Cells 2013 14


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Cells 2013 14

  1. 1. Cells
  2. 2. 1.The cell is the basic unit of all living things. “building blocks of life”
  3. 3. Common Characteristics 2. Living things, or organisms, have common characteristics. Reproduce Grow and Develop Are organized Respond To the environment
  4. 4. Living Things Are organized Grow and develop Respond to the Environment Reproduce
  5. 5. Needs Of Life 3. Organisms cannot carry out life activities without a few necessities Living Things Need Energy Materials Living Space Such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen and water
  6. 6. 4. Living things, or organisms, that are made of a SINGLE cell are called unicellular and are usually too small for you to see. 5. Most organisms you can see are made up of many cells and are more complex. Organisms made up of many cells are called multicellular .
  7. 7. 6. The microscope led to the discovery of cells.
  8. 8. The Discovery of Cells 7. In 1665, Robert Hooke discovered cells by examining slices of cork under a microscope.
  9. 9. Robert Hooke saw cork cells like these.
  10. 10. 8. In 1673, Anton van Leeuwenhoek looked at pond scum under the microscope and saw creatures he called animalcules or “little animals”.
  11. 11. Microscopic organisms like these live in pond water.
  12. 12. The Discovery of Cells Continued…. • In 1838, Matthias Schleiden concluded that all plants are made of cells. • In 1839, Theodor Schwann concluded that all animals are made of cells. • In 1858, Rudolf Virchow concluded that all cells come from existing cells.
  13. 13. Every living thing is made of one or more cells. Cells carry out the functions needed to support life. Cells come only from other living cells.
  14. 14. 10. There Are Two Types of Cells • Prokaryotic cells • No nucleus • No separate “compartment” for genetic information/DNA • Ex: Bacteria • Eukaryotic cells • Nucleus • Membrane-covered organelles • DNA located in the nucleus • Ex: All other cells (plants, animals, fungi, protists)
  15. 15. Examples of Prokaryotic Cells (Bacteria)
  16. 16. Examples of Eukaryotic Cells Animal Cells Human Liver Cells Fungi Cells Plant Cells Protist Cell Heart Muscle Cells
  17. 17. What are the cell parts?
  18. 18. Three Main Parts of a Cell 11. Most cells have three main parts. They are the -cell membrane -cytoplasm -nucleus 12. Each of these main cell parts has a special and important job to do. Cell membrane Nucleus Cytoplasm
  19. 19. Cell Membrane 13. The cell membrane is a protective covering that encloses the entire cell. Any material coming into or out of the cell must pass through the cell membrane.
  20. 20. 14. The cell membrane has three important jobs. 1. protects the inside of a cell 2. supports and gives a cell its shape 3. controls the movement of materials into and out of a cell.
  21. 21. A cell membrane surrounds each of these cells.
  22. 22. Cytoplasm 15. The cytoplasm is a gelatin-like material contained inside the cell membrane. 16. Most of the activities in the cell take place in the cytoplasm.
  23. 23. The cytoplasm is colored yellow in this photo.
  24. 24. Nucleus 17. Most cells have a nucleus and are called eukaryotes. 18. The nucleus is the control center of a cell and contains the genetic information. 19. The nucleus controls all the life processes of a cell. 20. The nucleus also controls cell reproduction. 21. The nucleus is separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear membrane.
  25. 25. The nucleus of a cell can be seen by using a microscope.
  26. 26. Nuclear Structures 22. Chromosomes are a coiled structure of DNA and protein that forms in the cell nucleus during cell division. 23. DNA contains the instructions for how the cell is supposed to function. 24. Nucleolus (a structure located inside the nucleus) – the place where ribosomes are made.
  27. 27. Organelles 25. A cell is like a factory. • Each machine in a factory has a special job. • The machines work together to keep the factory working. 26. The "machines" of a cell are its organelles. • Organelles are small structures that are suspended in the cytoplasm.
  28. 28. 27. Each organelle has a special job to do. •Organelles work to: - produce energy - transport materials - get rid of waste •Organelles keep the cell working properly.
  29. 29. Mitochondria 28. One kind of organelle is the mitochondrion. 29. Mitochondria are known as the "powerhouses" of the cell. 30. They release energy that the cell can use. 31. The energy is used by the cell to carry out its life processes.
  30. 30. Endoplasmic Reticulum 32. The endoplasmic reticulum is also known as the ER. 33. The endoplasmic reticulum is a very small network of tubes inside the cell. 34. The tubes are like a tiny highway or transportation system for the cell. Substances move along these tubes from one organelle to another.
  31. 31. Ribosome 35. Ribosomes are small, rounded structures located within the cell. 36. Ribosomes make proteins. 37. The proteins are needed for growth and are involved in all cell processes. 38. Some ribosomes appear as small bumps attached to the ER. 39. Not all ribosomes are attached to the ER, some are scattered throughout the cytoplasm.
  32. 32. Golgi Bodies 40. Cells contain many flattened and folded sacs called Golgi bodies. (looks like a stack of pancakes) 41. The Golgi bodies are like a post office for the cell. 42. Proteins and other materials are sent to the Golgi bodies through the endoplasmic reticulum. 43. Then, the Golgi bodies package and distribute the materials to other parts of the cell. They also send materials to the outside of the cell.
  33. 33. Vacuoles 44. The vacuoles of a cell are small storage spaces in the cytoplasm. 45. Vacuoles store food, waste, and water. 46. Plant cells usually have one large vacuole, and animal cells may have many small vacuoles.
  34. 34. Lysosomes 47. Lysosomes are the cleanup crew of the cell. 48. Lysosomes contain powerful chemicals that digest nutrient molecules in the cell. 49. When other organelles in the cell stop working properly, the lysosomes break down and recycle the old cell parts so they can be used again. The chemicals in the lysosomes only break down unhealthy cell parts.
  35. 35. Ribosome Endoplasmic reticulum Nucleus Nuclear membrane Cell membrane Cytoplasm Lysosome Golgi body Mitochondrion
  36. 36. How do plant and animal cells differ?
  37. 37. Animal Cell Red Blood Cells Model of a typical animal cell
  38. 38. Plant Cell Model of typical plant cell Actual plant cell
  39. 39. 1. Cell Wall • All plant cells have a cell wall • Animal cells do not have a cell wall • The cell wall surrounds the cell membrane of a plant cell • Cell walls are made of a hard material called cellulose
  40. 40. The cell wall has three jobs • Protect the plant cell • Gives the cell its shape • Gives the plant cell support
  41. 41. 2. Vacuoles • The number and sizes of vacuoles are different in plant and animal cells • Plant cells have only one or two large vacuoles • Animal cells have many small vacuoles • Plant cell vacuoles store most of the water in the cell
  42. 42. 3. Chloroplasts • Most plant cells have organelles called chloroplasts • They contain a material called chlorophyll • Chlorophyll gives a plant its green color • Plants use chlorophyll to make food through a process called photosynthesis. • Animal cells do not have chloroplasts or chlorophyll
  43. 43. What are levels of organization??? *Some organisms are made of only one cell!! These organisms are called unicellular. *Other organisms, like plants, animals, and fungi are made of many cells. These organisms are called multicellular. *Multicellular organisms have levels of organization……
  44. 44. Organization of Life • Cells are the basic units of life. • Cells that work together to perform a specific job in the body are called tissues. • A group of tissues that work together to perform a specific job are called organs. • Organs that work together in groups are called organ systems. • Organ systems come together to form an organism that can live on its own.
  45. 45. In other words…. cells  tissues  organs  organ systems  organism