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Family planning a right based methodology, a policy framework -by dr malik khalid mehmood ph_d


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Family planning a right based methodology, a policy framework -by dr malik khalid mehmood ph_d

  1. 1. Every womans rightHow family planningSaves childrens lives
  2. 2. Every womans rightHow family planning saves childrens livesAn evaluation reportBy Dr Malik Khalid Mehmood PhDSenior International Consultant
  3. 3. Save the Children works in more than 120 countries.We save childrens lives. We fight for their rights.We help them fulfill their potential.AcknowledgementsThis report was written by Dr Malik Khalid Mehmood, withcontributions from Ashley Dunford. The author would also like to thank Save theChildren UK, Save the Children US who contributed their knowledge and expertise,and John Cleland at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine for hisearly input.Published bySave the Children1 St Johns LaneLondon EC1M 4ARUKFirst published 2012© The Save the Children Fund 2012The Save the Children Fund is a charity registered in England and Wales (213890)and Scotland (SC039570). Registered Company No. 178159This publication is copyright, but may be reproduced by any method without fee orprior permission for teaching purposes, but not for resale. For copying in any othercircumstances, prior written permission must be obtained from the publisher, and afee may be payable.Cover photo: Josephine and her one-year-old baby boy Daniel, outside their homenear Kingsville, Liberia (Photo: Aubrey Wade/Save the Children)Typeset by Grasshopper Design CompanyPrinted by Page Bros Ltd.
  4. 4. ContentsThe story in numbers ivIntroduction and overview 1 How family planning helps save childrens lives 1 The global unmet need for family planning 2 A golden opportunity 3 Overview of this report 41 Time and space: how healthy timing and spacing of pregnancy saves lives 5 Birth spacing 5 Adolescent girls and family planning 72 Improving the supply of family planning services 12 Reaching the hardest to reach 12 The supply of contraceptive commodities 12 The role of health workers in providing family planning 14 The funding gap for family planning services 15 Family planning: who pays? 16 National Family Planning policies 17 The way forward 18 Recommendations 193 Stimulating demand for family planning through empowering women 20 Education 20 Social equality: policy and practice 24 Empowering women by supporting them in the workplace 26 Boosting demand 28 Recommendations 28Conclusion 29 Five-point plan for the 2012 London Summit on Family Planning 30
  5. 5. The story in numbers 222 million The number of women who have an unmet need for family planning.1 570,000 The number of newborn babies lives that would be saved if the unmet need for family planning was fulfilled. 79,000 womens lives would also be saved.2 60% The increased risk of death for babies born to teenage girls under 18, compared to babies born to mothers older than 19. number 1 killer For girls and young women aged 15-19,pregnancy and childbirth is the number one killer. Its the cause of 50,000 deaths of teenage girls every year.4iv
  6. 6. £1: £4 NUMBERS THE STORy IN Every £1 spent on family planning saves at least £4 that would be spent treating complications from unintended pregnancies.5Double the risk Children born less than two years after a sibling are two times more likely to die within the first year of life than those born three or more years later.61.8 million Healthier birth spacing, where mothers delay conceiving until 36 months after giving birth, could prevent 1.8 million deaths of children under five a year - 25% of annual child deaths.710 million The estimated number of girls under 18 years old who are married every year, the equivalent to more than 25,000 every day.8 v
  7. 7. CHILDREN PHOTO: LUCIA ZORO/SAvE THE "I personally believe that its very important "When I was younger there were no for women to have access to contraception," contraceptive methods, but now theyre says Wallansa. available," says Wallensa."I use the Wallansa, 27, from the Afar region of Ethiopia, contraceptive injection. Its available in private clinics, and here at this clinic." has three children - Abdul, age 7, Ahmed, 4, and Robn Mohammed, 2. The photo shows "If I had a chance to talk to Prime Minister Wallansa and her sons outside a government Zenawi," she adds, "Id tell him I would like health clinic, where Save the Children him to continue what he is doing now with provides essential drugs and trains staff. family planning." The clinic also offers a reproductive health service where patients can discuss family planning and sexually transmitted infections with the
  8. 8. Introduction andoverviewFamily planning is a fundamental right. How FAMIly plAnnInG HElpsMore surprisingly perhaps, its also vital to sAvE cHIlDrEns lIvEsimproving childrens chances of survival.Ensuring women are able to plan whether There are strong links between the provision ofor when to have children means babies family planning and improvements in child healthand young children are more likely to and survival. There are two key ways that access to contraception can impact the health and well-beingsurvive, and it saves the lives of adolescent of children and their ability to fulfil their potential:girls and women who are pregnant. And ithelps countries to achieve their goals on 1. Healthy spacing of pregnancies: Having a babydevelopment, and improve the lives of many too soon after a previous birth is dangerous formillions of people. mothers and babies. Ensuring women have reliableIn the last two decades there has been dramatic access to family planning, and are therefore able toprogress in reducing the number of children who allow a space of at least three years between theirdie before their fifth birthday. In 2010, 12,000 fewer births, could help save the lives of nearly 2 millionchildren under five died every day than in 1990.1 children each year.5There has also been a one-third reduction over thesame period in the number of mothers who die 2. Children having children: worldwide,in childbirth.2 Global efforts to improve child and complications in pregnancy are the number onematernal health are paying off. killer of girls and young women aged 15-19. Every year 50,000 teenage girls and youngFamily planning services are absolutely key to women die during pregnancy or childbirth, insustaining and accelerating this progress: it is many cases because their bodies are not readyestimated that fulfilling the unmet need for family to bear children.planning would save the lives of 570,000 newbornsand 79,000 mothers.3 And it would contribute Babies born to young mothers are also at farsignificantly to achieving Millennium Development greater risk than those whose mothers areGoal 4 - to reduce by two-thirds the number of older. Each year around 1 million babies born tochildren who die before their fifth birthday. adolescent girls die before their first birthday.6 In developing countries, if a mother is under 18,However, while the percentage of couples worldwide her babys chance of dying in the first year of life isusing modern methods of contraception increased 60% higher than that of a baby born to a motherfrom 41% in 1980 to 56% in 2009, over the last older than 19.7decade progress slowed drastically, with an annualgrowth rate from 2000-09 of just 0.1%.4 It means Many adolescent girls know little or nothingat least 222 million women who would benefit from about family planning, let alone where to get it.being able to decide whether to delay their first Their low status within their families, communitiespregnancy, to allow a longer space between their and societies mean they lack the power to makepregnancies, or to limit the size of their families, do their own decisions about whether or when tonot have the option. have a baby. no girl should die giving birth, and no child should die as a result of its mother being too young. 1
  9. 9. THE GLOBAL UNMET FAMILy PLANNING, POPULATION NEED FOR Family GROWTH AND Development PLANNING Family planning, population growth and developmentEvERy WOMANS are interrelated and complex issues. The demographic Two-fifths of births in the developing world are transition - a key stage in development where unintended.8 Millions of women wishing to decide a country moves from high death rates and high whether or when to have children, and how many birth rates to low death rates and low birth rates -RIGHT children to have, are unable to access family planning accounts for 25-40% of economic growth in some services. countries.11 Lowering fertility rates and slowing The biggest unmet need is in countries with large population growth through increased access to populations, particularly in south Asia - 64 million family planning services clearly have a role to play in women in India, 15 million in Pakistan and 10 million facilitating the demographic transition, with enormous in Bangladesh.9 In Africa, the country with the biggest associated potential benefits for development. absolute need is Nigeria, where 10 million women say Conversely, most of the countries that are furthest they would like to be able to control their fertility. from achieving the Millennium Development Goals on The greatest relative need is in Uganda, where 41%, child and maternal mortality also have high fertility and of women have an unmet need. Many countries in high rates of population growth. In Somalia and Mali west Africa also have very high percentages of women • where child mortality rates are among the highest who would like to plan their families but are not using in the world, with nearly one child in five dying before contraception - 32% in Senegal, 32% in Mauritania and their fifth birthday - the average number of children 31% in Mali.10 per woman in 2010 was 6.3.12 FIGURE 1: THE UNMET NEED FOR FAMILy PLANNING 0to10% 10 to 20% 20 to 30% 30 to 40% 40 to 45.6% No data Low population growth Source: UNFPA, State of the Worlds Population 20112
  10. 10. Poor families often have large numbers of children, contraception.14 It is estimated that every £1 spent OvERvIEW INTRODUCTION ANDpartly because they have limited or no access to on family planning saves at least £4 that wouldcontraception. Increasing access to family planning otherwise be spent treating complications arisingto the worlds poorest families is therefore vital. from unintended pregnancies.15Nevertheless, it is important to remember thathigh levels of child mortality and poverty are also SUPPORT FOR HEALTHdetermining factors in family size: for example, having WORKERS AND HEALTH Servicesa large number of children is often a way for poor Health workers are a vital part of service deliverypeople, who do not have social security or a pension too, and they must be able to work within a strong,to fall back on, to ensure they will be looked after functioning and supportive health system. The Londonwhen they are no longer able to work.13 Summit on Family Planning must ensure that any new initiatives also provide opportunities for countries toAGOLDEN Opportunity scale-up improvements in health service delivery. There must be investment to ensure that familyThis report comes at a crucial moment. In July planning services reach the women who need them2012 the London Summit on Family Planning will most. Family planning is the most inequitable of all thebe a crucial opportunity to re-invigorate global routine healthcare interventions, so the summit mustefforts to provide millions of women with access to take steps to tackle this.16contraception they demand. The summit - hostedby the UK government, the Bill and Melinda Gates FEMALE EMPOWERMENT, TOFoundation and partners including USAID and the STIMULATE DEMAND FOR FamilyUnited Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) - will seekfinancial and political commitments from governments PLANNINGin rich and poor countries, from civil society and from A major barrier to family planning is that manythe private sector. vulnerable women and girls are unable to exerciseIt is vital to tackle both the supply-side and demand- their rights and make decisions over their ownside of the issue in tandem. This report sets out healthcare, including family planning. When women -what needs to be done to achieve this goal. The and especially girls - are empowered to make theirsummit must deliver concrete actions by national own decisions over when and whether to becomegovernments, international donors, civil society and pregnant, fewer babies die and fewer mothersthe private sector on four key issues: die during childbirth. The continued use of family• the supply of family planning also means that a woman is able to plan planning commodities for her future, complete her education and find• support for health workers and decent employment. Education and the opportunity health services to earn a living empowers women, and brings a host• tackling unequal access to family of incidental benefits for the society. But for many planning women and adolescent girls, family planning is not• female empowerment, to stimulate accessible, or affordable. Others are unable to use it demand for because of social or cultural attitudes, or are unwilling family planning. to use it for ill-informed fears of the side-effects and the many myths surrounding contraception.Supply OF Family PLANNING There is an urgent need for a step-change in theCOMMODITIES global availability and usage of family planning. TheStock-outs of contraceptive commodities are a London Summit on Family Planning should be the start of a new drive to empower women so that theyhuge barrier for many women who rely on the health are able to demand and make use of family planning.service to provide regular access to family planning. It is an opportunity to send a message that positiveFor this reason it is important that significant new policies, laws and practices that guarantee access tofinancial resources are dedicated to family planning, education, womens rights and equal status in societywithin the broader context of reproductive, maternal, need to be adopted.newborn and child health.Family planning services represent excellent valuefor money. It costs only around £1 per person ayear to provide the relevant services including
  11. 11. Overview OF THIS REPORT Chapter 2 focuses on the supply of family planning. It looks at how to provide contraception for those This report looks at the contribution that increasing couples who want it, and how barriers of cost andEvERy WOMANS the use of family planning methods could make to access can be addressed. Chapter 3 examines how child survival. Chapter 1 looks in more detail at how to stimulate demand for family planning. It looks at healthy spacing and timing of pregnancies improve how women can be empowered to demand family childrens health and chances of survival. planning and to exercise their right to plan theirRIGHT pregnancies. DEFINITIONS Family planning: allowing individuals and couples Modern methods of contraception: includes to anticipate and attain their desired number oral contraceptive pills; implants; injectables; of children, and to achieve healthy spacing and patches; vaginal rings; diaphragms; IUDs; male and timing of their births. It is achieved through use female condoms; vasectomy or female sterilisation. of contraceptive methods and the treatment of Unmet need: the percentage of women who do involuntary infertility. not want to become pregnant but are not using Family planning services: includes information modern methods of contraception. and counselling by health workers about modern Adolescent: defined by the United Nations as contraceptive methods, provision of these methods those between 10 and 19 years of age.17 or prescriptions, and related surgical procedures (for example, intra-uterine devices (IUD) insertion or sterilisation).4
  12. 12. 1 time and space: How HealtHy timing and spacing of pregnancy saves livesFamily planning is a basic human right. BIRTH SPACINGAs far back as 1968, The United NationsInternational Conference on Human Rights Having children too close together is dangerous for both mother and child. In 2005, the World Healthdeclared that,"parents have a basic human Organisation convened an expert review of theright to determine freely and responsibly evidence on pregnancy spacing, whichthe number and spacing of their children." 1 recommendedHowever, it is a misconception to see family planning that a mother should wait at least two years aftersolely as a matter of controlling the number of births having a baby before trying to become pregnanta woman has; it is also vital to helping millions of again.5 To reduce the risk for herself, her existingchildren survive. Evidence shows that children born children and her unborn baby, mothers should leaveless than two years after a brother or sister are more a gap of at least 33 months, or almost three years,than twice as likely to die as a child who is born between each birth.6after a three-year gap.2 Increasing the use of family If mothers were able to delay conceiving again forplanning for healthy timing and spacing of pregnancies, 24 months after giving birth, deaths of childrentherefore, has the potential to drastically reduce under five would fall by 13% - nearly 900,000 deathschild deaths. averted. If mothers delayed conceiving until 36 monthsAs well as significantly improving babies and young after giving birth, 25% of deaths of under-fives -childrens chances of survival, family planning can be 1.8 million childrens deaths a year - could be averted,a lifesaver for girls in their teenage years. For girls just through healthier spacing.7aged 15-19, complications in pregnancy are the Birth spacing is about encouraging healthy fertilityleading worldwide cause of death. Pregnancy poses rather than lower fertility. Reliable access toparticular risks for these girls because their bodies contraception is vital for millions of women who wantare still developing. Greater access to family planning to allow a healthy space between their pregnanciesfor this group could save the lives of 50,000 teenage in order to protect themselves and their children.girls a year.3 Babies born to young mothers are also at Half of the total unmet need for contraceptiongreater risk: if a mother is under 18, her babys chance comes from women who wish to space their births.of dying in the first year of life is 60% higher than It means that 112 million women are unable to planthat of a baby born to a mother older than 19.4 yet, their families in a way that is safest and healthiest foradolescent girls make up a disproportionate number themselves and their children because they cannot getof the women who are not able to control their the contraception they need.fertility. They often lack the social status or power tomake decisions about their own health needs. The following subsections look in turn at the impact of birth spacing on newborns, infants, childrenThis chapter explores the link between child mortality and mothers.and family planning. It looks in turn at these two issuesof birth spacing, and adolescent girls and childbirth. 5
  13. 13. NEWBORNS are more likely to be malnourished, putting them Pregnancy and breastfeeding can deplete the stores at greater risk of dying from childhood illnesses of vitamins and minerals in a mothers body, like pneumonia and diarrhoea. In many developingEvERy WOMANS particularly iron folate, which is vital to a babys countries, children born less than two years after a healthy development in the womb.8 Healthy birth sibling are two times more likely to die within the spacing reduces the chance that a baby will be first year of life than those born three or more years premature or underweight. In developing countries, later (see figure 3). In developing countries, childrenRIGHT babies conceived less than six months after a prior conceived after an interval of 12-17 months were birth were found to be 42% more likely to be born also found to be 23% more likely to be stunted and with a low birthweight than those born after more 19% more likely to be underweight than children than two years; babies conceived within 6-11 months conceived after an interval of 36 to 47 months.10 after a prior birth were 16% more likely to have a Earlier research into birth spacing indicated that low birthweight.9 short birth intervals affect children even when they Waiting longer to conceive after a birth means a are older. Children whose mothers gave birth to a mother can give her new baby the best start in life; younger sibling within two years were found to be she will have more time to care for her baby and for twice as likely to die between the age of one and breastfeeding. It also gives parents time to prepare two as children whose younger sibling was born after for the next pregnancy, including ensuring there are two years. The reasons given include competition for enough household resources to cover the costs of household resources, and siblings being at a higher food, clothing, housing and education. risk of cross-infection from disease.12 For an older sibling, the risk of being chronically malnourished INFANTS AND CHILDREN (stunted and/or underweight) decreases as the time between their birth and the birth of the next The risks associated with being born within a child increases. relatively short space of time after a sibling continue to affect children through infancy. These children FIGURE 2. RELATIvE RISKS OF UNDER-FIvE MORTALITy By BIRTH INTERvAL 4.0 3.5 3.0 Adjusted relative 2.5 2.0 risk 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 <6 61 -1 1-7 21 1-3 82 2-9 42 3-5 03 36-47ref. 4-9 85 6-5 09 9+ 6 Interval in months Lowest 13 surveys Middle 26 surveys Highest 13 surveys U5MR-42 U5MR-105 U5MR-187 Source: Rutstein, S O (2008) Further Evidence of the Effects of Preceding Birth Intervals on Neonatal, Infant, and Under-Five-Years Mortality and Nutritional Status in Developing Countries: Evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys, DHS Working papers, USAID6
  14. 14. LIvES 1 TIME AND SPACE: HOW HEALTHy TIMING AND SPACING OF PREGNANCy SAvES FIGURE 3. INFANT MORTALITy By BIRTH INTERvAL11 180 162 160 158 140 131 Deaths per 1,000 infants under 121 120 120 101 100 97 96 80 71 60 59 51 54 51 43 45 1 40 38 20 0 na al a a it a l i e ni nd a di e p i n h de s M ha b o H ga B N a n la G am U g C B Less than 2-year space between births 3-year space between birthsSource: Population Reference Bureau (2009) Family Planning Saves Lives, 4th editionMOTHERS Only one woman in seven had her latest birth withinShort spaces between births are dangerous for three months of her preference. Globally, medianmothers too. Women who become pregnant again birth intervals are getting longer at a rate of onlyless than five months after a birth are 2.5 times more one-quarter of a month every year,17 meaning that atlikely to die because of a pregnancy related cause than the current rate of progress it will take 37½ years fora woman who is able to wait for 18 to 23 months.13 actual birth intervals to match with what women want.Women with shorter intervals between a birth and asubsequent pregnancy are at higher risk of prematurerupture of the membrane, and from infection.14 ADOLESCENT GIRLS AND Family PLANNINGBirth-to-birth intervals between 36 and 59 monthsare considered to carry the lowest risk to mother and Adolescent pregnancy carries high risks, both for thechild. However, more than two-thirds of women who teenage girls and for their babies. The risk of maternalare carrying their second, third, or higher order child death is twice as high for girls aged 15 to 19 as forgive birth in a higher risk category. No developing women in their 20s, and five times higher for girlscountry has more than half of births in the lower aged 10 to 14.18 Globally, around 50,000 teenage girlsrisk category.15 die each year during pregnancy and childbirth.Healthy birth spacing is not simply a recommendation According to the latest available estimates aroundput forward by global health bodies; women themselves 1 million babies born to adolescent girls die beforewant to extend the intervals between their births. their first birthday.19 Babies born to adolescentAnalysis of household surveys from 1985 to 2008 mothers account for 11% of all births worldwide;showed that the average (median) length that a woman 95% occur in developing countries.20 The proportionhas between births (birth-to-birth interval) is 32.1 of stillbirths and deaths in babies first week of lifemonths, but that they would prefer to leave a period are 50% higher among women under 20, than amongof 41.5 months - more than nine months longer.16 women aged 20-29.21 7
  15. 15. FIGURE 4. INFANT MORTALITy AND MALNUTRITION RATES FALL AS AGE OF MOTHEREvERy WOMANS AT FIRST BIRTH INCREASES 0.6RIGHT 0.5 0.4 Prevalence of health 0.3 indicator 0.2 0.1 0 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Age of mother at first birth Infant mortality Underweight Stunting Wasting Source: Finlay JE, Özaltin G and Canning D, The association of maternal age with child anthropometric failure, diarrhoea and anaemia for first births: evidence from 55 low- and middle-income countries, BMJ Open 2011; 1:e 000226 Ensuring that adolescent girls are able to use suitable Rates of anaemia and underweight are higher in contraception to delay the age at which they first adolescent girls than in boys of the same age. This is a become pregnant is a key part of the family planning particular concern given high rates of early pregnancy, challenge. Around 16 million girls between the ages as underweight and anaemic mothers have a higher of 15 and 19 give birth each year.22 Many girls give risk of mortality and morbidity. In India 47% of girls birth even younger: in Bangladesh, Guinea, aged 15-19 were found to be underweight and 56% Madagascar, are anaemic.28 Mali, Niger and Sierra Leone, girls have a one-in-ten There are many social factors involved in early chance of becoming a mother before they reach the pregnancy. In many societies, adolescent girls have a age of 15.23 Globally, one in five women will have had a particularly low status and are not given opportunities child by the age of 18.24 young mothers are likely to be to make decisions about their own reproductive poor, less educated and living in rural areas - in some healthcare, including family planning. Instead, these of the poorest countries, such as Niger, Chad and Mali, decisions are made by parents,29 husbands or nearly half of girls become pregnant before 18.25 extended family. One study in Ecuador found that Girls under 18 years of age are more likely to sexual abuse, parental absence and poverty were key give birth to premature babies and experience factors in the high rate of adolescent pregnancy.30 The complications during labour, including heavy bleeding, level of sexual abuse and violence among adolescent infection and eclampsia because they are not girls is significant - evidence suggests that up to 23% physically ready for childbirth. Their bodies are not of married young women (aged 15-24) in developing fully developed and their pelvises are smaller, so they countries had been forced to have sex by their are more prone to suffer obstructed labour. In the spouse; women who married in adolescence were absence of emergency obstetric care this can be more likely to experience more episodes of violence deadly for both mother and baby.26 Prolonged and than women who married later.31 obstructed labour can also cause great damage to an adolescent girls body, leading to obstetric fistula.27
  16. 16. Lack of information on sex and what to expect means Adolescent girls entering into marriage below the LIvES 1 TIME AND SPACE: HOW HEALTHy TIMING AND SPACING OF PREGNANCy SAvESthat adolescent girls early experiences of sex and age of 18 have more limited access to contraceptionmarriage are characterised by anxiety and fear.32 Lack and family planning services than older women. Aof knowledge about sex and misconceptions about UNICEF study found that 46% of 15-19-year-old girlsthe side-effects of family planning methods are often who were married or in unions had never used anycited by women and girls as reasons why they do contraception.36 This low level of contraceptive usenot use contraception.33 In a 2008 household survey may be caused by a number of factors, including:in India, more than half of unmarried girls between • social pressures to havethe ages of 15 and 24 said they had never had any children early following marriageeducation about sex or family life, 30% of these girls • inability to discuss family planningdid not know about condoms, and 77% said they had with anyonenever discussed contraception with anyone.34 • fear of a husband who is older and who makesCHILD MARRIAGE AND Early Pregnancy decisions and controls the family financesEarly pregnancy is intrinsically linked to the practice • lack of mobility, as adolescentgirlsof child marriage. An estimated 10 million girls under young age and18 years old are married every year, the equivalent of low status in the marriage result in them beingmore than 25,000 every day.35 The percentage of girls unable to leave the home to access family planningaged 15-19 who are married is 46% in Bangladesh, services.59% in Central African Republic and 30% in India.The These factors can be exacerbated by a lack ofrate is much lower for boys and is often not recorded. availability of commodities or health workers toOnly 5% of boys of the same age are married in India. administer family planning services to adolescents inChild marriage impacts the age at which girls become the community.sexually active and, without contraception, marriedadolescent girls are more likely to have early and Many countries still have national laws that permitfrequent pregnancies before their bodies are marriage under the age of 18. It is legal for a girl tosufficiently physically mature to cope with childbirth. be married at 15 in DRC, Chad and Tanzania and at 16 in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Senegal. Such laws are in breach of the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women and the Convention FIGURE 5. COUNTRIES WITH HIGH Levels OF CHILD MARRIAGE ALSO HAvE HIGH RATES OF EARLy PREGNANCy 60 50 % birth before 40 18 30 20 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % married girls aged between 15-19Source: UNICEF (2012) State of the Worlds Children 2012
  17. 17. on the Rights of the Child, both of which prohibit everywhere as a person before the law.37 The UN countries from recognising marriage with persons Convention on the Rights of the Child also states under 18. In some of these countries the legal age for that all children are entitled to official registration ofEvERy WOMANS consent to sexual relations is higher than the legal their identity. However, WHO estimate that one-third age for marriage. For example, in Tanzania, a girl can of children born each year - 40 million - never get a consent to get married at 15 but cannot consent birth certificate.38 to non-marital sexual relations before she is 18. In Given the high rates of child marriage in manyRIGHT Afghanistan, the legal age for sexual consent is 18 with countries, it is essential that adolescents have early an exception for girls who are married under this age. access to family planning services and that they Where laws do exist, they are often not enforced. understand the dangers of early pregnancy. Chapter 3 This can be due to pervasive and entrenched cultural sets out the need for governments to enact and traditions or religious beliefs. A further complication enforce a minimum legal age for marriage. And it sets is that often childrens births are not registered out the need for initiatives to empower girls more and they do not have birth certificates or identity broadly, and to provide adolescent girls and boys, as documents to prove that they are under age. In well as wives, husbands, families, communities and March 2012 the United Nations Human Rights broader society, with the information they need about Council passed a resolution guaranteeing birth reproductive health. registration and the right of everyone to recognition10
  18. 18. FAZZINA PHOTO: ALIxANDRAKali is just 12 years old. But shes already be pregnant. He took me to a doctor, whomarried, and is now expecting her first child. confirmed that I was two months pregnant.She lives with her husband, Faqeera, 18, in "I was ecstatic. I immediately called my homeSindh province in Pakistan. and told my mother. She was worried that"I had my first period a fortnight after I got I was too young for all this. I didnt pay anymarried," says Kali. "I had no clue what was attention, but later, when my sister told mehappening. My husband explained to me what about the danger signs and complications ofit was. pregnancy, I became anxious. Now fear has"But next month nothing happened. When overtaken my feelings of joy.a second month passed and again nothing "Whenever I look in the mirror I see a newhappened, I told my husband. He said I might Kali, one who will be a mother soon." 11
  19. 19. 2 improving the supply of Family planning servicesIt is estimated that around 867 million than in other routine health interventions. Forwomen in developing countries currently example, in developing countries the richest 20% ofwant to avoid pregnancy, of which 645 million the population are six times more likely to usewomen - roughly three-quarters - are using modern family planning services than the poorestmodern methods of contraception.1 This 20%.3 Other public health interventions such as access to doses of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussisleaves around one quarter who are either vaccination, while still inequitable, are much less so -using no method or are relying on less where globally the richest 20% are only 1.6 timeseffective traditional methods. more likely to access the service.4There are huge disparities in the coverage of family The lack of attention to inequality in family planning isplanning services around the world. Usage rates of a key obstacle to progress. Fairness in access tocontraception vary significantly both between and familywithin countries. In some places family planning is planning must be put at the top of the agenda at thenot available because of a lack of actual contraceptive 2012 London Summit on Family Planning.commodities, known as stock-outs. Elsewhere,there are no health workers or health facilities todeliver family planning services, and so contraception THE Supply OFproducts end up sitting in warehouses unused. Thischapter looks at the supply-side challenge of meeting CONTRACEPTIvEthe need for family planning. COMMODITIESIn other cases women are not using the services thatare on offer because they are not able to make their Problems with the supply chain for contraceptionown decisions about family planning. Chapter 3 looks and stock-outs can lead to women losing faith in thein turn at the demand-side barriers to family planning. health service and discontinuing use of contraception. Making the journey to a health centre can be expensive for a woman, in terms of the cost of travelREACHING THE HARDEST TO and the lost income from being away from work. A study in Ethiopia found that some rural womenREACH would need to make a round-trip of up to four days to receive a three-month contraceptive injection.5 If aThe challenge of reaching the one in four women woman has gone to a great deal of trouble to get towhose family planning needs are currently unmet is a clinic, only to find that contraceptive supplies havenot to be underestimated. Many of the areas with run out or her method of choice is out of stock, or ifthe greatest needs have inadequate health facilities, a she is directed to a private provider that she cannotcritical shortage of health workers, a lack of funding, afford, she may well choose not to return.and weak infrastructure - eg, poor roads, lack offuel and fragile supply chains. These challenges are Expanding WOMENS OPTIONSexacerbated in fragile states, and those that have beendisrupted by conflict or natural disaster. Access to a range of different methods of contraception is important in order to meetInequity in access exists between rich and poor, womens specific needs and circumstances. In richerurban and rural, and between women of different countries, women are able to choose from a range ofeducational levels. Analysis by Save the Children contraceptive products to suit their needs, includingsuggests that access to modern methods of family pills, male and female condoms, IUDs, implants, andplanning is the most inequitable of routine health injectables.These are sometimes provided freeinterventions.2 The scale of inequality in use of through the health service, as in the UK, for example,modern family planning methods is much greater where a range of products is also widely available in shops.
  20. 20. Many women in developing countries prefer longer- women to find the most suitable method for them. SERvICES 2 IMPROvING THE SUPPLy OF FAMILy PLANNINGacting reversible methods of contraception as well But as outlined below, sufficient numbers of well-as permanent methods, including sterilisation, that trained health workers are needed to make a widerrequire less frequent visits to the clinic and provide range of different methods available.7 HIv preventionlonger-term protection.6 There is currently no way of programmes have shown that people without formalmonitoring how many women in developing countries medical training can effectively provide condoms;were able to access their first choice of contraceptive other forms of contraception must be prescribed ormethod, but an indicator which tracked this could administered by a skilled health worker. Research intoreveal a lot about the quality of the health service and new methods of contraception that are not relianthow it was meeting womens needs. on a highly skilled health worker to administer couldExpanding the choice of contraceptive methods greatly benefit women in rural areas who have limited access to healthcare.available in developing countries would enable more FIGURE 6. MODERN CONTRACEPTIvE METHOD MIx By REGION FOR THE yEAR 20088 100 2.2 3 3.4 2.3 7 11 10 8 90 15 15 80 4 16 20 45 70 Percentag 16 60 41 31 70 26 50 8 16 e 40 30 28 27 30 38 20 39 3 11 Female sterilisation 10 15 15 li s f ri a o ta Male sterilisation c ifi r ic ubc 8 5 5 i c a l a c c A fr T me Pa 0 h A ep a n n A a d Pill a R o rt h ar n si a a ti A si a N S a Injectable L t/ e s A u b- r al d E e nt S IUD i dl C M Condom Implant STIs, HIv AND CONTRACEPTION promotion must be designed to overcome the Condoms are the only form of contraception challenges of complex gender and cultural factors. that can prevent sexually transmitted infections Condom promotion and distribution should be part (STIs), and are therefore a critical part of the of all family planning programmes in populations HIv response. The WHO recommendation is with a high burden of HIv or other STIs. Prevention that dual methods are used to ensure maximum programmes need to ensure that high-quality male protection against HIv and other STIs, as well as and female condoms are accessible to those who against unintended pregnancy, although this is need them, when they need them, and that people not always feasible. have the knowledge and skills to use them correctly. Raising awareness of HIv and other STIs should Condoms must be readily available universally, either be part of all family planning programmes, so that free or at low cost, and be promoted in ways that men and women have the information they need help overcome social and personal obstacles to to prevent unintended pregnancies and STIs. their use. Education on HIv prevention and condom
  21. 21. THE ROLE OF HEALTH WORKERS able to provide basic health services and advice IN PROvIDING FAMILy and to refer more serious cases up to the health centre. PLANNINGEvERy WOMANS Programmes that have concentrated on the The health worker shortage is a major hurdle in role of frontline health workers in the delivery addressing the unmet need for family planning. The of family planning services have been successful. World Health Organization stipulates that 23 health For example, in India, Bangladesh, Nepal,RIGHT workers are needed for every 10,000 population, Rwanda and Peru the use of modern methods of but many countries are falling far below that figure. contraception among married girls and women There is a global shortage of at least 3.5 million health aged 15-49 years has climbed to around 50%; workers - including doctors, nurses, midwives and and in vietnam, Indonesia, Zimbabwe, Nicaragua around one million community health workers, who and Brazil, use of modern methods has reached work on the front line of healthcare.9 60% or higher.13 Effective family planning services are dependent Following extensive reviews of CHW programmes, on health workers10 to provide counselling on research found "robust evidence that CHWs can healthy timing and spacing of pregnancies, including undertake actions that lead to improved health information on different types of contraception. outcomes." 14 However, experts also concede 23% of women with unmet need said the reason they that many programmes are not successful, did not use contraception was because of concern and that several areas need to be addressed if about health risks and side effects, highlighting the further success is to be achieved.15 These include importance of good counselling.11 In many countries, strengthening the training and supervision of the majority of women who were not currently using CHWs and reducing the high rate of attrition. contraception reported that they had not been in 3. Training, skills and mandate: Task sharing contact with a family planning provider, meaning they had not had the opportunity to discuss their needs • where lower cadres of health workers are trained, or receive advice on contraception.12 The health empowered and mandated to provide certain workers role is even more important in the case of services with the same quality as those provided contraceptive methods like implants and injectables, by health workers with more training - has been as a trained health worker is needed to administer explored with success. Evidence shows that the product. through task-sharing, CHWs can safely provide a wide range of contraceptive methods including The quality and effectiveness of the family planning injectables,16, 17, 18 implants,19 oral contraceptives services that health workers can provide depends on and emergency contraception.20 Defined as the a number of factors - where they are, what they are "rational redistribution of tasks among health trained to do, what they are permitted to do, their workforce teams", task-shifting or sharing has attitudes and opinions, and what supplies they have: been widely endorsed.21 1. Equitable deployment of health workers: 4. Attitudes: Health workers are a key source In many countries the health workers that are of information about contraception for many employed are concentrated in rich, urban areas women and girls. Those health workers who come where the quality of life is better for the health from within a community are likely to have been worker and their family. The World Health Report exposed to the same traditions and cultures as the in 2006 showed that despite the population being people with whom they are working. So, if health split 50-50 between urban and rural, only 38% of workers have prejudices or misconceptions about nurses and 24% of physicians were based in certain types of contraception, they can easily be rural areas. transmitted to their patients, particularly those 2. The type of health workers: Frontline health who are adolescents. The core training of health workers who work at village or community level workers who provide contraception must uncover are the first, and often the only, point of contact and challenge some of these negative beliefs. for millions of people who live beyond the reach 5. Supplies: Health workers must have sufficient of hospitals and clinics. While frontline health supplies, materials and equipment available to do workers can be doctors, nurses or midwives their jobs. If clinics are stocked-out or frontline who work at the village or community level, the health workers do not have sufficient supplies to category also includes community health workers take to the communities where they work, they (CHWs), who are given shorter training but are14
  22. 22. will not be able to provide family planning services, women who want it would cost an additional SERvICES 2 IMPROvING THE SUPPLy OF FAMILy PLANNING and the people they are working with will lose $4.1 billion a year.24 The cost is greater to reach trust in them. these remaining women because they are the hardest to reach. Those who are already using familyAs well as delivering family planning services, health planning are likely to be richer and living in urbanworkers of course contribute significantly to wider areas, and therefore are more able to afford to buyhealth aims, particularly for women and children, contraception in shops or private clinics; they are alsoand they are key to strengthening a countrys entire likely to be better served by government-run healthhealth system.22 WHO and the US government have services.both highlighted that the integrated services forreproductive health and family planning, maternal and The cost of providing contraception is made up ofchild health, and HIv and AIDS that community health commodities - the products that are used - andworkers can deliver is a key way to improve national service delivery, including recruiting, training andhealth systems.23 paying health workers and support staff; maintainingFor the reasons outlined above, it is vital that health and monitoring the supply chain; and meeting the cost of running health facilities. As mentioned above,workers and the role that they play in delivering it is essential that both the supply and services arefamily planning services and contributing to considered together, as it is futile to provide additionalstrengthening the health service is duly recognised. commodities to a country that has a weak healthDuring the London Summit on Family Planning in July system and that lacks the capacity and the health2012, governments should ensure that a significant workers to get those products into the hands of theproportion of funds raised - and commitments women who need them.made - focus on the actions that will improve familyplanning services and contribute to strengthening In fact, the vast majority of the $4.1 billion fundinghealth systems and filling the health worker gap. gap for family planning services is made up of these service delivery costs. An additional $600 millionTHE FUNDING GAP FOR is needed for commodities, and the remaining $3.5 billion is for services and health workerFAMILy PLANNING salaries. This estimate does not include the cost ofSERvICES programmes to generate demand and empower women, which requires an approach that includesThe cost of providing contraception to the many sectors other than health.645 million users in the developing world was The London Summit on Family Planning in Julyestimated as $4.0 billion in 2012. To extend family 2012 presents an unparalleled opportunity forplanning services to the remaining 222 million FIGURE 7. CURRENT SPENDING ON FAMILy PLANNING IN DEvELOPING COUNTRIES AND PROJECTED COST OF COMPREHENSIvE COvERAGE25 Current levels 1.3 0.7 2.0 4.0 of care 100% use of 1.9 1.1 5.1 8.1 modern methods 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2008 US$ (in billions)Contraceptive commodities Health worker Programme and other and supplies salaries systems costs
  23. 23. governments, donors and international organisations However, a study by the Reproductive Health to work together to set new and ambitious targets Supplies Coalition in 2009 stated that 88 countries for meeting unmet need, and to back them up with were dependent on external donors to meet theirEvERy WOMANS sufficient funding that reflects the relative need for contraceptive needs - 39 of which were in sub- commodities and service delivery. Saharan Africa, 15 in Asia and 17 in Latin America.26 And in a study of 47 developing countries carried out FAMILy PLANNING: WHORIGHT by USAID, only 20 reported using internally-generated PAyS? funds to procure contraceptives.27 International funding for family planning has increased The money needed to pay for family planning since 2002, although it is still far below required services in developing countries comes from three levels, and it has been inconsistently disbursed. In main sources (though the relative shares of each 2002 contributions to family planning in developing vary from country to country): countries were $285.5 million, rising to $520 million • the national health in 2009, before falling to $491.7 million in 2010.28 budget Since 2003 only a small contribution has come from • the overseas aid budget of multilateral agencies (an average of 4%), with the richer countries majority coming from bilateral donors. The largest • private out-of-pocket paymentsby bilateral donors are the USA and the UK. individuals. In practice, given poorly stocked health facilities The amount of funding that a developing country and the continued existence of user fees, it is government commits from its own budget for family consumers who pay the largest part of the price for planning is a strong indicator of the overall political contraceptives. For those who can afford it, private commitment which that country has to providing family planning providers, which include not-for-profit family planning services to its population. Less reliance NGOs as well as clinics run for profit, may offer a on donors and a dedicated budget line for family more reliable or convenient option than visiting a planning in the health budget means that funding is government-run health facility, which may be poorly more reliable and stock is less likely to run out. It can stocked and require payment of a user fee. also indicate a wider sense of engagement in the issue and a government that will be more willing to overcome barriers. FIGURE 8. OFFICIAL DEvELOPMENT ASSISTANCE FOR FAMILy Total ODA (USD millions, current prices) PLANNING 600 500 400 300 200 1000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source: OECD International Development Statistics online databases on aid and other resource flows - The Creditor Reporting System
  24. 24. Private sector providers are likely to reach those of the emergence of informal fees, loss of revenue SERvICES 2 IMPROvING THE SUPPLy OF FAMILy PLANNINGgroups that are most accessible - the low-hanging from the fees that may be critical to the delivery offruit - leaving the most vulnerable and most in need services, and effects on health worker morale.underserved. Research has shown that poor peopleare not inclined to use what little income they have topay for preventative healthcare, so those who cannot NATIONAL FAMILyafford family planning will go without and take the risk. PLANNINGThe private sector should therefore be consideredas just one part of a total market approach to POLICIESfamily planning that also includes public resources to Family planning is a vital part of the package ofsubsidise the costs of healthcare for the poor.29 healthcare interventions that have been identifiedIn developing countries, on average, more than by health experts - eg, The Lancet - as essential60% of total domestic expenditure for sexual and for saving the lives of mothers and children andreproductive healthcare - of which family planning is reaching international goals. It is the responsibility ofan important component - comes from consumer the government to act as the steward of the healthout-of-pocket payments. In Asia and the Pacific, sector, regulating the quality of care provided by allthis rises to 71%, and in sub-Saharan Africa, 50%.30 healthcare providers, and ensuring universal accessFor healthcare generally, out-of-pocket payments, to the basic package of services. This depends onincluding user fees, place a disproportionate burden the existence of strong legislation and policies, as wellon the poor. International experts agree that user as sufficient funding.fees represent the most regressive (or unfair) way Governments must ensure that national policies onof funding healthcare.31 The same applies to family family planning are clear, effective and focused onplanning: charging user fees for family planning strengthening the health discourages take-up and disproportionatelyaffects the poor. However, it is essential that any The legislative and policy framework that regulatesdecision to remove user fees takes into account the supply in each country can either facilitate or hinderoverall effects on the system, including the possibility the provision of family planning services. Laws or policies that create unnecessary barriers - such as SIERRA LEONE: FAMILy PLANNING IN A POLICy vACUUM A lack of effective legislative or policy regulation of formal legislation or policy, organisations delivering family planning provision in Sierra Leone has led to family planning services had adopted their own difficulties in guaranteeing consistency in the quality guidelines and fees. Different providers operated and supply of contraceptives, with: different policies and the imposition of informal •a lack of distribution in communities fees was common.33 Although some respondents due to lack of community health to the study said that family planning services were workers in many parts of the country supposed to be free, it was not clear whether this • a shortage of trained applied to all types of service and methods or only reproductive health specialists certain aspects. • frequent stock-outs32 In 2010, healthcare was made free for pregnant and • a lack of integration lactating women, and children under five but the of non-state service- providers with initiative does not currently have any reproductive the public sector. health component embedded in it, and it has had In Sierra Leone, the majority of family planning little impact on the contraceptive prevalence rate, services are provided by Marie Stopes International which is currently only 11%. (MSI). MSI charge fees to wealthier clients in order Adolescent girls face particular challenges in Sierra to subsidise free or token price services to remote Leone - almost two in five girls give birth before rural and urban slum areas.This model has not the age of 18, and one in 14 gives birth before the been scaled up to cover the whole country and a age of 15. 2008 study on barriers to family planning use in Sierra Leone reported that, in the absence of any
  25. 25. those which limit the use of specific methods of terms of setting out a states intentions with regard contraception, the use of contraception by specific to family planning and identifying the areas where age-groups or the use of contraception by unmarried improvements are required. However, while theseEvERy WOMANS women - should be reformed. Bottlenecks in the are an important first step, governments need to supply chain for bringing contraceptive products into ensure that effective action plans are made for their the country should be removed, and bureaucratic implementation and that they are followed through. hurdles facing businesses wishing to manufactureRIGHT contraceptives minimised. THE WAy FORWARD Legislation on its own is insufficient to guarantee women have adequate access to family planning Providing universal free coverage of family planning services. Effective policies and plans are required is a huge challenge. Even with donor aid money that ensure that the legislative guarantees to family and technical assistance, many countries are a long planning services are implemented equally throughout way from meeting this goal. Nevertheless, as the the country. remarkable progress over the last decade in tackling Responsibility for implementation must be clearly child mortality and ensuring more children go to allocated. In some countries responsibility for school has demonstrated, change is achievable. providing family planning is decentralized. Clear Expanding coverage of family planning to those allocation of responsibility for implementation who are hardest-to-reach - and most in need of is required to ensure that ownership of family it - will require the coordinated efforts of national planning programmes is effectively devolved to governments in developing countries, international district or municipal levels. For example, following donors and the private sector. de-federalisation of the Population Welfare Program National governments are key to making any in Pakistan in 2002, financial, administrative and family planning initiative a success - and overcoming operational responsibility for the implementation of challenges on both the supply and demand side. They family planning policies shifted from the federal to must demonstrate their commitment by putting provincial level but the federal government continued financial, political and, where appropriate, legislative to fund the programme. The result was that the weight behind their pledges and strategies. provincial governments failed to develop the desired level of ownership.34 This was understood to be a The ultimate goal is for a reliable supply of a suitable contributing factor to the stagnation in contraceptive mix of family planning methods to be accessible, use among married women after 2003, after it had delivered by trained health workers in the community previously increased steadily since the early or in primary healthcare centres, so that every couple 1980s.35 who wishes to plan their family has the means to do so. A strong national human resources for health In certain countries, governments have issued plan, which includes the recruitment, support and detailed national strategies on family planning, remuneration of sufficient health workers who are which set out the aspirations and policy goals trained to deliver effective family planning services, but, unlike legislation or binding policies, these will be a cornerstone of achieving this goal. strategies are not generally enforceable. This is the case in Bangladesh, Nigeria and Ethiopia, where In the meantime, national governments must act to the strategies in place for reproductive health, ensure that the private sector providers, including including family planning, are progressive in terms non-profit organisations, who are currently helping to of provision of family planning. For example, the fill the gap, are well regulated and are able to operate Ethiopian National Reproductive Strategy includes in a conducive policy environment. Governments ensuring adequate supplies of contraceptives are should take care to prescribe minimum standards for available and the provision of youth-friendly family the quality of contraceptives sold in the market to planning services through the public sector. The ensure safety for all users. Bangladeshi National Communication Strategy for International donors must support efforts Family Planning and Reproductive Health includes within developing countries by channelling new and as its goals increasing access to and community substantial funds to the provision of family planning involvement in family planning and reproductive health in countries with large proportions of unmet need. services and service delivery, as well as improving They must help fill the funding gap in a way that is family planning / reproductive health service quality sustainable and equitable and encourages long-term and service delivery. Such strategies can be useful in18