COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING SHERILYN B. BALAURODepartment of Human Nutrition & Foods Benguet State University
What is complementary feeding? > the giving of foods to infants starting at six months, in addition to breastmilk. > NOT sufficient as on their own as a diet > Should NOT displace breastmilk
Why start at Six Months? 1. Infant’s intestinal tracts develops immunologically with defense mechanisms to protect the infant from foreign proteins
2. The infant’s ability to digestand absorb proteins, fats, andcarbohydrates, other than thosein breastmilk increases rapidly.
3. The infant’s kidneys developthe ability to excrete the wasteproducts from foods with a highrenal solute load, such as meat.
4. The infant develops theneuromuscular mechanisms neededfor recognizing and accepting aspoon, masticating, swallowingnonliquid foods, and appreciatingvariation in the taste and color offoods.
What are the risks of startingcomplementary feeding too early or toolate? Reduce breast milk production or intake. Contribute to increased rates of infant mortality and morbidity. Increase the risk of mothers becoming pregnant. Interfere with iron absorption.
Reject foods when they are introduced at a later age.Consume an inadequate variety & amount of food to meet their nutritional needs.
What are Signs that the Baby is ready forComplementary feeding? > Holds his/her head straight when sitting down > Opens his/her mouth when others eat > Is interested in foods when others eat > Receives frequent breastfeeds but appears hungry soon after > Is not gaining weight adequately
Food Group Age of Introduction in Months 6 7 8 9 10 11 12Rice or lugao ½ cup, thin ¾ cup, 1 cup softor cooked lugao, thick cookedcereal strained lugao rice ½ cup thin ¾ cup cereal thick cerealRootcrop (e.g. 2-3 tbspcamote, mashedcassava, gabi,cookedBread or 1 piecebiscuit
Food Age of Introduction in Months Group 6 7 8 9 10 11 12Fruits, 2½ 3 tbsp.cut 4 tbsp.cutripe tbsp into small into finger mashed pieces sized piecesVegetabl 1 tbsp 1 tbsp 1-2es, mashed finely tbsp.coarselcooked chopped y chpopped
Food Group Age of Introduction in Months 6 7 8 9 10 11 12Meat, fish, and poultry 1- 1/3 1- 1/3 1- 1/3 1- 1/3 1- 1/3 1- 1/3 1- 1/3deboned, cooked well, servings srvgs srvgs srvgs srvgs srvgs srvgsground, flaked ormincedWhole Milk 2 cupsCooking Oil or 4 tspmargarine, may beadded to lugao ormeat & vegetable dishSugar 3 tsp 3 tsp 3 tsp 3 tsp 3 tsp 3 tsp 3 tspCustards, pudding, 1 tspplain gulaman, jello
How do we makenutrient-densedcomplementary Foods?
Simple Meal Planning Guide Green Cooking Rice or Leafy and Oil or Lugao or Yellow Margarine Cereals VegetablesBreakfast Lunch Beans or Supper Meat or Fish or Fruits Chicken or Egg Snacks Biscuit, crackers, bread w/margarine, mashed fruits, mashed rootcrops/potatoes
How to Make Lugao MoreNutritious & Energy-Densed• Cook lugao or other cereals thicker by preparing it with less water.• Add mashed/finely chopped vegetable, meat, fish, eggs, & fruits.• Add fortified milk, sugar or chocolate powder• Add a little cooking oil, margarine or butter to the lugao.
General Guidelines To Follow When Preparing Infant Foods at Home
Wash hands with soap and hot water andrinse thoroughly:•• Before breastfeeding, formula feeding, orpreparing any food or bottles;•• Before handling any food or food utensils;•• After handling raw meat, poultry, or fish;•• After changing an infant’s diaper andclothing;•• After using the bathroom or assisting achild in the bathroom;•• After sneezing or coughing into tissues orhands or wiping noses, mouths, bottoms,sores, or cuts; and•• After handling pets or other animalsor garbage.
Washing of Hands is a must...Before preparing food, wash all workingsurfaces used to prepare food such as countertops or tables with soap and hot water, andthen rinse thoroughly with hot water.
Washing of Hands is a must...Before preparing food, wash all equipment,such as a blender, food mill, food processor,infant food grinder, utensils, pots, pans,and cutting boards carefully with soap andhot water. Rinse thoroughly with hot waterand allow to air dry. Separate cutting boardsshould be used for animal foods (i.e., meat,poultry, fish) and non-animal foods (i.e.,vegetables, fruits, breads).
Preparation.Common kitchen equipmentis all that is necessary to make infant foods athome. A simple metal steamer, available in mostsupermarkets, can be used to cook fruits andvegetables and will reduce the loss of vitamins incooking.
Serving and Storage. Home-prepared infantfoods should be used immediately and quicklystored in a properly functioning refrigerator orfrozen for longer storage.
Types of equipment that can be used to process food into an appropriate texture:Blender or food processor – purees foods, including meats, vegetables, and fruit, to a very smooth consistency, if desired;
Fine mesh strainer – purees very soft cooked vegetables and ripe or cooked fruits – the food would be pushed through the strainer with the back of a spoon;
Infant food grinder or food mill – purees most foods to a smooth consistency and purees meats to a coarser consistency; and
A kitchen fork or knife – foods can bemashed with a fork or chopped finely with aknife, for older infants.
Rice Puto with Ripe MangoIngredients Procedure 1. Ground the intan rice dry.1 cup intan rice 2. Add coconut milk, baking1 cup ripe mango powder, salt, sugar & water. 3. Wash, peel the ripe mango &¼ tsp salt cut into cubes or blend to produce a puree.1 t baking powder 4. Mix mango puree w/intan rice1/3 cup coconut water mixture. 5. Fill muffin pans 2/3 full & steam1/3 cup water over boiling water for about 15-6 T white sugar 20 minutes 6. Remove from steamer, cool slightly & unmold. 7. Serve w/grated coconut (optional)
Squash Spread ProcedureIngredients 1. Wash the squash & cut into pieces.1 cup mashed 2. Remove the seeds and let it boil in a small amount of water squash 3. Scoop out the flesh and mash until fine.Set aside.¼ cup cornstarch 4. Dissolve cornstarch in water & boil w/constant stirring until moderately thick.½ cup 5. Add the mash squash, salt, sugar & then mix thoroughly. mayonnaise 6. Remove from heat and let it cool completely.1 T white sugar 7. Beat in mayonnaise into it. 8. Pack in a sterilized jar and seal1 t salt immediately. 9. Refrigerate if not consumed immediately.1 cup water
Banana & Peanut CookiesIngredients Procedure1/3 cup butter Cream butter, add sugar½ cup sugar gradually & egg. Add half1 egg, well beaten of the flour mix sifted with salt and soda. Add¾ cup all purpose flour peanuts, mashed banana¾ cup banana, mashed and remaining flour. Drop1/3 tsp baking soda by spoonfuls 1 inch apart1/3 cup finely chopped on buttered sheet. Bake peanut in moderate oven temp. (350F)Few grains of salt
Suman with Black Bean Filling ProcedureIngredients 1. Soak malagkit in 1 cup of water until grains are swollen. Drain. Add2 cups malagkit rice salt & coconut milk. 2. Cook in a thick cooking pot until1 cup pure coconut milk coconut milk is completely absorbed and half cooked. Divide1 ½ tsp. Milk into half. 3. Put half of the rice on a shallow tray then flatten. Put filling on top spreading evenly on the surface of the rice. Place the other half of theFilling rice on top of the filling, spreading evenly.1 cup mashed 4. Measure into 1x4 inches then slice. blackbeans 5. Transfer to banana leaves. Roll and fold both ends of the leaves. 6. Arrange in a steamer and cook in a1 cup brown sugar low flame to finish the product.
Cassava-Squash SumanIngredients Procedure 1. Squeeze water from cassava & squash2 cups cassava, grated 2. Mix all ingredients together &2 cups squash, grated blend well.1 cup coconut milk 3. Wilt banana leaves over flame,½ cup brown sugar wipe & cut into 6 inches wide. 4. Wrap 2 tablespoon of mixture in each wrapper facing each other. 5. Put two rolls together w/ edges of the wrapper facing each other. Tie with stripes of banana leaf. Steam for 20 minutes. 6. Serve cold.
Gabi BurgerIngredients Procedure2 cups gabi tubers, grated 1. Mix flour, baking powder,1 ½ cups flour and eggs in a mixing bowl.¼ tsp baking powder 2. In a separate bowl,1 ½ celery, finely chopped combine gabi, carrots, celery, and salt.1 cup carrots, grated 3. Add together the first &3-4 pcs eggs, well beaten second mixture & mix very1 ½ cups cooking oil well. Form into patties.Salt to taste 4. Fry in small amount of oil. 5. Serve with squash spread.
Development of Ready Mix, Safe & Clean Complementary Foods
WHEAT MIX WHEAT SOYA MIXIngredients : Ingredients :Wheat flour (Whole) 100 g. Whole wheat 80 g.Bengal gram (Roasted & de-husked) Whole Soyabean 20 g. 30 g. Method of preparation :Groundnut (Roasted) 20 g. 1. Clean whole wheat & soyabeanMethod of preparation : separately.1. Roast wheat flour. 2. Roast wheat and soyabean in hot sand.2. Remove the skin of groundnut. 3. Grind these separately and mix3. Make powder of roasted Bengal together. grams andgroundnut. 4. Store the prepared instant food inMix with Wheat flour thoroughly. an air tight4. Store in a dry airtight container. container.Nutritive Value Per 100 gms : Nutritive value per 100 gms :Calories 377 Calories 363Protein 16 .1 g. Protein 18 .1 g.Iron 5 .54 mg. Iron 6 .3 mg.Carotene 41 .93 μg Carotene 136 μg.
PUFFED RICE BENGAL RICE MIXGRAM MIX Ingredients :Ingredients : Raw Rice powder 150 g.Puffed Rice 100 g. Roasted Bengal gram Dal 50 g.Bengal Gram 30 g. Method of preparation :(Roasted & de-husked) 1. Wash & soak raw rice in water.Method of preparation : 2. Remove water, dry under sun, grind it. Grind roasted1. Prepare powder of puffed rice. Bengal gram dal.2. Grind roasted Bengal gram. 3. Mix the two powdered3. Mix all the powdered ingredients ingredients. thoroughly. 4. Store in a dry airtight container.4. store in a dry airtight container. Nutritive value per 100 gms :Nutritive value per 100 gms : Calories 351Calories 335 Protein 10 .3 g.Protein 10 .96 g. Iron 1 .85 mg.Iron 7 .26 mg. Carotene 32 .25 μg.Carotene 26 μg.
PUFFED RICE FOOD MIX RICE SOYA MIXIngredients : Ingredients :Puffed rice 100 g. Rice 30 g.Roasted chana 30 g. Soyabean 20 g.Roasted groundnuts 20 g. Sugar 50 g.Sugar 50 g. Method of preparation :Method of preparation : 1. Roast rice and Soyabean separately.1. Powder puffed rice after slightly 2. Grind rice and Soyabean and mix roasting it. together.2. Powder roasted chana and groundnut 3. Add powered sugar and store in an air separately. tight bottle.3. Mix all the ingredients and add Nutritive value per 100 gms : powdered sugar. Calories 3904. Store in dry bottle. Protein 11 g.Nutritive value per 100 gms : Iron 2 .29 mg.Calories 374 Carotene 85 μg.Protein 9 .8 g.Iron 5 .1 mg.Carotene 17 μg.
MAIZE FOOD MIXIngredients :Maize 100 g.Lentil 30 g.Groundnut 20 g.Sugar 50 g.Method of preparation :1. Clean and roast maize, lentil and groundnut seedsseparately.2. Grind individually to a fine powder.3. Mix all these ingredients with powdered sugar.4. Store in dry airtight container.Nutritive value per 100 gms :Calories 379Protein 11 .93 g.Iron 2 .59 mg.Carotene 85 .5 μg.