MeTaBoLism By; Ms. Shenell A. Delfin, RN
<ul><li>THIS IS A STORY ABOUT A GIRL. WHILE AT THE FUNERAL OF HER MOTHER, SHE MET THIS GUY WHOM SHE DID NOT KNOW. SHE THOU...
METABOLISM <ul><li>PHYSIOLOGY OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL (GI) SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Function of the Gastrointestinal Tract...
METABOLISM <ul><li>Ingestion  – intake of food </li></ul><ul><li>Swallowing (deglutition) completes the process of ingesti...
METABOLISM <ul><li>Digestion  – physical and chemical breakdown of food. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves chemical, mechanical, ...
METABOLISM <ul><li>Carbohydrates leave stomach the fastest; proteins and fats leave the slowest: </li></ul><ul><li>pH is a...
<ul><li>Absorption  – transfer of food products into circulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in small intestine which has nu...
<ul><li>System Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>A. Evaluate client's history. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in bowel habits. </li>...
<ul><li>Presence or problems with flatulence.  </li></ul><ul><li>B. Assess vital signs in client's overall status. </li></...
<ul><li>E. Evaluate the abdomen (client should be lying flat). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide the abdomen into four quadrant...
<ul><li>b. Loud, high pitch sounds may be heard when a client is hungry or has gastroenteritis. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Borbo...
<ul><li>Elderly Care Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in GI System Related to Aging </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased hydrochlori...
<ul><li>FACTORS AFFECTING ELIMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Diet </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid intake </li></u...
<ul><li>Palpate the abdomen; begin with non-tender areas first. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Is it soft to palpation? </li></ul><u...
FECAL CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Color: </li></ul><ul><li>Infant: yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Adult: brown </li></ul><ul><li>Odo...
FECAL CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>White or clay </li></ul><ul><li>Black or tarry (melena) </li></ul><ul><li>Red </li></ul><ul>...
FECAL CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Narrow, pencil </li></ul><ul><li>Blood, pus, foreign bodies, mucus, worms  </li></ul><ul><li...
LABORATORY/DIAGNOSTICS <ul><li>A. Blood chemistry and electrolyte analysis </li></ul><ul><li>B .  Hematologic studies:  Hg...
LABORATORY/DIAGNOSTICS <ul><li>Barium is a radioopaque substance that appears like milk or chalky white solution that cons...
LABORATORY/DIAGNOSTICS <ul><li>Preparation: </li></ul><ul><li>NPO post midnight </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage fluid intake t...
LABORATORY/DIAGNOSTICS <ul><li>G. Lower G I Series (Barium Enema)  – Barium is instilled into the colon by enema; client r...
LABORATORY/DIAGNOSTICS <ul><li>H. Endoscopy  – Direct visualization of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum by insertion of...
LABORATORY/DIAGNOSTICS <ul><li>I. Colonoscopy  – endoscopic visualization of the large intestines; may include biopsy and ...
LABORATORY/DIAGNOSTICS <ul><li>J. Sigmoidoscopy  – endoscopic visualization of the sigmoid colon. </li></ul><ul><li>used t...
LABORATORY/DIAGNOSTICS <ul><li>L. Oral Cholecystogram  – injection of a radioopaque dye and x-ray examination to visualize...
<ul><li>Goals of Care for Clients with Elimination Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding normal elimination. </li></ul>...
THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!!
EXAMINATION FOR SALE!!!! <ul><li>LIMITED OFFER ONLY!!! </li></ul><ul><li>100 Php per QUESTION, NO ANSWER YET. </li></ul><u...
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Metabolism DelfiN

  1. 1. MeTaBoLism By; Ms. Shenell A. Delfin, RN
  2. 2. <ul><li>THIS IS A STORY ABOUT A GIRL. WHILE AT THE FUNERAL OF HER MOTHER, SHE MET THIS GUY WHOM SHE DID NOT KNOW. SHE THOUGHT THIS GUY WAS AMAZING, SO MUCH HER DREAM GUY SHE BELIEVE HIM TO BE AND FELL IN LOVE WITH HIM THERE AND THEN. A FEW DAYS LATER THE GIRL KILLED HER OWN SISTER. </li></ul>
  3. 3. METABOLISM <ul><li>PHYSIOLOGY OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL (GI) SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Function of the Gastrointestinal Tract </li></ul><ul><li>A. To propel ingested materials (food, Fluid) through the GI tract and enhance the mixing of enzyme and food particles involved in the digestive process. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Secretion of digestive enzymes to break down food particles for digestion and assimilation. </li></ul><ul><li>C. To absorb water, electrolytes, and products of digestion. </li></ul><ul><li>Indigestion, Digestion, Absorption and Elimination Process </li></ul>
  4. 4. METABOLISM <ul><li>Ingestion – intake of food </li></ul><ul><li>Swallowing (deglutition) completes the process of ingestion. </li></ul><ul><li>Intake of food is influenced by appetite center located in hypothalamus. </li></ul><ul><li>Appetite stimulated by an empty stomach, decrease in body temperature, hypoglycemia, habit and the sight, smell and taste of food. </li></ul><ul><li>Appetite inhibited by stomach distention illness with fever, hyperglycemia, nausea and some drugs (e.g. Amphetamines). </li></ul>
  5. 5. METABOLISM <ul><li>Digestion – physical and chemical breakdown of food. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves chemical, mechanical, and hormonal activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Ptyalin, an enzyme, acts on food in the mouth and begins starch digestion. </li></ul><ul><li>Food moves through the esophagus by peristalsis to the stomach. </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion of proteins occurs in the stomach. </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach acts as a reservoir for food: </li></ul><ul><li>Length of time food remains in stomach depends on type of food, gastric motility, and psychological factors; average time 3 to 4 hrs. </li></ul>
  6. 6. METABOLISM <ul><li>Carbohydrates leave stomach the fastest; proteins and fats leave the slowest: </li></ul><ul><li>pH is acidic in stomach, which promotes the enzyme in gastric juice; pepsin, to break down proteins into proteases and peptones. </li></ul><ul><li>Lipase acts to split fats. </li></ul><ul><li>Chyme (food mixed with gastric secretion) moves through the pylorus to the small intestine. </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones are released into the bloodstream. Secretion stimulates pancreas to secrete an alkaline fluid. </li></ul><ul><li>Bile is released from gallbladder and fats are emulsified. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Absorption – transfer of food products into circulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in small intestine which has numerous villi to increase absorptive surface area. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple sugars (from carbohydrates), fatty acids (from fats), and amino acids (from proteins), water, electrolytes, and vitamins are absorbed. </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination – excretion of waste products. </li></ul><ul><li>Large intestine absorbs water and electrolytes, and forms feces. </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as a reservoir for fecal mass until defecation occurs. </li></ul>METABOLISM
  8. 8. <ul><li>System Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>A. Evaluate client's history. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in bowel habits. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in dietary habits. </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss/gain. </li></ul><ul><li>Pain. </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Associated with pain. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Precipitating factors. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Presence or problems with flatulence. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Assess vital signs in client's overall status. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Assess for presence and characteristics of pain. </li></ul><ul><li>D. Assess client's mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Presence of adequate saliva. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Overall condition of teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Overall condition of tongue </li></ul><ul><li>4. Presence of the gag reflex. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>E. Evaluate the abdomen (client should be lying flat). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide the abdomen into four quadrants and describe findings according to the quadrants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the general contour of the abdomen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the presence of surgical or trauma scars or ostomies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess for presence of and characteristics of bowel sounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nursing Alert: Assessment: To determine characteristics of bowel sounds: note characteristics of bowel sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Normally soft, gurgles should be heard every 5-15 seconds. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>b. Loud, high pitch sounds may be heard when a client is hungry or has gastroenteritis. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Borborygmi – loud, gurgling sounds; may precede diarrhea. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Hypoactive bowel sounds are at rate of one every minute or longer. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Elderly Care Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in GI System Related to Aging </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased hydrochloric acid and decreased absorption of vitamins; encourage frequent small feedings that are high in vitamins. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased peristalsis and decreased sensation to defecate; encourage diet high in fiber and minimum of 1,500 cc of fluid daily, encourage physical activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased lipase from pancreas to aid in fat digestion; encourage smaller meals since diarrhea maybe caused by increased fat intake. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased liver activity with decreased production of enzymes for drug metabolism, tendency toward accumulation of medications instruct clients not to double up on their medications, especially cardiac medications. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>FACTORS AFFECTING ELIMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Diet </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid intake </li></ul><ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Habits </li></ul><ul><li>Position during defecation </li></ul><ul><li>Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Surgery and anesthesia </li></ul><ul><li>Medications </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Palpate the abdomen; begin with non-tender areas first. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Is it soft to palpation? </li></ul><ul><li>b. Presence of distention. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Presence of masses. </li></ul><ul><li>F. Asses rectal area. </li></ul><ul><li>G. Evaluate elimination patterns and effects of Aging on GI tract. </li></ul><ul><li>H. Evaluate dietary pattern and fluid intake. </li></ul><ul><li>I. Assess stool specimen </li></ul><ul><li>1. Color </li></ul><ul><li>2. Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>3. Odor </li></ul><ul><li>4. Presence of blood or mucous </li></ul>
  15. 15. FECAL CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Color: </li></ul><ul><li>Infant: yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Adult: brown </li></ul><ul><li>Odor: </li></ul><ul><li>Pungent; affected by food type </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency: </li></ul><ul><li>Soft, formed </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency: </li></ul><ul><li>Varies: Infant 4 to 6 times daily (breast fed) 0r 1 to 3 times daily (bottle fed) </li></ul><ul><li>Adult average: 2- 3 times a week </li></ul><ul><li>Amount: </li></ul><ul><li>150 grams per day (adult) </li></ul><ul><li>Shape: </li></ul><ul><li>Resembles diameter of rectum </li></ul><ul><li>Constituents: </li></ul><ul><li>Undigested food, dead bacteria, fat, bile pigment, cells lining intestinal mucosa </li></ul>
  16. 16. FECAL CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>White or clay </li></ul><ul><li>Black or tarry (melena) </li></ul><ul><li>Red </li></ul><ul><li>Pale with fat </li></ul><ul><li>Noxious change </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Hard </li></ul><ul><li>Infant more than 6 times daily or less than once every 1-2 days; adult more than 3 times than once a week. </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of bile </li></ul><ul><li>Iron ingestion or GI bleeding upper lower, hemorrhoids </li></ul><ul><li>Malabsorption of fat </li></ul><ul><li>Blood in feces or infection </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea, reduced absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Constipation </li></ul><ul><li>Hypomotility or hypermotility </li></ul>
  17. 17. FECAL CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Narrow, pencil </li></ul><ul><li>Blood, pus, foreign bodies, mucus, worms </li></ul><ul><li>Obstruction, rapid peristalsis </li></ul><ul><li>Internal bleeding, infection, swallowed, objects, irritation, inflammation </li></ul>
  18. 18. LABORATORY/DIAGNOSTICS <ul><li>A. Blood chemistry and electrolyte analysis </li></ul><ul><li>B . Hematologic studies: Hgb and Hct, PT, WBC </li></ul><ul><li>C. Serologic studies: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), hepatitis associated antigens, HbsAg. </li></ul><ul><li>D. Urine studies: Amylase, bilirubin </li></ul><ul><li>E. Fecal studies: for blood, fat, infectious organisms </li></ul><ul><li>F. Upper GI Series (Barium Swallow) – Fluroscopic examination of upper GI tract to determine </li></ul><ul><li>structural problems and gastric emptying: client must swallow barium sulfate or other contrast medium; sequential films taken as it moves through the system. </li></ul>
  19. 19. LABORATORY/DIAGNOSTICS <ul><li>Barium is a radioopaque substance that appears like milk or chalky white solution that constipate the stool! </li></ul><ul><li>Ingestion of barium sulfate to outline esophagus and stomach (doudenum too) as well its physiology, by radiologic x-rays examinations. </li></ul>
  20. 20. LABORATORY/DIAGNOSTICS <ul><li>Preparation: </li></ul><ul><li>NPO post midnight </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage fluid intake to facilitate elimination. </li></ul><ul><li>Laxative as ordered </li></ul><ul><li>Advised for light colored (clay) constipated stool. </li></ul>
  21. 21. LABORATORY/DIAGNOSTICS <ul><li>G. Lower G I Series (Barium Enema) – Barium is instilled into the colon by enema; client retains the contrast medium while x-rays are taken to identify structural abnormalities of the large intestines or colon. </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation: </li></ul><ul><li>Light diet and laxative evening prior to test. </li></ul><ul><li>Cleansing enema prior, followed by barium enema then series of x-rays, and cleansing enema (to prevent impaction). </li></ul>
  22. 22. LABORATORY/DIAGNOSTICS <ul><li>H. Endoscopy – Direct visualization of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum by insertion of a </li></ul><ul><li>lighted fiberscope; used to observe structures, ulcerations, inflammation, tumors and may include a biopsy. </li></ul>
  23. 23. LABORATORY/DIAGNOSTICS <ul><li>I. Colonoscopy – endoscopic visualization of the large intestines; may include biopsy and </li></ul><ul><li>removal of foreign substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation: </li></ul><ul><li>Clear liquid diet 1-3 days prior </li></ul><ul><li>Cathartics for 2 nights prior </li></ul><ul><li>Enema in am of exam </li></ul><ul><li>Observe stool and vital signs </li></ul>
  24. 24. LABORATORY/DIAGNOSTICS <ul><li>J. Sigmoidoscopy – endoscopic visualization of the sigmoid colon. </li></ul><ul><li>used to identify inflammation, lesions or remove foreign bodes. </li></ul><ul><li>K. Gastric Analysis - insertion of nasogastric tube to examine fasting gastric contents for acidity, abnormal constituents (blood, bacteria, malignant cells )and volume. </li></ul>
  25. 25. LABORATORY/DIAGNOSTICS <ul><li>L. Oral Cholecystogram – injection of a radioopaque dye and x-ray examination to visualize the gall bladder ability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used to determine the gall bladder's ability to concentrate and store dye and to assess patency of the biliary duct system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>M. Liver Biopsy – invasive procedure where a specially designed needle is inserted into a liver </li></ul><ul><li>to remove a small piece of tissue for study </li></ul><ul><li>After the procedure position on right side with pillow under site (1-2 hours) then gradually elevate the head. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor vital signs (BP and PR for signs of shock and hemorrhage. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Goals of Care for Clients with Elimination Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding normal elimination. </li></ul><ul><li>Attaining regular defecation habits. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding and maintaining proper fluid and food intake. </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving regular exercise program. </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving comfort. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining skin integrity. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining self concept. </li></ul>
  27. 27. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!!
  28. 28. EXAMINATION FOR SALE!!!! <ul><li>LIMITED OFFER ONLY!!! </li></ul><ul><li>100 Php per QUESTION, NO ANSWER YET. </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER IN 5 MINUTES AND YOU’LL HAVE 5 PESOS DISCOUNT. </li></ul><ul><li>SEE NO ONE FOR DETAILS </li></ul>

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