The earliest known windmill design dates back 3000 years to ancient Persia where they were used to grind grain and pump water. Reeds were bundled together to create vertical paddles that spun around a central axis. Carefully placed exterior walls ensured that wind would primarily drive the potentially bidirectional system in the desired direction. Of course, the use of wind power in sailing predates the inventions of windmills but these are the first known use of wind to automate mechanical/manual everyday tasks.
A bit of trivia to think about during the slide show. Write down what you think the answers are. They will be revealed at the end of the presentation.
The answer to this question will also be near the end of the slide show.
Published by NREL, here is a wind resource map for the United States. Also, it shows the yearly electricity production estimated for a small wind turbine.
Michigan’s annual average wind speed estimates at 80 meters above the ground. (Published by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.)
Flagging is a way to determine wind speeds in an area by studying the effect of strong winds on area vegetation. Trees, especially conifers or evergreens, can be permanently deformed by strong winds. By using the Griggs-Putnam Index, wind speeds can be estimated.
Direct monitoring by a wind resource measurement system at a site provides the clearest picture of the available resource. Wind measurement systems are available for costs as low as $600–$1,200. The measurement equipment must be set high enough to avoid turbulence created by trees, buildings, and other obstructions. The most useful readings are those taken at hub-height, the elevation at the top of the tower where the wind turbine is going to be installed.
There are many resources you can use on the internet to obtain information when you are considering using wind turbines as a renewable energy source.
This DOE publication on Small Wind Electric Systems shows a variety of wind turbines in use on its cover and is a good source of information.
Wind turbines use the motion of the wind to turn a shaft attached to a generator, which makes electricity. The size of the turbine and the speed of the wind determine how much electricity it will make. The larger the rotor, the more energy it can capture. A small wind energy system will produce a power output of 100 kilowatts (kW) or less. Most systems are smaller than that, and have power ratings ranging from 2 to 10 kW. This can provide some, if not all, of a homeowner’s electricity needs.
A grid-connected wind turbine can reduce your consumption of utility-supplied electricity for lighting, appliances, and electric heat. If the turbine cannot deliver the amount of energy you need, the utility makes up the difference. When the wind system produces more electricity than the household requires, the excess is sent or sold to the utility.
According to many renewable energy experts, a small "hybrid" electric system that combines wind and solar (photovoltaic) technologies offers several advantages over either single system. For example, they can draw energy from one source when the other is weak and vise versa. In much of the United States, wind speeds are low in the summer when the sun shines brightest and longest. The wind is strong in the winter when less sunlight is available. Because the peak operating times for wind and solar systems occur at different times of the day and year, hybrid systems are more likely to produce power when you need it. Many hybrid systems are stand-alone systems, which operate "off-grid"—not connected to an electricity distribution system.
FIVE WIND TURBINES WITH SOLAR PANELS STAND BEHIND GENOA TOWNSHIP HALL, THANKS TO A $94,919 EECBG GRANT. The Windspire wind energy conversion turbines are manufactured in Manistee, Michigan and cost $11,400 each, making the total cost $57.000 for five turbines. At a recent DOE monitoring visit, Mike Archinal (Township Manager), reported they collected more energy from the solar panels due to the turbines stopping during high winds and having to be reset.
The American Wind Energy Association has published these Performance and Safety Standards for small wind turbines.
Michigan can capitalize on the large-scale manufacturing needs of the wind industry.
Is this what future Michigan Wind Farms will look like?
Is this what our lakeshore cities will look like?
Eric Shreffler is currently the Sector Development Director for the Advanced Energy Storage Office at MEDC.
Here is a map of proposed wind farm locations in Michigan.
This map shows estimated wind power primarily at lakeshore locations.
The DOE and NREL published this resource map that shows wind speed estimates at 50 meters above the ground and depicts the resource that could be used for utility-scale wind development.
Is this what western Lake Michigan will look like?
This is a publication about the West Michigan Wind Assessment project, headed up by Grand Valley State University. (Point out graphics.)
This map section shows wind power potential and the proximity of high voltage transmission lines in the 4-county study area in West Michigan. Higher wind power classes represent higher potential for wind energy generation.
This research buoy will aid the offshore wind assessment study conducted by Grand Valley State University, the University of Michigan and MSU. The buoy is one of three in the world and is an eight-ton, 20-by-10 foot boat-shaped structure that can measure wind characteristics up to 150 meters above the water using advanced wind sensor technology. Real-time data will be transmitted to researchers on land. The research will provide information to support possible future development of offshore wind energy technology in the Great Lakes.
Here are the answers to our trivia questions at the beginning of the presentation.
I give you an example of the use of biomimicry – the Whalepower Wind Turbine. What do Humpback Whales have to do with wind power? Humpback whales have small bumps known as tubercles along the leading edge of their fins. This means improved efficiency in swimming for whales. By adding those tubercles to the edge of a turbine blade, it adds more power without increasing drag which can cause the blade to shake. Also, this design could reduce a noise problem called “tip chatter.”
Click and play.
Harnessing the Wind
Harnessing the WindPresentation by: Shelly Shinevar
QuestionsWhich state built the first modern wind turbine?Which state has the largest wind turbine in the world?
What does this humpback whale have to do with wind energy?
Is using wind energy viable for me?A small wind energy system may work for you if: Your property has a good wind resource. (An average wind speed of 14 miles p/hr is needed.) You have at least a half acre of land. Your local zoning codes or covenants allow wind turbines. Your average electricity bills are $150 a month or more. Your property is not close to utility lines. You are comfortable with long-term investments.
A Solar & Wind Estimator Start by entering your zip code. This will allow the site to calculate the amount of solar & wind energy available at your location. The Solar & Wind Estimator will estimate the size and cost to install an energy system for your home or building. Also, you can access information regarding companies closest to your location that can do your renewable energy project at an estimated cost. http://www.solar-estimate.org/index.php?page=solar-calculator
The Benefits of Wind Energy for Utilities Wind power provides a clean source of electricity and helps keep electric rates low. Wind energy costs have dropped over the past few years as wind turbine technology has developed. Wind energy is now one of the most cost-effective sources of new electricity generation. Utilities can lock in wind energy prices for 20 to 30 years because the fuel is free. Thats one reason wind power has added 35% of all new generating capacity to the U.S. grid since 2007. Electric utilities have a unique role in bringing wind power to their retail customers, who are expecting their electricity providers to use more clean energy.
Michigan utilities are working towards amandate of generating 10% of the statesenergy from renewable sources by 2015.As that deadline approaches, wind power is proving to be a key component.
Kim Horrocks thinks wind turbines like this oneat his store (Horrocks in Delta Township) will bea factor in making the country less dependenton foreign oil. It cost $15,000 five years ago andsupplies less than 10% of their energy needs.
Current State of Wind Power in Michigan According to the Great Lakes Wind Collaborative:• Michigan has high potential for both onshore and offshore wind power development.• Installed onshore wind capacity has increased from 400 MW in 1999 to 8,876 MW at the start of 2010.• As of mid-2010, an additional 5,809 MW of onshore wind projects were underway.• Off-shore wind projects have been proposed in all of the Great Lakes, as well as in Lake St. Clair.• The wind sector is an ideal growth market for manufacturing firms in the Great Lakes.According to Eric Shreffler, Director of New Markets for MEDC in 2008: “Michigan ranks fourth nationwide among states with the most wind turbine production capacity.”
THE HARVEST WIND FARM NEAR UBLY IN THE THUMB REGION OF MICHIGAN IS A WORKING ARRAY OF WINDMILLS PRODUCING ELECTRICAL POWER.
Offshore Wind Offshore wind resources in the United States are not only vast; they are located near fast-growing urban areas. Offshore wind development offers a source of clean, domestic, renewable energy to meet electricity demands. Wind farms are also likely to be built in areas that can facilitate smooth and cost-effective integration of wind into the overall electric system. While many other countries have wind projects installed in offshore waters, the U.S. does not yet have any offshore wind projects.
Challenges for Offshore Wind Offshore wind power in the United States is still in its infancy, compared to land-based wind. Offshore wind projects must strike a viable balance between technological and economic challenges. The offshore technology has had to adapt to more challenging environmental elements in order to be successful. The latest generation of offshore turbines is equipped to meet the challenges of tough weather conditions, which can limit access for routine maintenance. Benefit: Offshore turbines can continue to take advantage of economies of scale as their size increases.
Research buoy dedicated for Lake Michigan wind study Date: October 7, 2011
Answers Which state built the first modern wind turbine? • Vermont (In the early 1940’s)Which state has the largest wind turbine in the world? • Hawaii(It stands 20 stories tall w/blades the length of a football field.)
What is biomimicry?“The practice of developing sustainable human technologies inspired by nature.”
Janine Benyus, an expert on biomimicry, says -- We can mimic form (the shape of a plant or animal). We can mimic process. We can mimic an ecosystem (like having a city that functions as well as a forest).
Quote“Those who are inspired by a model other than Nature, a mistress above all masters, are laboring in vain.” Leonardo Da Vinci