Tracking progress in cutting hunger and poverty in Africa and Southeast Asia<br />Shenggen FanDirector General<br />Intern...
Outline<br />Development Strategies in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa<br />Tracking performance of Southeast Asia and Sub-Sah...
Different Development Pathways<br />Southeast Asia<br />Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia<br />Market-oriented approach: m...
Different Development Pathways<br />Sub-Saharan Africa<br />Dominated by agro-pessimistic thinking for many years<br />Urb...
Tracking performance of Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa<br />
Economic and Agricultural Growth<br />Source: World Bank, 2009<br />
Lackluster pattern of poverty reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa <br />Share of population living under $1.25 per day, %<br /...
World Map of Hunger: 2008 Global Hunger Index (GHI) by Severity <br />GHI components:<br /><ul><li>Proportion of undernour...
Prevalence of underweight in children
Under-five mortality rate</li></ul>Source: von Grebmer et al. 2009<br />
Hunger persists in Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa<br />Source: World Bank, 2009<br />
Contributing factors to differences in performance<br />Geography<br />Distortions to agricultural incentives<br />Governa...
Underspending on agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa relative to size of sector<br />Agricultural expenditures as % of agric...
Africa is still taxing agriculture<br />Source: Anderson 2008.<br />
Agenda for achieving future global food security<br />
1. Improve smallholder productivity and access to markets<br />Improve access to inputs (e.g. seeds, fertilizer)<br />Impr...
2. Linking smallholders with modern value chains<br />Socioeconomic factors alongside policy reforms have transformed valu...
3. Promote productive safety nets<br />Goals:<br />Secure and smooth food consumption<br />Enable saving and investment <b...
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Tracking progress in cutting hunger and poverty in Africa and Southeast Asia

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Netherlands, April 12, 2010

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  • Tracking progress in cutting hunger and poverty in Africa and Southeast Asia

    1. 1. Tracking progress in cutting hunger and poverty in Africa and Southeast Asia<br />Shenggen FanDirector General<br />International Food Policy Research Institute<br />April 12, 2010<br />
    2. 2. Outline<br />Development Strategies in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa<br />Tracking performance of Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa<br />Agenda for achieving future food security<br />
    3. 3. Different Development Pathways<br />Southeast Asia<br />Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia<br />Market-oriented approach: macroeconomic stability, human capital formation, and trade openness<br />Short period of import substitution followed by export-led growth<br />Devoted larger share of public investment to rural areas, and lower direct/indirect taxes on agriculture compared to other developing countries<br />Vietnam and China: “firing from the bottom approach” that focused on agricultural reforms, including <br />Decentralization of agricultural production systems<br />Liberalization of pricing and marketing systems<br />
    4. 4. Different Development Pathways<br />Sub-Saharan Africa<br />Dominated by agro-pessimistic thinking for many years<br />Urban-industrialization approach -> many Sub-Saharan countries missed opportunity to achieve structural transformation where agriculture could deliver aggregate economic growth<br />The patterns of discrimination against farmers persist, although there has been reduction in agricultural distortions (especially taxes on farm exports)<br />
    5. 5. Tracking performance of Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa<br />
    6. 6. Economic and Agricultural Growth<br />Source: World Bank, 2009<br />
    7. 7. Lackluster pattern of poverty reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa <br />Share of population living under $1.25 per day, %<br />Source: PovcalNet, 2010<br />
    8. 8. World Map of Hunger: 2008 Global Hunger Index (GHI) by Severity <br />GHI components:<br /><ul><li>Proportion of undernourished
    9. 9. Prevalence of underweight in children
    10. 10. Under-five mortality rate</li></ul>Source: von Grebmer et al. 2009<br />
    11. 11. Hunger persists in Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa<br />Source: World Bank, 2009<br />
    12. 12. Contributing factors to differences in performance<br />Geography<br />Distortions to agricultural incentives<br />Governance<br />Investment in agriculture<br />
    13. 13. Underspending on agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa relative to size of sector<br />Agricultural expenditures as % of agricultural GDP<br />
    14. 14. Africa is still taxing agriculture<br />Source: Anderson 2008.<br />
    15. 15. Agenda for achieving future global food security<br />
    16. 16. 1. Improve smallholder productivity and access to markets<br />Improve access to inputs (e.g. seeds, fertilizer)<br />Improve access to services (e.g. extension and finance) <br />Increase investment in rural infrastructure (e.g. rural feeder roads, water, irrigation) <br />Promote agricultural research and innovation<br />
    17. 17. 2. Linking smallholders with modern value chains<br />Socioeconomic factors alongside policy reforms have transformed value chains<br />Emergence of supermarkets in Southeast Asia and more recently Southern/Eastern Africa<br />Small farmers often lack resources to participate and share benefits<br />Support innovative institutional arrangements for vertical coordination, e.g. producer cooperatives<br />Eliminate bias towards development of high-value chains in Africa -> more focus on increasing the efficiency of food crop value chains <br />
    18. 18. 3. Promote productive safety nets<br />Goals:<br />Secure and smooth food consumption<br />Enable saving and investment <br />Build and diversify assets<br />Types of interventions e.g.:<br />Conditional cash/food transfers<br />Maternal and child health/nutrition programs<br />Public works<br />Insurance for the poor<br />Programs depend on needs, capacities, and resources<br />Source: Adato and Hoddinott 2008.<br />
    19. 19. 4. Build institutions and capacities<br />Improve evidence-based policy making<br />Asian reform process (esp. China) emphasized gradual implementation after careful experimentation in selected districts:<br />Successful policies scaled up<br />Failed policies used for learning purposes<br />Increase investment in information gathering, monitoring, and evaluation <br />RESAKSS<br />Strengthen human and administrative capacities through increased investment in education and training<br />
    20. 20. The most effective and sustainable actions must be country-led and country-owned<br />

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