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Climate change and Architects role and resposibilities


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Climate change and Architects role and resposibilities

  1. 1. Engineers& Architects roles& responsibilities
  2. 2. Climate Change
  3. 3. Temperature rise
  4. 4. Source : Cairo climatic station 1971-2000 ADTemperature rise
  5. 5. Reasons:
  6. 6. Burning of Fossil FuelsMany things cause global warming. One thing that causes global warming is electricalpollution. Electricity causes pollution in many ways, some worse than others. In most cases,fossil fuels are burned to create electricity. Fossil fuels are made of dead plants and animals.Some examples of fossil fuels are oil and petroleum. Many pollutants (chemicals that pollutethe air, water, and land) are sent into the air when fossil fuels are burned. Some of thesechemicals are called greenhouse gasses.We use these sources of energy much more than the sources that give off less pollution.Petroleum, one of the sources of energy, is used a lot. It is used for transportation, makingelectricity, and making many other things. Although this source of energy gives off a lot ofpollution, it is used for 38% of the United States’ energy.
  7. 7. Fossil fuel co2 emissions:
  8. 8. What is the greenhouse effect?The greenhouse effect is when the temperature rises because the sun’s heat and light istrapped in the earth’s atmosphere. This is like when heat is trapped in a car. On a very hotday, the car gets hotter when it is out in the parking lot. This is because the heat and lightfrom the sun can get into the car, by going through the windows, but it can’t get back out.This is what the greenhouse effect does to the earth. The heat and light can get throughthe atmosphere, but it can’t get out. As a result, the temperature rises.Sometimes the temperature canchange in a way that helps us. Thegreenhouse effect makes the earthappropriate for people to live on.Without it, the earth would be freezing,or on the other hand it would beburning hot. It would be freezing atnight because the sun would be down.We would not get the sun’s heat andlight to make the night somewhatwarm. During the day, especiallyduring the summer, it would be burningbecause the sun would be up with noatmosphere to filter it, so people,plants, and animals would be exposedto all the light and heat.Increase in the percentage ofgreenhouse gases
  9. 9. 25% reflected to the space23% absorbed in the atmosphere52% passes the atmosphere and reaches the earth(6% are re reflected again and 46% are absorbed)
  10. 10. Global AtmosphericConcentration of CO2Carbon dioxide is the air that our body lets out when we breathe. With fewer trees, it is harder for people to breathebecause there is more CO2 in the air, and we don’t breathe CO2, we breathe oxygen. Plants collect the CO2 that webreathe out, and they give back oxygen that we breathe in. With less trees and other plants, such as algae, there isless air for us, and more greenhouse gases are sent into the air. This means that it is very important to protect our treesto stop the greenhouse effect, and also so we can breathe and live.This gas, CO2, collects light and heat (radiant energy), produced by the sun, and this makes the earth warmer.Increase percentage 25%Increase rate 0.5% yearly.2000IPCC Report
  11. 11. Source:JONES et al. 2001 and MARLAND et al.2003Relation between CO2 and Global warming in the 20th century.
  12. 12. Increase in the percentage of greenhousegases1750-2000 ADSource: FABIAN 2002
  13. 13. Increase in the percentage ofgreenhouse gasesDeforestation
  14. 14. Building SectorThe Building Sector is theLargest Contributorto U.S. CO2 Emissions
  15. 15. Building SectorThe Building Sector is theLargest Contributorto U.S. CO2 Emissions
  16. 16. Graham (2003) uses a Life Cycle Approach to link emissions to the different stages of a building’s life.By far, the greatest proportion of energy is used during a building’s operational phase. Though figures varyfrom building to building, studies suggest that over 80 percent of greenhouse gas emissions take placeduring this phase to meet various energy needs such as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC),water heating, lighting, entertainment and telecommunications.A smaller percentage, generally 10 to 20 percent, of energy is consumed in materials manufacturing andtransport, construction, maintenance and demolition. Governments can therefore achieve the greatestreductions in greenhouse gas emissions by targeting the operational phase of buildings.Life Cycle Phases of Buildings
  17. 17. Building Sector
  18. 18. Effects of Global Warmingand climate changeIncreased TemperatureHabitat Damage andSpecies Affected Changes in Water SupplyRising Sea LevelGlobal warming is affecting many parts of the world. Global warming makes the sea rise, and whenthe sea rises, the water covers many low land islands. This is a big problem for many of theplants, animals, and people on islands. The water covers the plants and causes some of them todie. When they die, the animals lose a source of food, along with their habitat. Although animalshave a better ability to adapt to what happens than plants do, they may die also. When the plantsand animals die, people lose two sources of food, plant food and animal food. They may also losetheir homes. As a result, they would also have to leave the area or die. This would be called a breakin the food chain, or a chain reaction, one thing happening that leads to another and so on.
  19. 19. Changes in climate are already causing harmIn addition to expected disastrous flooding events caused by severe climate events such asheavy flooding, high tides, windstorms in combination with higher seas
  20. 20. SolutionResponsibleArchitecture andlow carbonemission buildings
  21. 21. Setting TargetsThe reductions can only be achieved by:- Incorporating building performance standards inbuilding codes and other standards forprivate sector buildings and structures;- Creating government mandates that all federal,provincial and municipal buildings meetenergy efficiency targets.- Incentive-based measures are needed by all levels ofgovernment to effect immediate reductions ingreenhouse gas emissions, while longer-term regulatorymeasures are put into place.
  22. 22. Architects are proposing the following to avoidexceeding this threshold: incorporating sustainable building design andresource conservation to achieve a minimum 50%reduction from the current level of consumption offossil fuels used to construct and operate new andrenovated buildings. incorporate further reductions in fossil fuelconsumption by 10% or more in each of the followingfive-year intervals so the cumulative reduction fromtodays baseline is:Setting Targets
  23. 23. Setting TargetsThe 2030 Challenge setsachievable and affordabletargets to dramatically reducethe energy consumption of theBuilding Sector by 2030 andbeyond.Through designstrategies, technologiesand system, and off-siterenewable energy,buildings can bedesigned andconstructed today thatmeet the 2030Challenge targets.
  24. 24. Aggressively implementing building codes that meet the 2030Challenge targets will dramatically reduce CO2 emissions andtransform the Building Sector into a central part of the solutionto climate changeSetting Targets
  25. 25. FIELDS OFACTIONAirEnergyRenewablesLightingGreenRoofWaterWasteUrbanGreeningTransportationFundingGreenBuildingFIELDS OF ACTION
  26. 26. Due to its role, volume and impact; it is obvious thatarchitecture have direct responsibility to the ecosystem.Every architectural artifact according to (Graham 2002) :- connects to earth- depends on nature for resources- causes environmental change- affects both human andnon-human lifeArchitectureWe have to shift to green architecture
  27. 27. Thanks