Assessment of weight and healthrisk involves using three keymeasures:• Body mass index (BMI)• Waist circumference• Risk factors for diseases and conditions associated with obesity
Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI is a useful measure of overweightand obesity. It is calculated from your height andweight. BMI is an estimate of body fat and agood gauge of your risk for diseases thatcan occur with more body fat.
BMIUnderweight Below 18.5Normal 18.5–24.9Overweight 25.0–29.9Obesity 30.0 and Above
Waist Circumference Measuring waist circumference helps screenfor possible health risks that come withoverweight and obesity. If most of your fat is around your waist ratherthan at your hips, you’re at a higher risk for heartdisease and type 2 diabetes. This risk goes up with a waist size that isgreater than 35 inches for women or greater than40 inches for men. To correctly measure yourwaist, stand and place a tape measure aroundyour middle, just above your hipbones.
Risk Factors for Health Topics Associated With Obesity Along with being overweight or obese, the following conditions will put you at greater risk for heart disease and other conditions:Risk Factors• High blood pressure (hypertension)• High LDL cholesterol ("bad" cholesterol)• Low HDL cholesterol ("good" cholesterol)• High triglycerides• High blood glucose (sugar)• Family history of premature heart disease• Physical inactivity• Cigarette smoking
Logical Way to prevent Obesity•Reduce intake ofexcess calories•Exercise!
What is Culinary Nutrition?The application of nutritionprinciples combinedwith food scienceknowledge anddisplayed through amastery of culinary skills.
Healthy CookingTechniques: Boost Flavor and Cut Calories
• Baking Besides breads and desserts, you can bake seafood, poultry, lean meat, vegetables and fruits. For baking, place food in a pan or dish surrounded by the hot, dry air of your oven. You may cook the food covered or uncovered. Baking generally doesnt require that you add fat to the food.
• Braising Braising involves browning the ingredient first in a pan on top of the stove, and then slowly cooking it covered with a small quantity of liquid, such as water or broth. In some recipes, the cooking liquid is used afterward to form a flavorful, nutrient-rich sauce.
• Poaching To poach foods, gently simmer ingredients in water or a flavorful liquid such as broth, vinegar or juice until theyre cooked through and tender. The food retains its shape during cooking. For stove- top poaching, choose a covered pan that best fits the size and shape of the food so that you need a minimal amount of liquid.
• Roasting Like baking, but typically at higher temperatures, roasting uses an ovens dry heat to cook the food. You can roast foods on a baking sheet or in a roasting pan. For poultry, seafood and meat, place a rack inside the roasting pan so that the fat in the food can drip away during cooking. In some cases, you may need to baste the food to keep it from drying out.
• Sauteing Sauteing quickly cooks relatively small or thin pieces of food. If you choose a good-quality nonstick pan, you can cook food without using fat. Depending on the recipe, use low-sodium broth, cooking spray or water in place of oil.
• Steaming One of the simplest cooking techniques is steaming food in a perforated basket suspended above simmering liquid. If you use a flavorful liquid or add seasonings to the water, youll flavor the food as it cooks.
• Stir-frying A traditional Asian method, stir-frying quickly cooks small, uniform-sized pieces of food while theyre rapidly stirred in a wok or large nonstick frying pan. You need only a small amount of oil or cooking spray for this cooking method.
• Using herbs and spices Creating meals using spices and herbs is one of the best ways to add color, taste and aroma to foods without adding salt or fat. Choose fresh herbs that look bright and arent wilted, and add them toward the end of cooking. Add dried herbs in the earlier stages of cooking. When substituting dried for fresh, use about one-half the amount.
Your guide to ingredient substitutions for healthy recipesIf your recipe calls for this Try substituting this ingredient:ingredient: Canadian bacon, turkey bacon, smoked turkey or leanBacon prosciutto (Italian ham)Bread, white Whole-grain breadBread crumbs, dry Rolled oats or crushed bran cereal Applesauce or prune puree for half of the called-for butter, shortening or oil; butter spreads or shortenings specially formulated for baking that dontButter, margarine, shortening or oil have trans fatsin baked goods Note: To avoid dense, soggy or flat baked goods, dont substitute oil for butter or shortening. Also dont substitute diet, whipped or tub-style margarine for regular margarine.
Butter, margarine, shortening or oil Cooking spray or nonstick pansto prevent stickingCream Fat-free half-and-half, evaporated skim milk Fat-free or low-fat cream cheese, Neufchatel, or low-Cream cheese, full fat fat cottage cheese pureed until smooth Two egg whites or 1/4 cup egg substitute for eachEggs whole egg Whole-wheat flour for half of the called-for all- purpose flour in baked goodsFlour, all-purpose (plain) Note: Whole-wheat pastry flour is less dense and works well in softer products like cakes and muffins.Fruit canned in heavy syrup Fruit canned in its own juices or in water, or fresh fruit Extra-lean or lean ground beef, chicken or turkeyGround beef breast (make sure no poultry skin has been added to the product) Arugula, chicory, collard greens, dandelion greens,Lettuce, iceberg kale, mustard greens, spinach or watercress
Reduced-calorie mayonnaise-type salad dressing orMayonnaise reduced-calorie, reduced-fat mayonnaise Three times as many vegetables as the meat on pizzasMeat as the main ingredient or in casseroles, soups and stewsMilk, evaporated Evaporated skim milkMilk, whole Reduced-fat or fat-free milkOil-based marinades Wine, balsamic vinegar, fruit juice or fat-free brothPasta, enriched (white) Whole-wheat pastaRice, white Brown rice, wild rice, bulgur or pearl barley Fat-free or reduced-calorie dressing or flavoredSalad dressing vinegars Herb-only seasonings, such as garlic powder, celerySeasoning salt, such as garlic salt, seed or onion flakes, or use finely chopped herbs orcelery salt or onion salt garlic, celery or onions
Fat-free milk-based soups, mashed potato flakes, orSoups, creamed pureed carrots, potatoes or tofu for thickening agentsSoups, sauces, dressings, crackers, Low-sodium or reduced-sodium versionsor canned meat, fish or vegetables Fat-free or low-fat sour cream, plain fat-free or low-Sour cream, full fat fat yogurt Sweet-and-sour sauce, hot mustard sauce or low-Soy sauce sodium soy sauce In most baked goods you can reduce the amount ofSugar sugar by one-half; intensify sweetness by adding vanilla, nutmeg or cinnamon Pureed fruit, such as applesauce, or low-calorie,Syrup sugar-free syrup Herbs, spices, citrus juices (lemon, lime, orange), riceTable salt vinegar, salt-free seasoning mixes or herb blendsYogurt, fruit-flavored Plain yogurt with fresh fruit slices