedagogical institutions (1939–1950): historical and pedagogical discourse Tadeyeva I. M. 215 Qualities education in talented junior schoolchildren Tymochko I. B. 225 Creating of public libraries and reading rooms as one of educational and civic activities of the Volyn braternities (second half of the XIX – beginning of the XX centure) Society Hon M. M. 234 Peculiarities of the Ukrainian historical memory formation during the democratic transit Hrypych S. N. 246 Informatization of modern society: state, problems, prospects 9
  10. 10.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  Desyatnychuk I. O. 256 Freedom of speech and influence of public opinion in Czechoslovakia in the period of "Prague Spring" Lukoms’ka O. I. 267 State regulation levers of banking investment activity in Ukraine Pavelkiv R. V. 280 Understanding of individual moral development in line with psychological paradigm Perzhun V. V. 292 Social solidarity as a factor of consolidation of Ukrainian society Stupnyts’ka N. I., Stupnyts’ky V. V. 302 Philosophy of TV leisure as a reflection of the Ukrainian economy Phylypovych L. O., Havrilova N. S. 311 Religious education in Ukraine: state and prospectives Shkriblyak M. V. 321 Historiosophical analysis of archival sources about the role and place of ‘secular element’ in social and religious processes of Berestechko and post-Berestechko period Yamnyts’ky V. M. 337 Spirituality of a personality: psychological approach 10
  11. 11.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  PHILOSOPHY UDC:37.013.44:159.923.2 I. V. Babak PHENOMENOLOGY OF NATIONAL AND ETHNIC IDENTITY IN THE CONTEXT OF INDIVIDUAL SELF-AWARENESS DEVELOPMENT Іn this article, the interpretation issue of ethnical and national identity as main factors of self-consciousness formation is being examined, for identification of national and ethnical identity takes place when the notion of nation is being interpreted as ethnical nation and when national and ethnical identity denote different notions when the idea of nation-state is considered. Key concepts: identity, nation, ethnos, national identity, ethnical identity. Determination of the problem. The late XX – early XXI centuries saw the growing interest to the phenomenon of identity, the origins of one’s nation and ethnicity observed in Ukraine and other country with the general change of outlook. This is what makes such research up-to-date. Very often when looking into the issue of national and ethnic identity as the key factors of conscious personality formation these notions are taken to be the same or used interchangeably. Thus, the objective of the research is to discern the idea of the category of "identity" and consider the categories of both ethnic and national identities. State of the scientific research of the problem. The categories of identity and identification are relatively new for psychology and sociology. Zigmund Freud was the first to point out the need of a child to identify oneself with a particular outward object in that allows it to grow cognizant of what it is itself. E. Ericsson was among the first who pioneered the theory of identification. The academic stressed that an indetity of an individual originates from personal association with ceaseless existence in time and space dimensions and comes from the acceptance of such association by others. Studying the human life cycle 11
  12. 12.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  he arrived at the conclusion that identity is "mechanisms of individual integration into groups of different levels be it a family, work team, people and general public". This way, the focus was on the social aspect that validates idea of individual identity. Psychologists Adler, Allport, Kettel, Rodgers and others look upon the category of identity as a certain interpretive system that enables cognizance of similarity and difference of separate objects as well as awareness of homogeneity of an individual personality. In other words what is emphasized here is individual an social aspects of identity formation. With all the factors that condition the personal development it makes sense to discern psycho-phisological, personal and social identities. The former one assumes cognizant acceptance of an own organism, unity of psychological and physiological processes that take place within. The second one finds its ground in the agreement of aims, motives and value objectives. As the Ethnic reference book states the personal identity takes in one’s attitude to one’s own past, present and future. At the same time this category is characterized by agreement of certain social norms, roles, statuses, and involves one’s understanding of personal belonging to the certain social group or category. It finds its expression thru such main sorts of social identity as national and ethnic identities. The notion of ethnos comes from Greek (a stranger, a pagan) and etymologically defines a herd, a group, a crowd of people, a people, a tribe, a kin etc. The Dictionary of terms for intercultural communication defines the term as "a category of evelotionary chain of genesis and build-up of an ethnos in its broadest meaning". It entails the category of ethnic identity the definition of which Ethnic dictionary gives as "a sense of belonging to a certain ethnic community, and ones’ uniformity with other members that comes from the shared historical memory, remembrances about the ancestors that binds one to their fatherland". There are several conceptual percpectives of how to regard the category of ethnic indentity. One of those considers the latter as "development of processes of genetic selection and accommodation to environment". Such ethnic identity is looked upon as a combination of historic and cultural attributes, namely group self-title, common historic memory, a sense of Fatherhood, etc. 12
  13. 13.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  Depending on the levels of individual self-consciousness and homogeneity one observes either relaxation or reinforcement of one of those components. Thus, some scholars like B. Andersen, F. Bart, D. Gorovets and others consider the ethnic identity as a variable thing that has a situational character. The difference in this respect accounts for different typologies of ethnic identities. American scholars J. Mackey, and F. Lewins define four types of it. The first type is the one of minimum identity that takes in accommodated indivudials with low ethnic self-awareness. The second one is about the ones of relative ethnicity, these are those who retain touch with the members of their ethnic group though their own ethnic identity is developed inconsiderably. The third type involves the marginal ethnicity that is attributed to so-called ethnic orphans who have a clearly formed ethnic self-awareness yet have no touch with their own ethnic group. The 4th type of maximum ethnicity goes for individuals with the high level of strong ethnic self-awareness who actively contribute to the group activities and guard its interests. Canadian ethnosociologist R. Breton comes up with a slightly different typology based on the factors that unify an ethnic group. The scholar defines the first type as the one of the identity based on the specific objects of symbolic meaning (food, clothes, artwork). The second type takes in individuals whose identity relates to traditions and cultural life of the ethnic group. Identity that comes for the ethnicity native tongue is the one of the third type while the fourth type derivates from "friends" of own ethnos. The fifth type, according to R.Breton, relates to identity formation of which takes place on the grounds of needs and objectives of a certain ethnic group. The nature of thnic indentity makes it multilevel. This way individuals can be self-conscious of their belonging to ethnic groups of different planes, for instance, a Ukrainian comes as an ethnos, while a gutzul and a Slav stand for subethnos and meta~ethnic unity respectively. In our view it is reasonable to apply this sort of typological approach in regard to the caterogy of national ethnicity as well. When evolving ethnic identification comes in few stages which as the Jean Piazhe concept of a child development has it are correlated with the stages of a child psychological formation that build up the idea of belonging to the certain ethnic group. A 6~or 7 – year old child gets 13
  14. 14.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  only fragmentary and unsystematic of its ethnic belonging. In 2 years time a native tongue and home location makes a child be clearly aware of its ethnic origins. The age of 10–11 years forms understanding of ethnic identity that comes from one´s unique history of a people, specific cultural conventions that put one apart from other peoples or ethnic groups. Consequently it leads to emotional and assessing awareness of one´s belonging to a certain ethnic group in the time of adolescence. Though J. Piazhe makes the notions of ethnic and national identities equal, in our view these two are different in some respects. The idea of national identity is derivative of an idea of the nation where the latter comes as social and political category that outlines the relations between a people and a state that takes in the citizens of this very state. Arrival of a nation is defined by longtime processes that establish interpersonal bonds within the group through a buildup of social communication and mobility, and transformation of a political system. Ernest Renan who came forth with the psychological theory of nations claimed that a nation is, above of all, a great group of people bonded with a spiritual principle, great solidarity and moral awareness. He found a proponent of the theory in the American academic Walker Connor who presumed that one of the main attributes of a nation is their intuitive perceptions of common kinship and uniqueness. And individual objectively at his birth comes to belong to a certain nation he takes himself to be a part of the latter and identifies himself wit it. The primitive society saw belonging to your kin or a tribe regarded as one´s ethnos as a critical attribute of self-identification. With a growth of the numbers of tribes initially and locally tied another factor came to matter. It was culture that took in a native tongue and religion. Once a national state emerged cultural attributes of self- identification gave way to social and political ones. Establishment of national states saw a simultaneous formation of national self-awareness of an individual that consolidated people and made them more mobile socially. The category of "national" implies cultural attributes of a people (language, religion, philosophy, genera outlook) while the category of "ethnic" evolved through kinship relations that defined a belonging of an individual to a certain group. This is can be regarded as the most obvious difference between these two categories. 14
  15. 15.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  Thus, a national self-conscience forms in a particular period of state history as a consequence of political, economic and social processes that drive a society at this very moment. L. Zaliznyak believes that Ukrainian ethnic nation formed throughout the period of 16-17th c.c. as a result of social and cultural processes of the epoch. J. Piagei identifies the notion of ethnic and national identity, although, in our opinion, there existed a significant difference. Definitions of national identity stems from the concept of "nation", which refers to the socio-political category that indicates relationships with people of a certain country and combines the citizens of this state. Because of nations is the result of a long process of developing interpersonal relationships between group members through the development of social communication and mobility, transformation of the political system. Founder psychological theory of nations, Ernest Renan, noted that the nation – "is, above all, a large group of people united by a spiritual principle, great solidarity and moral consciousness" [1, p. 223]. Similar opinion has American scientist Walker Connor. He noted that one of the main features of the nation is’ intuitive sense of kinship and uniqueness" [1, p. 223]. Individual objectively from birth belongs to a nation, he considers himself a part of it, that identifies itself with it. So in primitive society was the main feature of identification belonging to a tribal group, means ethnicity. With an increasing number of communities of the same type and their relatives from each location to the forefront another unifying factor – the culture, the basis of which at the time was the language, religion. With the emergence of the nation-state cultural factors identify changing socio-political. Simultaneously with the formation of national states to consolidate population and its social mobility emerging national consciousness of the individual. Category indicates the national cultural characteristics of the people (language, religion, philosophy, and worldview). While the term "ethnic" arose from blood ties, that indicates the individual belonging to a particular ethnic group. This is what we think is the difference between national and ethnic categories. Thus, national identity is formed in a specific historical period of development of the state as a result of political, economic and social 15
  16. 16.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  processes that prevail in society. According to L. Zaliznjak [4] Ukrainian nation was formed during the XVI-XIX centuries. Influenced by social and cultural processes of the time. With XVII century and nineteenth centuries ethnic consciousness was transformed into a national liberation wars as a result, the common market, the formation of language, national culture, which led to the formation of national identity. In turn, the basis of national identity is national identity. It follows the definition of national identity as "forms and processes in which there is self-identification of individuals with a certain national community" (with M. Makhniy) [5, p. 60]. At the same time, a sense of national unity does not arise spontaneously, and, largely, is formed as a result of purposeful activity of parents, caregivers, teachers, and public policy. According to surveys conducted by the Kiev International Institute of Sociology, the determining factors of the nation 51.1% of respondents indicated the language [8, p. 8]. But there is a contradiction – in one state citizens can communicate with two or more languages. In Ukraine, for example, during the Soviet era Ukrainian language was demeaning, optional for study. In the independent state of the Ukrainian language enshrined constitutionally, but in spite of this, as noted above, a significant percentage of native Ukrainian consider Russian language as their native language. So, the question, "What language do you think native?" 60.64% chose the Ukrainian language, 36.63% consider Russian their native, and the remaining respondents chose another language [8, p. 6]. Also, the main feature of the nation’s 41.06% of the respondents called culture. And at different stages of its development, as a consolidating factor, stopped, there was destruction of the achievements of the nation. Today the situation has improved though, but due to the difficult economic situation, not enough support for the rehabilitation and further development. Simultaneously a significant role in the formation of the Ukrainian nation plays a religion. But in Soviet times, there were no new religious formations, and the Orthodox Church was in decline. Lack of religious education, we believe contribute to the moral degeneration of the nation. Therefore, at the present stage of development of the state focuses on the restoration of religious traditions as a source of renewal and memory consolidation. 16
  17. 17.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  However, national identity includes and political identity that is formed in the process of formation of separate states, and as a result – the creation of political and social institutions, the main task – the constitution of political community and distinguish among other communities. It follows that the concept of national identity synthesizes how cultural factors and socio-political. In the book "National identity" Anthony D. Smith identifies five key elements of national identity: 1) historic territory, or homeland; 2) historical memory; 3) a common mass culture; 4) common legal rights and duties of all members of the national community; 5) a common economy with the ability to move within the national territory [3]. M. Ihnatyef identifies the following elements of national identity: - Community of equal citizens; - Patriotism, which is shared by all representatives of political practices and beliefs [2]. Ethnic identities as a scientist examines a set of language, religion, traditions, simultaneously, are integral elements of the national identity [2]. Thus, the phenomenon of national identity lies in recognizing individual a part of the community and because of the existence in it. The formation of national identity is a series of stages in its formation. For example, A. Volkogonov and I. Tatarenko identified three main phases: 1. Phase of ethnic differentiation. At this stage, the awareness of their own group, the differences between we and they. 2. Phase of development of auto-and hetero-stereotypes. Formed national character, knowledge of psychological features not only their ethnic group, but also other ethnic groups. Ethnic stereotypes create a system that collects standardized collective experience and is part of the mass consciousness. 3. Phase of formulating national ideal. This stage is a kind of combination of the previous two, because the idea of combining their own ethnic group and its social and historical value orientation. At this 17
  18. 18.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  stage, emerging model of the future, the foundation of which is the partial or complete change in the established order of things [2]. The organization of national identity mainly distinguishes two components [2]: cognitive and affective components. Such as knowledge, understanding of the peculiarities of their own group and an awareness of it that have motivated ethnic differentiation signs, and a sense of belonging to the community, assessment of its own position in the union. Conclusions. Thus guided by research of Anthony D. Smith and O. Volkogonov, I. Tatarenko the national identity is seen as belonging to a particular individual national community based on certain spiritual and psychological characteristics of the individual, which are formed in the process of socialization in a historic environment and manifest lifestyle of the individual. Meanwhile, as the ethnic identity of the individual – is the awareness of being part of a particular ethnic community. Accordingly, awareness of their own national identity and perception of themselves as members of ethnic groups not only provides optimum socialization of the individual, but also allows for personal fulfillment in the process of matching their own attitudes, beliefs, values, norms of one national community to which a person identifies himself. Therefore, in our opinion, that the identification of the concepts of "ethnic identity" and "national identity" is possible only when the concept of nation is treated as an "ethnic nation", and have different meanings when talking about "nation-state." List of sources and literature 1. Бацевич Ф. С. Словник термінів міжкультурної комунікації / Ф. С. Барцевич. – К. : Довіра, 2007. – 205 с. 2. Волкогонова О., Татаренко И. Этническая идентификация или искушение национализмом [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://www.hse.Ru/journals/wrldross/vol01_2/volkogonova.htm. 3. Эриксон Э. Идентичность: юность и кризис [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://www.zipsites.ru/psy/psylib/info. 4. Залізняк Л. Від склавинів до української нації [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: 18
  19. 19.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  http://militaryhistory.narod.ru/natiota4yn.html. 5. Картунов О. В. Вступ до етнополітології: Науково-навчальний посібник / О. В. Картунов – К. : ІЕУГП, 1999. – 300 с. 6. Рудницька Т. Етнічний довідник [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://etno.uaweb.org/glossary/i.html. 7. Сміт Ентоні Д. «Національна ідентичність» / Д. Ентоні Сміт. – К. : Основи, 1994. – 224 с. 8. Хмелько В. Лінгво-етнічна структура України: регіональні особливості та тенденції змін за роки незалежності / В. Хмелько // Наукові записки НаУКМА. – Соціологічні науки. – Т. 32. – 2004. – С. 3–15. UDC: 9274.38-175(492) „15/16” V. I. Dokash PREDESTINATIONAL ESCHATOLOGY The article examines the predestinatsion eschatology of Jacob Arminius, it shows the position regarding the theory of predetermination of Calvinism. Displayed specific doctrine of arminianism – the concept of universalism, which will be saved for all, not just selected ones. Keywords: predetermination, infrasupralapsarism, supralapsarism, salvation, grace, soteriology, universal redemption, free will. When it goes about Reformation in modern scientific literature, it is all about such personalities, as Luter, Calvin, Tsvinger, and sometimes Muntser. One forgets about the fact, that all of them used to have opponents. That’s why, it should be pointed out, that there is an opinion among the Protestant theologians, which originated from the XVI century, when two traditions came into being – Calvinism and Arminianism: it seems impossible to imagine the Reformation period in the history of Protestantism without John Calvin and Jacob Arminian. Both of them are considered to be the founders of Reformation movement, since they created the fundamental principles of 19
  20. 20.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  Protestantism. Thus, in terms of our study we will deal with the analysis of the eschatological ideas of these theologians, in particular the debatable problems, arising among them. It’s should be pointed out that there were a lot of discussions between these theologians primarily about the doctrine of predefinition, which they called predestination (the concept, created by J. Calvin to name the theory dealing with the human fate, destined before the world creation. He rejected the opportunity for the human to deserve salvation by himself or to change his fate; he promised salvation only for the chosen ones, absolutized the principle of inevitability of mercy (guarantees the salvation for the chosen ones). Calvin understands it as undoubted double choice of some people for salvation, others – for elimination. Protestant theologian A. Negrov considers that basically, the dispute concerned 5 points of the theory of predestination as an eschatological program of salvation: a) the human’s Fall; b) the God’s work to choose the human for salvation; c) the global salvation of mankind through Christ’s death; d) the nature of God’s mercy; e) the possibility to loe salvation [3, p. 67]. According to A. Negrov, neither Arminius nor Calvin had created 5 points of predestination, which define the dogmas of Calvinism and Arminianism [3, p. 69]. Taking into account the fact, that the problem of correlation of predestination theory and Calvin’s doctrine of predestination lacks detailed study, it seems logical to analyze these opposing definitions and to conduct the comparative analysis of these approaches in terms of salvation problem. The aim of this article is to define the peculiarities of Jacob Arminius’ predestination eschatology and its difference from Calvin’s theory of predestination. The aim defines the following tasks: 1.To analyze the doctrine about predestinational theology; 2.To conduct a research on the theory of freedom of human’s will in choice of salvation; 3.To conduct a comparative analysis of basic principles of predestinational eschatology and Calvin’s theory of predestination. The problem under investigation is not studied enough. Few scientists and theologians have investigated it, among them: D. Korner, T. Lein, A. Negrov, S. Sannikov, S. Golovaschenko, B. Hegglund and 20
  21. 21.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  others. Determination of the problem. Theologians have different points of view on the problem of predestination – the choice according to the realization of eschatological principles of salvation. It was mostly criticized by Arminians, whose leader, the Danish theologian Jacob Harmandzon (1560–1609), took the Latin name of Arminius. The basic feature of Arminius’ theory is the idea of predestination (predefinition), which, though, is understood in a different way than by Calvin, and which in this way gave birth to an alternative direction. According to this, Arminianism can be considered a reaction to the Calvin’s doctrine of predestination. In his work "Announcement of opinions" (1608) Arminius rejected the idea of Augustine Calvin – the idea of undoubted choice that God chooses people before salvation in spite of their virtues [2, p. 195]. However, Arminius agreed with the fact, that the ability of doing something good depends on accepting God – mercy. Besides, Arminius gave a man freedom to accept or to refuse from this mercy or salvation correspondingly. Thus, God’s choice (predestination) of people, according to Arminius, isn’t founded on God’s separate choice, but on the preknowledge of human’s choice [2, p. 86]. Rejecting ultra-predestinational ideas, Arminius suggested new understanding of eschato-soteriological ideas of Calvin, emphasizing the incompatibility of Calvin’s statements about the fact that God can be the initiator of sin and also about the fact that a human is always manipulated by God’s power [3, p. 69]. It should be pointed out that only after a year on Arminius’ death (1610) his followers formulated their theory of predestinational theology and explicably reflected their ideas in a number of works, first of all in the document, called "Remonstrance" (Latin Remonstro – refuse), which was presented to the Danish government (Calvinism was an official religion those days). That document looked like a systematized answers to the Calvin’s dogmas [3, p. 69-70}. Thus, there is an opinion, that Arminianism started with Remonstrance, in other words, with the application from the 14th of January 1610, which revealed 5 articles, representing disagreement with the predestination doctrine. Remonstrance was signed by 46 church preachers of the Dutch 21
  22. 22.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  Reformational Church. The first part of Remonstrance included the protest against supralapsarism (Calvin’s theory about the fact, that predefinition on salvation existed before the Fall, and it was exactly it, which led to the Fall) and infrasupralapsarism (Calvin’s theory which confirms the fault of a human in his Fall, and only after the Fall God’s predestination revealed itself, choosing some people for elimination and others for salvation) and also against the idea of limited expiation (Protestant theory about the fact that only predestined chosen humans have the right to be saved, which is traditional for Calvinists) and the theory of eternal safety of a Christian, the idea of which lies in the fact, that predestined and saved people would under no circumstances lose salvation. The second part of Remonstrance dealt with understanding the doctrine of choosing: a)predestination is determined by faith, condemnation – by unfaith; b) Jesus Christ redeemed everybody through his death, but only believers will receive forgiveness; c)faith doesn’t come from human, but from God; d) mercy is beyond everything; e)it helps to stay in faith till the end and to save oneself [2, p. 186]. As you can see, everything in the five articles of Remonstrance clearly points to human free will and its part in the process of salvation. Arminius, similarly to Calvin, considered the man absolutely sinful, and he didn’t believe that people could choose the side of God of their own free will. However, when Calvin went much further and stated that Salvation was inevitable (meaning that it didn’t depend on the sinner’s personal desire to be saved), Arminius claimed that God’s mercy could merely provide balance for the sinful elements in our souls, so that we could decided on our own whether or not we wanted to be saved. We ought to note that unfortunately most of Calvinists consciously or without thinking accused Arminianism of pardoning the man for his righteous merits or good deeds [1, p. 54–55]. Accordingly, in return, Arminians often deliberately distorted the teachings of Calvinism, stating that its followers allowed people to live irresponsibly, since they were already pardoned for every misdeed ever committed. It should be stressed that the dispute between Arminianism and 22
  23. 23.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  Calvinism continued during the entire history of Christianity and had reached its culmination in the XX century [4, p. 301–302]. Arminius distrusted the eschatological fate of the principle of predestination when he created the teaching of the all-embracing mercy (which was reserved only for the chosen in Calvinism). On the ground of this belief Arminius also rejected the teaching of eternal damnation [1, p. 54–55] that was a characteristic part of Calvinism. Arminian positions in defense of human free will, as opposed to the teaching of predestination, were listed in the following five articles of Remonstrance: 1.Predestination is not absolute but conditional (since the final salvation depends on human free will). 2.The ultimate redemption (salvation is offered to everyone, but only those who truly believe can receive it). 3.The man has the right of free will, but only his faith can bring salvation (as he cannot achieve it and be redeemed without God’s mercy in Christ through the Holy Spirit). 4.Overcoming of salvation (God’s mercy is all-embracing, but not everyone is willing to accept it). 5.Lack of confidence in the inevitability of salvation for the chosen (because the Gospels do not declare that salvation, once achieved, cannot be lost again) [1, p. 499–500; 3, p. 70–71].` When we examine the eschatological functionality of the doctrine of predestination in the scope of these articles, we can clearly see the essential difference when comparing it with the Calvinistic approach. First of all, if Calvin brings out predestination of salvation and places it ahead of the predefined will of God, Arminius talks about God’s sovereignty. Secondly, Arminius, unlike Calvin, raises the question of salvation for everyone who is willing to accept Christ’s mercy. Thirdly, even if he relates salvation to God’s mercy, Arminius never stops taking into consideration human free will, when Calvin rejects it completely. And fourthly, if Calvin declares the inevitability of predestination for the chosen, Arminius assumes the possibility of the loss of salvation. Revisiting the five principles of predestination which disagree with Calvinistic dogma, we can discover numerous interpretational differences, provided by Arminius’s followers. For instance, if they do not reject Calvin’s idea of the sinful, Jacob Arminius considers the "sin" 23
  24. 24.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  more like a "necessity" than a "loss". Yet he also finds human will extremely weak and not worthy of salvation without God’s mercy. In common opinion, the followers of Calvin accused Arminius of being biased when he correlated salvation and human deeds or human free will, since in his teachings the human couldn’t accept God without his mercy, and yet people were able to resist God’s intentions by voluntarily committing evil acts. At that Arminians believed that not only the chosen ones, but all people were capable of answering the Gospel calling (it was another cardinal disagreement with Calvinism). Arminians claimed that without God’s mercy there could be no salvation. The degree of sinfulness or righteousness had little to no effect on human ability to choose "good" by turning to God, or "evil" by rejecting presented salvation. According to their doctrine, God in his mercy, through the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, had opened to all men the possibility to be saved from eternal damnation (Jhn. 3:16), but the ultimate decision to accept salvation remained entirely in the hands of the human [3, p. 74– 75]. There is yet another contradictory matter of "unconditional atonement" which Arminians did not discard, but reinterpreted in a radically new way: 1) Christ was predestined to be the savior on mankind; 2) those who believed in Christ were consequently predetermined to salvation, and the unbelievers were fated to go to hell; the acceptance or refusal of Christ had no connection to God’s divine plans; 3)God ruled over people wisely and justly by offering them the means of faith and repentance; 4) the enactment of salvation or damnation of a particular person was based on God’s predestination for those who would accept his forgiveness and be saved, as well as for those who refused it and consequently were doomed. Taking it all into account, the general conclusion was such that the believers in Christ were fated to be saved, but the acceptance or refusal alone was not predestined by God. Acknowledging God’s sovereignty, without endowing it with absolute power, Arminians believed that God’s spirit or his divine will always remained an inseparable part of his heavenly character, and thus it was equally righteous, loving and just when dealing with sinners as well as with those who deserved to be saved. Appealing to the principle of justice, Arminians, unlike 24
  25. 25.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  Calvinists, supposed that all people – not only the chosen ones – were capable of accepting the gift of salvation which was universally offered by Jesus Christ [3, p. 76–78]. In the context of the discussion of Christ’s redemptive sacrifice, there were several points of view on the subject of atonement for human sins; one of the was the so-called "unlimited universalism" (Christ’s sacrifice allowed everyone to be saved, that idea was supported by the Universal church and Arminius’s followers); "inconsistent universalism" (the protestant doctrine, according to it, God had premeditated salvation, but not everyone was fated to be saved) accepted by a number of liberal theologians, Lutherans and certain Arminians; and, finally, "restricted salvation" of Calvinists, who supposed that God’s will as a means of deliverance was directed towards everyone, however, only those who accepted the Gospels, or the good news of salvations, were predestined to be saved – that idea also became an integral part of the theory of "limited universalism" [3, p. 79–81]. The central point that unites the theological theories of Arminius and Calvin is that salvation cannot be achieved without mercy, since the consequences of the Fall make it impossible for the man to save himself alone. However, Arminius denied the principle of inevitable salvation. According to his conviction, the human can accept or deny not only the good news of salvation in faith, but the salvation itself (freedom of human will makes it possible). Since this gift is offered as a free choice, it is considered "acceptable by all" in Arminianism (Calvinists consider it an act of human will, without the consequences of potential acceptance or refusal) [3, p. 82–83]. Calvinists and Arminians also disagree on their interpretations of the principles of the insistency (or firmness) of saints. If Calvinists claim that the chosen ones remain firm to the end, Arminians, without rejecting the possibility of the saints to keep firm in their convictions and ultimately be saved, suppose that any believer in Christ is capable of loosing his faith which leads to damnation. They also accept the possibility of consequential forgiveness and redemption which they consider "repeated conversion" or a renewal of the very first, original repentance [3, p. 84–85]. Conclusions. Summing up our analytical studies, we can say that 25
  26. 26.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  the eschatological views of Jacob Arminius are more realistic and positive than those of John Calvin. Predestinational eschatology of Arminius has a strong propensity toward anthropocentrism, while the one of Calvinism is absolutely christocentric. If Calvin offers the man only the faith in the potentiality of salvation, Arminius makes everything depend entirely on human free will. Arminius, realistically considering the phenomena of faith, rejects the Calvinistic principle of inevitable predestination and accepts not only the loss of faith, but also the possibility of the right to accept salvation once again through repentance. The predestinational eschatology of Jacob Arminius doesn’t limit the number of those people who can be saved; it anticipates the possibility of salvation of everyone on the basis of consistent faith and God’s mercy. List of sources and literature 1. Корнер, Дэниэл Д. Вечное спасение на условии веры / Корнер, Дэниэл Д. – Title Verlag, 2003. – 588 с. 2. Лейн Тони. Христианские мыслители: Пер. с англ. / Тони Лейн. – СПб., 1997. – 352 с. 3. Негров Александр. Кальвинизм и арминианизм. Сравнение доктрин / А. Негров // Богомыслие. – Вып. № 6. – Одесса, 1997. – С. 677–88. 4. Санников С. В. Двадцать веков христианства. Второе тысячелетие / С. В. Санников. – Учебное пособие по истории христианства: В 2-х т. – Одесса, 2001. – Т. 2. – 700 с. UDC: 291.4 N. D. Lishchuk BELIEVER’S EXISTENTIAL MOTIVES OF CONFESSIONAL MEMBERSHP OPTION IN THE CONTENT OF MODERN RELIGIOUS LIFE TRANSFORMATION The article deals with the modern person’s motivation of choice of belief as the search of way out from the "unreal existence". Humanism based on the principles of Christianity causes the necessity 26
  27. 27.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  of independent responsibility for the fullness of life. The perspective of constructive religious life transformations in Ukraine is connected with the growth of influence of the directions that accent belief as self- determination of a person. Key words: social interaction, an active activity, personal faith, salvation, freedom, responsibility, evangelical Protestantism. Determination of the problem. After political declaration of exit from totalitarian forms of social organization and the proclamation of Ukraine’s European choice the biggest challenge of the present stage of national history is the formation of a new way of life with a new outlook and behavior. Recreation of old forms of social interaction is impossible because of the loss of their system background. Hence, it is appropriately to identify new incentive factors of effective social cooperation. In a totalitarian country different means of individual activity, constructive initiative and enterprise of its citizens are of particular importance. New social ideology requires support in such forms of social consciousness, which have the most widespread impact and admittance. The combination of these elements are inherent in religion. The Soviet regime artificially restrained deployment of self religious communities, thus overcoming ideological alternative and recognizing its effectiveness veiledly. As since religion can become a driving force of positive social changes in Ukraine the impact on the organization of individual and social life, which is carried out by associations of evangelical Protestants should be examined. First, these areas of modern Christianity do not have internal church status differences resolved by Ukrainian Orthodoxy that prevent the unification of society. Secondly, the successful development of European countries of the modern epoch and the USA is associated with the influence of Protestantism. General analyses of studies of the problem. Ukrainian scholars have resorted to a comparative analysis of the Protestant communities abroad and Ukraine, and they apply the method of historical analogy, investigating a question of the social transformation and the emergence of civil society in Ukraine. Various aspects of these issues are examined by such authors as P. Yarotsky, V. Liubaschenko, M. Cherenkov, O. Spys and others. The articles and monographs reflect methodological principles of philosophical and religious studies of Protestantism and its 27
  28. 28.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  main directions. The position of consideration of Protestant denominations as a phenomenon of culture is perspective one. A universal side of culture comes forward as an alternative to ideological monologism of the previous position of opposition to some historical forms of Christianity. These aspects, in particular, are examined in the works of V. Litvinov and S. Shkil. A position of consideration of the modern protestantism as a factor of religious freedom has a constructive content. Ukrainian scholars - P. Yarotsky, V. Liubaschenko, V. Nichyk analyze the issue of religious freedom in the context of existential aspects of sacred life. In these works the authors draw a reasoned conclusion as for general trends of Ukrainian classical philosophy to examine religious ideas in connection with existential questions. The a im of the article. In spite of the specific historical differences of the content of life different epochs and generations the problem of realization of an individual of himself as a subject of being is still urgent because of the constant reproduction of its fundamental attributes. In the philosophy of the twentieth century this problem was considered from positions that are different from the methodological requirements of the paradigm of postmodernism of the XXI century, and it encourages the establishment of dialogic communication and pluralism. In this approach, not a single ideological position can be the only correct one, and the one that exhausts the true meaning of any of the issue. In this connection, it is expedient to analyze whether the direction of modern Christianity offer constructive guidance on the challenges of freedom, or offer "escape from freedom" through the entire external regulation of lifestyle. In this subject any direction of modern Protestantism should be investigated, and especially Pentecostalism should be investigated which is the most common in Ukraine. The main material. Pentecostalism as a direction of the evangelical Protestantism is based on the belief in personal salvation through personal faith. Emphasis on a personal content here is not defined by anthropocentric self-sufficiency, as it has happened in various historical forms of ideological paradigms. Stressing allocation of a person’s position in formation of his life behavior, evangelical Protestantism is based on Christian theology. Defining principles of human existence are submitted beyond the human world here. Personal 28
  29. 29.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  nature of faith relates to revealing to subjectivity of a believers behavioral orientations. Since a believer is a conscious subject in the acts of faith, and not a passive object of ritual manipulations, the measure of his freedom and responsibility is increasing. Protestant evangelical movement essence as representatives of a radical reformation is found in declaring their independence from government and politics. The evangelical community is not focused on isolation from public life, but distinguishable from the subordination of social hierarchy. Not a single person, following a status or economic grounds of ambitious claims to dispose lives of others, can not reach the level of capabilities of the Trinity. This basic idea of Christian teaching is an essential element of conservative evangelical faith content that defines the limits of human identification. An underlined difference of God and human nature characterizes the essence of theocentrical outlook which Protestantism does not change. Man is not equal to God in the possibilities, so man is not able to obtain salvation. Protestantism advocates this study of Christian soteriology by teaching people not to go wrong by life choices. What combination of radical and conservative elements of evangelical movement does contribute to their rapid spread in different continents? Why is evangelical Christianity growing more dynamically than historical churches, if, in pertinent remark of M. Cherenkov: "In today’s world, people do not inherited religion, they choose it?" [1, p.66]. In the case of spiritual searching, selecting areas for development and communication modern man first shows interest to those forms of communication that are different from the known and familiar ways of social interaction. Having a choice in the search for faith, the individual is trying to compensate the absence or lack of severity of response to his requests known for him by social institutions. Institutionalized form of organized interaction of programmed functions that minimizes the importance of personal manifestations of the individual, is one of the definitions of "unreal being" in the philosophy of existentialism. If the experience a previous relationship is suffering due to lack of disinterested attention, sympathy from others, a person, keeping hope for positive changes, looks for fundamentally different basis for communication. When a person’s loneliness is associated with a permanent impression of undervaluing of his merits and possibilities, he 29
  30. 30.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  finds the need to go beyond the limits of previous ideological orientations, including religious. Exploring religious experience in its diversity, William James opposes the church and evangelical faith as a social institution and as the appointment and status of spiritual life. Identification of evangelical Christians as members of the spiritual movement determines V. Haradzha determines in such way: "Not as a public authority, not as a church – organized force, but primarily as a spiritual and moral force, religion now has the opportunity to enter into dialogue with the world, whose fate now depends on the moral capacity of society, from the solution of global problems" [3, p. 215]. After an initial refusal to focus on the materiality of the hierarchical division of social and religious life, as well as qualitative heterogeneity of the late Protestantism as a spiritual movement it is open to representatives of any social strata. Dynamic spread of this movement is associated with openness to finding new forms of relations between subjects of social structure. Membership in the Protestant community with its social and theological position encourages the individual to activity. Activity as a normal everyday behavior is part of media rights as a subject of individual and social life. Subjective activity is not considered to be a prerogative of some famous people. Isolation of a human from mass does not provide for its opposition to others. The essence of this change in the relationship that stop the practice of dissolving the individual nature of the mass. Understanding of being chosen becomes different from previous corporate traditionalist norms of justification. In a previous history of Christianity religious institutions allocated just for themselves a closeness to God and brokering the appointment of its own mission to determine the mass form of communication with the Creator. With the appearence of Protestantism faith had to awaken in man different way of orientation of behavior, because there was a public demand of capitalism, which began to emerge at a greater measure of autonomy of the individual. So "human dignity which was often neglected by historic churches through denial of human rights for direct communication with God was restored" [6, p. 37]. Immediacy implement human tasks in harmony with religion at this time and with similar demands turn to self-responsibility in all these spheres. As since 30
  31. 31.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  modern civilization has not departed from this set orientation, and has reasons to deepen it, should further consider the relationship of renewed Protestant religion with renewed dignity. Can this renewal be a basis for overcoming the alienation between people and leaving the "unreal life"? Human dignity in the context of its direct relationship with God means to determine its capacity to a level of communication, and that it is worth it. God’s perfection requires improvement from man himself who is a direct participant of communication. A removal initiates changes intermediaries and former static image of man. Activity is a basis of the dynamic transformation of the individual and his relationship. A negative motivation of alienation changes – "I do it for someone, but not for myself. "The level of freedom that opens to believers the later Protestantism is not only a present, but also it is a test. This is particularly evident when considering the history of the Evangelical Church during the totalitarian state. Freed from what it did before the church, the believer gets rid of guaranteed care, a choice made by others. Responsibility of permanent search for solutions lies on a believer. Protestant author V. Karpunin observes: "Freedom could give people "a burden "because its implementation is often associated with overcoming of doubts and hesitations, with sustained resistance to suffering, with worthy endurance to carry a cross, which God put on each of us" [ 4, p. 30]. The difference between religious and secular understanding of freedom is explained by comparing of their results. Proclamation of complete independence of free personality, which is itself a support often leads to rampant acts of tyranny. Christian authors explain the importance of the principle of solidarity (subsidiarity) that balances self-determination of a person. H. Neuhaus justifies it this way: "The principle of subsidiarity puts the human person at the center of making any decisions, so that the community becomes closer to the man and his problems and thus proclaims priority of small living environments to large anonymous community" [5, p. 51]. Restriction of personality in teaching of modern evangelical Protestants is determined not by control of other people, but by the objective correlation of elements of a being that in religious interpretations is expressed as a lack of comparability of God and man. Freedom of the life process as an indefinite flow reflects the irrationality of the human dimensions of existence. Manifestation of superhuman irrationality in expression of 31
  32. 32.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  freedom the evangelical Protestantism examines through the idea of being chosen. Exclusivity does not come from causation available to a human thinking and it does not subject to their unambiguous simplicity. Only God as the determining basis of the laws of existance is its source. Human freedom can not be absolute, because a person does not have the characteristics and capabilities of the absolute. Thus, the guide and support of human freedom is God. "God speaks to a personality, to the individual, and therefore you can not hide behind the other, you can not dissolve in a meeting of people but you have to bear personal responsibility before Him" [6, p. 33] – explains the representative of evangelical Protestantism I. Podberezkyi. Issues that go beyond human capabilities of salvation and eternal life, go beyond human freedom. The Bible directly expresses these boundaries through Christ’s answer to the question of desciples "Who can be saved?": "It is not possible for a man." History and purpose of God coming to the earth is connected with the inability for the person to solve the question of salvation. The idea of a primary human sinfulness is defined by real limitations of the human race. The humanity can’t solve the problem of sin, therefore, the humanity can not be guided by the principle of internal self-determination of tribal life. Thus stating the sinfulness of a man, his connectedness with the evil the Protestant doctrine does not permit freedom of evil and sin in any case. Evil – is something that exists and is inherent in man, but it is not what it should be, as an acceptable norm. Since the determination of a human being is beyond the possibilities of a human race, and the norms of moral goodness in their biblical meaning reflect the ontological significance of constructively creative orientation of behavior. In moral prescriptions of the doctrine of evangelical Protestantism our contemporary in search of a new faith, finds a support of one’s hope for the best, because one is convinced in the lack of necessary character of evil. At the same time the required content is proved by not only correlation of the world’s existential definitions, but also by the understanding of life as formation. On the human level, this creates a demand for fair labor, which stands out among the most visible signs of evangelical Christianity and stems from their content. Protestantism in general has changed the previous value orientation of religious activities. In medieval times the religiosity expressed through mystical contemplation; Protestantism has 32
  33. 33.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  established a norm of activities both in church and in everyday life. A demand for active relation to reality, which is the only way to convert and save the world, connects other parts of evangelical faith of its eschatology. The definition of finitude of human existence orientates the problem of the sense of life on limitation of personal consumption and waste, motivates charity and enterprise. Charity or stimulation of enterprise is not essential for understanding the motivation of commitment to late Protestant directions. The combination of these behavioral requirements is important, because none of these elements in this system of belief is not the goal in itself. Activity of abeliever in its directions foresees an achievement of well-being with a social result, but not with individual or collective result. By focusing on the allocation of the individual as a subject of forming of his own views and behavior the same individual is accostomed not to oppose his needs and desires of others, and to act on the basis of solidarity. The emphasis on the necessity of solidarity in conjunction with the requirements of the general welfare attracts to evangelical Protestants those citizens for whom the outlook is a significant issue of patriotism. The idea of necessity of achievement a welfare by the individual not for everyone, but for himself – this idea meets the objectives of a market economy. The combination of a market and private property, as the real history shows,can make extremely dehumanizuyuchyy impact on the individual, on the one hand, or it can lead to situations of loss of the meaning of existence on the other. Both extremes are closely linked with the forms and manifestations of alienation of "unreal being." Therefore, the behavioral system of recommendations as for directions of evangelical Protestantism continues to rely on a combination of moral and economic values which is mentioned M. Weber’s work "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism." A source of problems facing the man, are not the type of economic relationship itself. The later Protestant doctrine proposes the organization of life, based on entry of a human in the real world as it is. According to biblical teaching, private ownership is the right for a person’s trust of management of things that ultimately belong to the Creator. Through the work a man can not only be approved by the Executive functions, but also to create, to manifest himself.. Self-expression in creation as 33
  34. 34.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  the ability is considered a reflection of human Godlikeness. They argue that the work expresses a human nature, so it is a vocation of a man, and an entreprise as a creative approach to labor is connected with the desire to make a profit that exceeds the required measure of family support. The growth of profit doesn’t have a sel – consumer aim,it is not a sign of higher values of some people over others. Human talents are God’s gifts, they are presented possibilities of individual origin and destination. Charity through internally motivated intentions must reflect a believer’s assimilation of a moral duty, his grateful understanding of God’s grace, the origin of life success from the Creator’s suppor. In this connection we can emphasize on key element of Pentecostalism- the doctrine of one of the most common denominations of evangelical Protestantism. Here, more than in other directions, the stress is laid on arguments that human capabilities which are higher than natural average level and are determined by the manifestation of grace through receiving spiritual gifts because of the baptism of the Holy Spirit. Conclusions. A modern globalized society despite of the considerable impact of scientific and technological achievements show a great interest in matters of religion. In particular, a confessional dynamics is the element of social transformations in the world and in Ukraine. The question of motivation of choice of a belief as a person’s ideologically – behavioral orientation is essential because of its practical implications. A content of modern correlation of individual and general social factors of social changes finds its expression in terms and ideas of existential philosophy of "real" and "unreal" life, liberty and responsibility. A change of social communications goes from orientation that is necessary to ensure their liability to the motivation of a subjective expression as a condition of constructive cooperation in all spheres of life. To such needs are close social and religious movements that in their structure and orientation express these current positions. The most dynamic prospects are the denominations that provide a constant dialogue with their followers and promote their creative self- expression actualization. Freedom of self-expression provided by the believers in evangelical directions of Protestantism, creats one of the essential basis of the large spread of these directions in the world and Ukraine. As a caution on conversion of human freedom on the element of arbitrary nihilism in the content of the Protestant belief is a number 34
  35. 35.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  of requirements on the orientation of lifestyle adherence to moral obligations. A system of life behavior has to accustom a believer to combine the principle of individual activity with a norm not to contrast himselfnot contrasting with another God’s creation. Studies of contemporary evangelical Protestantism in the future should be more related to aspects of philosophical anthropology, sociology and because of Religious interpretation of this phenomenon in the Soviet literature presented extensively. List of sources and literature 1. Черенков М. М. Європейська реформація та український євангельський протестантизм : Генетико–типологічна спорідненість і національно–ідентифікаційні виміри сучасності: Монографія / М. М. Черенков – Одеса : Християнська просвіта, 2008. – 566 с. 2. Яроцький П. Л. Протестантизм як предмет релігієзнавчого дослідження / П. Л. Яроцький // Академічне релігієзнавство України. Історія і сьогодення. – К., 2006. – С. 171–186. 3. Гараджа В. И. Социология религии: Учеб. пособие для студентов и аспирантов гуманитарных спеціальностей / Гараджа В. И. – М. : Аспект – Пресс, 1996. – 239 с. 4. Карпунин В. А. Христианство и философия / В. А. Карпунин. – СПб. : Библия для всех, 2002. – С. 30–31. 5. Нойхауз Н. Ценности христианской демократии / Н. Нойхауз – М. : Республика, 2005. –192 с. 6. Подберезский И. В. Христианская личность // Путь Богопознания / И. В. Подберезский. – 2000.– Вып.6. – С.33-44. UDC 291.1 М.S. Мel’nychuk PHILOSOPHICAL AND RELIGIOUS ANALYSIS OF MODERNIZATION TRENDS IN THE PROTESTANTISM’S ART The article describes features of the modernization of the art 35
  36. 36.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  system in modern Protestantism. Key words: protestantism, art, modernization, suggestiveness. Problem statement. Protestantism, which originated and was formed during the Reformation radically redefined institutions, ideas and practices of the Western Christian church. General analyses of studies of the problem. This phenomenon, and the value of art in it devoted his work as a Soviet researchers (L. Uspensky, A. Chanyshev, E. Yakovlev), and modern Ukrainian scientists (I. Bohachevsky, V. Bodak, V. Lyubaschenko etc.). Even before the XVI century became clear that the Protestant church requires fundamental reforms. "It seems that the blood ceased to flow through the vessels of the Church. Their legal system required changes, and incapacity and corruption of the church bureaucracy was generally known. Moral clergy often been disbanded, causing embarrassment flock. Clergy (even at the highest levels) was often absent in the parishes and dioceses. Appointment to the highest ecclesiastical position was questionable means, attention is mainly paid to political or financial position of the candidates, not their spiritual qualities. " So the overall picture depicted the decline of contemporary Catholicism prominent Protestant theologian A. Mahrat [2, p. 12–13]. Thus the purpose of our study is to analyze the modernization trends in the art of modern Protestantism Speaking of harsh criticism all the basic principles of Catholicism, Protestantism proposed variant of "cheap" Christian church, which has to abandon many external attributes and focus on "organizations" direct "communication with God". Thus, the first Protestant churches modest architecture, which differed simple arrangement without icons, crucifixes and lamps and professional priests. The main element of worship here was the sermon, which was to help believers to comprehend the truth of Scripture and charged with the responsibility for instilling and deepening the believers cornerstone doctrine – salvation by faith. So from the very beginning in Protestantism diverted most important place "ministry of the word" or the art of words. Exploring the history of this type of service, Protestant theologians emphasize that in the first centuries of Christianity have begun to recognize the need for careful attention to the sermon and 36
  37. 37.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  improve this type of service to the Church. This was the desire to preserve the best of sermons. Therefore, the first books on homiletics (the study of preaching) were collected best sermons. Concern for quality content and form of the Protestant sermon ever got bigger. Leading centers of Protestant churches and denominations issued annually for elders and preachers of all its communities advice and tips for worship every day of the year. In the journals that published religious centers continuously printed instructional materials to help those who preach in the community. Thus, in Lutsk for this purpose for Evangelical Christians-Baptists of all Ukraine is printed and published bimonthly magazine "Messenger of Truth" – a body of Ukrainian Evangelical Baptist Fellowship (centered in the U.S.). Since the mid 90- ies of the last century, in the regions of Ukraine are printed edition of their local communities, experience their evangelistic work ("Candlestick. Journal for the Church and the Church", published in the Rivne). Subjects sermons in each community will be at least one month. In cities topics posted near the houses of prayer, while, besides a general overview, bet on those believers who for some reason can not attend all the prayer meetings, but reading through this plan, everyone will do good to come and listen to those sermons considers particularly useful. When planning than the calendar of religious holidays or biblical events included specific moral or spiritual needs of the community, the response to social events and responses to them co-religionists, etc. – that is, the sermon being targeted, theme and content of their defined life-spiritual relevance. According to Protestant theologians, the main advantage is preaching and action that it has on the audience. One interpretation of the sermon is finished speech that pronounced on religious gatherings and aims to call sinners to repentance and faith, teachings or strengthening believers in the virtues and explaining the teachings of Christ. The success of the sermon are important personality preacher, and his attitude toward ministry sermon content, form and methods of expression. All of this requires not only a preacher stresses spiritual effort, but preaching talent. Sometimes, not every priest can match the skill of his preaching of Protestant preachers. In addition, Protestantism is not 37
  38. 38.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  necessary to practice the complexity of presentation topics to avoid character "phenomenon lectures" in sermons. For disclosure of religious truths, where possible, advise, except the Holy Scriptures, to examples of life. Prized living example of the power of imagery and words. An example of this would be one of the preachers sermon: "In early spring, I had to go in a birch grove. I went to a beautiful curly birch trees, near which was unknown and a meter from the ground drilled a hole in the trunk. To my remark that bindweed from this dries , the stranger replied: "I do not regret that birch wither and perish – I like being with her flowing juice." his work and answer moved me in a domestic situation of believers. How many cases of flesh here is similar to "work" my interlocutor! How many cases family life is only for pleasures of the flesh. This is - debauch passions that unsettles health and prematurely old and wears out the body... " [7, p. 145]. Thus, the touching image of a young birch preacher used for establishing the idea that a person should not be healthy for his earthly happiness, and to serve God. In Protestantism believe the undisputed fact that the preacher must first be very sure of the truth of what preaching because it primarily ensures perception believing that convey to their hearts and minds. It is important not to say, and how to say it. That sermon should come from the depths of the soul, with well matched tone and even, if necessary, with enthusiasm, that in general the success of the sermon. Preacher, usually, not always build the propaganda of religious ideas on rational basis and logical arguments. "A fervent speech speaker – teaches ... – causing listeners emotional exaltation which inductively hampers and present experiences, and results of past experience. Gradually abolishes man (gast) their previous assessment of events and phenomena ceases to be critical of the words of the speaker, takes it assessment of his views. A inhibition own activity leads to stimulation mechanisms imitative behavior, willingness to follow the speaker. should be emphasized that this is a suggestibility (suggestion), that the imposition of reasoning without logical proof of their truth. Instill – not to prove by arguments addressed mental. suggestion in most cases just aimed at overcoming logical arguments, it appeals to the human senses, not her mind "[4, p. 66-67]. Preaching in Protestantism is always based on the interpretation 38
  39. 39.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  of Scripture. An experienced preacher on this occasion said: "The theme is contained in the text (Scripture) as the core of nut. Our task – not to remain on the periphery and to penetrate into the core ... Only in this way can we get in the intimate meaning of the text. Topic should not be superficial, little substance, many times chutoyu. "Topic Title must be borrowed from the Bible, for example: "Go forth and sin no more!" (John 8, 11), "Repent and believe in the Gospel" (Mk 1, 15), "You - the light of the world" (Mt 5, 14), etc. Theologians are not recommended to define the topic in a word, such as "Love", "Freedom", "good" and so on. This theme hides a danger to spread preacher in the sermon on the different opinions and things unrelated to deprive sermon substantive focus and clarity [3, p. 42]. Preachers, especially late currents of Protestantism, not counting a long time his sermons. According to our observations, in the communities of Rivne region sermon on average lasts about 10 minutes. The fact that the prayer meeting provided two common prayer – the initial and final may be common prayer, for any occasion (for example, recovery of patients): execution chants – choral, general, and where possible – solo songs and declamations , melodeclamations. All these kinds of service interspersed with sermons that happens, depending on the circumstances, from three to seven or eight. Typically, the prayer meeting does not last more than two hours. Incidentally, the liturgical practice of Protestants and acts as a kind of prayer ministry said. Zh. Kalvin in his "teaching the Christian faith" (Institution) emphasized that prayer as defining exercise of faith, "...because we receive daily gifts of God" [1, p. 126]. As follows from the above, Protestants use in their prayer meetings not only the art of speech, but singing – both accompanied by musical instruments, so without them. Overall prayer meeting Protestants significantly different from worship in Catholicism and Orthodoxy. In both of these churches liturgical ministry ruled approved by literally scenarios – ranks. Since they are provided to all service liturgical year, the faithful have become accustomed to them, they know that now sing the priest and the deacon, and the chorus or klyrosis. This one tradition extinguishes attention to the content of the spoken or sung, for the faithful know in advance their contents, expect this and not something else. Listening and introduction to singing, blending in harmony temple ceremonies Catholics or Orthodox feel of this aesthetic 39
  40. 40.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  pleasure that distracts, putting chants and deliver content, because they worship the work of familiar – "nothing new" and they did not expect. In Protestant churches is only stable schemes prayer meetings, but every time the course of gathering updated with new psalmsongs, sermons and prayers. This collection has more on the minds of believers, teach them first of all strengthen their religious beliefs. Although aesthetic pleasure not removed, it is much inferior to the influence on the minds of dogmatic, theological dominance worship. In addition, each prayer meeting in the communities of Protestants is subject to certain, predetermined topic. So when should happen break bread, prayers, sermons and hymns on the topic of Golgotha Christ. Clearly and unequivocally held meetings on the occasion of the events in the life of the Son of God on earth or acts of the apostles (eg Pentecost). The various currents of Protestantism has its special holiday as a harvest festival or celebration of unity in Baptist, dates associated with the history and functioning of various Protestant denominations. In Protestantism there is a whole repertoire psalmsongs for worship. In this area there were many religious poets and composers. They created and multiplied for their co-religionists songs, occasionally betrayed their collections that organize the principle of certain needs and opportunities of church life. Numbering works and categorization by content-themed destination providing usability Works on gatherings of believers. In print, many believers in using manuscript collections which rewrote the believers. In Protestantism, however, there is no sustainable repertoire of sacred songs, he filled them neoplasms – text and melodic. In communities where there are choirs, their repertoire is almost constantly updated, and what was done before, copied now as common heritage of singing. That is a constant updating of malignancies. Protestants also, in many cases accompanied by singing playing musical instruments. Until recently, the villages often used for this accordion, and even the once very popular accordion – "helihonka". However, not all communities have at least a simple musical instrument. In cities were popular piano, harmonium, lately become fashionable synths. For icons in Protestantism, in its prayer houses and churches, even in rooms believers, no place. Against the worship of icons and 40
  41. 41.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  their veneration strongly and categorically opposed John Calvin [1, p. 145]. With reference to the Saints Scripture, he proves that lie "offend God’s honor if ascribe to him some pictures. Law of God says:" Do not make for yourself any graven image, or any likeness" (I, 11.1). Immediately recalls the Bible: "You heard the voice, and did not see any figures" (5 M. 4, 2). And if someday God appeared to man, it was a warning of future revelation in Christ. Recalls Calvin and patrystiv. Yes Augustine clearly expressed, not allowed, not only to deal with a prayer to the icon, but even to think of it themselves, as if the image of God, for because of this decrease is subtracted and the fear of God (I, 11). They do not worship the cross, because he was the instrument of suffering and death of Christ. Instead of icons on the walls of Protestant houses of worship and homes of believers – only artistically written statements from Scripture: "God is love" (1 Jn. 4, 8), "One Lord, one faith, one baptism" (Eph. 4.6), "We preach Christ crucified" (1 Cor., 1.23) and so on. Transfer Protestantism attention believer of worship and rituals for preaching and personal faith led to some changes in his religious and artistic integrity. Instead Organ music, monumental murals and paintings, lush decor clothes priests and Catholic churches came interior art expressive black-and-white prints (this was confirmed in the early Protestant churches – Lutheranism, Calvinism, and Anglicanism), sincere preaching, singing with accompaniment and humble Clothing pastor, elder and preacher [5, p. 236]. Simplification of religion in Protestantism manifested not only in lifting a large number of religious festivals and special services to honor saints and the Virgin, but in abolishing major iconic event, which in Catholicism and Orthodoxy are called sacraments. Of these seven sacraments – baptism, anointing, confession, communion, priesthood, marriage and Sick – there were two: baptism and communion (break bread). But their action was denied special magical power, because it directly depending on personal faith. Incidentally, all of the above applies to the ideal of Protestantism, which in reality is not. Because Protestantism – a large number of relatives while slightly different from each other churches, denominations, sometimes – and sects. Reform requirements and principles and are available in various Protestant denominations in different ways, with varying degrees of completeness, and sometimes 41
  42. 42.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  with a fairly substantial cult and even dogmatic differences (Pentecostals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Mormons and others.). As late Protestant congregations in Ukraine, then they remain in positions of conservatism and rejection of any innovations in worship. Believers do not use artificial jewelry, considering them unacceptable, sinful. For example, women do not use any makeup or jewelry. Men do not wear badges, some state symbols, icons. Most people avoid family even wearing rings on his hand. That is, a complete ban that can afford Orthodox or Catholic, without risking a cause for condemnation Coreligionists. But some religious innovations, modernization elements of Protestant worship still occur and are usually associated with foreign centers of Protestant ministries for viewers Ukraine. A sample of a Sunday program "Life in the Word", which preaches and sings John Mayer. In it there is a lot of unusual things that do not fit into the traditional Protestant cult that exists in communities throughout Ukraine. It’s more like the Christian entertainment talk show. On stage, young girls, dressed in white, each with a microphone in hand, singing spiritual songs. Soloist clearly stands out from among them, a little older than their colleagues with clips in the ears, with expressive makeup on her face. Speaker is indulging openly and clearly to the calculation methods of artistry. She sings beautifully, but obviously an artistic manner – walking across the stage, raises his hands. Girls on stage to join in their song structure, but also transcend from foot to foot, clap their hands over their heads. Meanwhile, in the audience all stood wobbling in time to sing and also drive their hands. This can be observed in the transmission of "Good News with Rick Renner". He is in his sermons clearly unable to acute phrases: supposedly preaches extemporaneously, and it allows him to occasionally suspended searching for a word or phrase for which there react hilarious revival, and even laughter. Acknowledge your joke and preacher – he did not smile restrains ... This transfer can see every citizen of Ukraine, who watches TV. However, all of these things – natural. Life is richer and more complex than any dogma. Various forms of Protestantism – is adapting abstract schemes to the needs of a changing life. For all its diversity Protestant denominations have two common features: first, they follow 42
  43. 43.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  (albeit with different sequence) of the basic principles of Protestantism, and secondly, have their historical roots in the Reformation, being directly or indirectly its products [6, p. 15]. Finally, the process of "cloning" all the advanced Protestant denomination is not over yet. Under the pressure of life can occur following varieties of Protestantism, which ultimately may go in the opposite direction – to the Catholic or Orthodox orthodoxy. Moreover, in the practical life of believers and Protestant communities in Ukraine in general susceptibility to most innovations embodied in the program of their social service. It is, firstly, update Luther’s doctrine of "good works". Second, believing it is considered as evidence of meaningfulness of his earthly existence, search the most effective means of practical realization of Christian precepts. Thereby Protestants Ukraine catching up still not implemented its social and ethical potential. Since begging in early Protestantism, especially in reformation and genetically related to him later as a result of trends prohibited laziness, unwillingness to obey the commandments of God, in the program of social service referred mainly moral support. However, Protestants and avoid material philanthropy, such as donating invalids, pensioners, the poor, those who have suffered from natural disasters. "Let it be prosaic work, but realize that it is for the good of man and the people, turning them into something sacred" [3, p. 158]. Conclusions. So with regard to modernization of worship, then it is in Protestantism is taking its first steps. Especially fixed service improvements word as traditional brief sermon on the topic of biblical quotations are outliving itself. To enhance the role of suggestive words in Protestantism stock piled unused potentials that are generated by technical progress in the field of audio and visual media. However, provide any specific scale and pace of innovation rise in the practice of Protestant worship no reason. As for painting, sculpture – they Protestantism still remain beyond the need to worship. List of sources and literature 1. Кальвін Ж. Інституція, або Навчання християнської віри / Жан Кальвін. – Репр. вид. – Атланта ; Торонто : [б. в.], 1986. – 239 с. 2. Любащенко В. І. Історія протестантизму в Україні / В. І. Любащенко. – Львів : Просвіта, 1995. – 350 с. 43
  44. 44.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  3. Настольная книга пресвитера. – М. : Всесоюз. совет еванг. христиан-баптистов, 1987. – Вып. 2. – 239, [1] с. 4. Симонов П. В. Метод К. С. Станиславского и физиология эмоций / П. В. Симонов. – М. : Изд-во Акад. наук. СССР, 1962. – 139 с. 5. Успенский Л. О материалах в церковном искусстве / Л. Успенский, Л. Успенская // Журнал Московской Патриархии. – 1988. – № 11. – С. 20–21. 6. Чанышев А. Н. Протестантизм / А. Н. Чанышев. – М. : Наука, 1962. – 216 с. 7. Яковлев Е. Г. Эстетическое сознание, искусство и религия / Евгений Георгиевич Яковлев. – М. : Искусство, 1969. – 175 с. UDC: 281.9:264-74:159.923.2(=161.2) Y.I. Mel’nychuk ORTHODOX SERMON AS A SOCIO-CULTURAL ACHIEVEMENT OF UKRAINIAN NATION In the article the analysed features of the Ukrainian orthodox sermon as the specific communicative phenomenon which depends on social realities and is the certificate of kul’turnogo-dukhovnikh traditions of Ukrainian society. Key words: sermon, communicative system (communication), social conditionality, sociokul’turne phenomenon. Problem. Orthodox sermon as centuries of social and cultural heritage of the Ukrainian people, originated and evolved within the Eastern Christian tradition, attracted attention because of its scientific and theoretical understanding. Aspects of the study of this problem is invariant, multifaceted and determined by various factors. Level of development problems. The problem of language related to the issue of linguistic relativity, which consider Edward Sapir and W. von Humboldt, the question of language liturgy – T. Gorbachenko, N. Mechkovska, I. James. Investigation of internal inflection seen in the writings O. Potebni, as well as modern scientific achievements of local 44
  45. 45.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  researchers, including Slad mention I. Bohachevsku, M. Holyanycha, T. Horbachenka, L. Drotyanka, T. Kyyaka, N. Myhyrina, B. Plotnikova, V. Rusanivskoho et al. Figuring features preaching the word as oratorical genre became an object of scientific interest M. Bahtina, F. Batsevycha, A. Vezhbytskoyi. Analysis of the linguistic-pragmatic features sermons carried N. Arutyunova, Yu. Lotman, Ch. Morris and Ch. Pirs. Finding a new structure in sermons, as works which displays a number vzayemopov’yazuyutsya communicative subjective wreath made T. Van Dyke, L. Ivanov, V. Maslovym, Z. Turayevoyu in this context it is worth mentioning and intelligence representatives teolinhvistyky (O. Hadomskyy, H. Hrinenko, N. Mechkovska). Thus, in modern philosophical, cultural and others. studies vidshukovuyemo considerable interest from the sermon as a special type of speech that is endowed with certain symbolic meanings-load, the problems of textual interpretation sermons and preaching activities in the context of the historical realities of society, it updates the specific study of the phenomenon in terms of both theoretical and practical grounds. We aim to characterize features of preaching in the context of the Ukrainian Orthodox apostolic tradition, forming a task of this work: to analyze the features of the role of speech and outline the nature, purpose of preaching, preaching separation as a specific communicative phenomenon and its dependence on social realities, preaching as cultural heritage. The main material. Before turning to direct our coverage stated themes appropriate to describe (in general terms) the specificity of the Ukrainian Orthodox sermon as a religious phenomenon. It reflects the essence of the teachings of a religious nature, which is inextricably linked to that observed semamy sacred content. As a guide to preaching and vyholoshuyetsya oral or recorded in writing, it is a communicative phenomenon which is characterized by the transfer of information as a religious content and its relationship to life followers, ie semantically sermons linking spiritual and earthly life. We can say that in the process of formation and development of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (from the introduction of Christianity in the Ukrainian lands to the present) preaching constantly evolving, and therefore, in essence, this is a dynamic phenomenon that has meaning and performs various functions in the religious and social life of the Ukrainian nation. Yes, I. Ogienko 45
  46. 46.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012  [12, p. 87] proves the presence of preaching distinct national characteristics, resulting from the isolation of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the tenets elections clergy, worship, chynopokladannyah, we should misyatseslovi, holidays ikonomalyarstvi and temple architecture. Indisputable is the fact that the Ukrainian Orthodox sermon typical social significance, as expressed in the relationship of religious canons and social realities that appear in an emotionally filled text through which affects the preacher, feelings and outlook of believers.To preacher could achieve the desired communicative effect, it uses implikatory communicative, emotional and sponukalnist, imagery, belief. Another characteristic feature of preaching the word – the presence of a supernatural, on this T. Gavrilyuk [4, p. 278], analyzing the notion, suggested that it is a product of social and human creativity and a subjective objective. Speaking consequences of religious and philosophical reflection on the meaning of life, supernatural means the those aspects of human life that are not verifiable by scientific methods and express a reality that stands on the foundation of natural primary, epistemological embodiment of gods, spirits, souls, etc., and sacred connection ‘connections and properties of real objects and phenomena. It is in the category of the supernatural, says researcher expressed importance not only religious images and ideas, but also the overall certainty existential human condition that is characterized by its spontaneous ontological relation, we notice the following constants in the studied phenomenon. Analyzing Printed text sermon can trace certain trends semantic load, which reflects the moral and ethical issues from the Bible, lives of the saints, but each time it is some new vision of the eternal problems which should be tangent soul worshiper. The believer is filled with confidence to a spiritual leader, a deep faith in God and strive to improve their own souls and dobrochestya [10, p. 54]. According to D. Brala, striving for perfection makes the preacher changed his attitude towards communicative audience, and the subject of his mission is not "herd management, and people management" [2, p. 15]. In theological studies, we find the statement that "the Christian church guideline aims to clarify the audience doctrine of Christ" as a lively, sensual statement becomes essential characteristic of her: "The word priest more than anyone’s attracting people’s attention. According possible to define 46

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