localisation of wine
History of culture and society
Created by Shelly Freestone
Wine production evidence can be
traced back to 8000 BC, in the
country of Georgia, in the foothills
of the Caucasus mountains.
Early evidence of grape harvest and
wine making also found in Iran,
Egypt and Persia.
In The Beginning….
Societies and Wine in Time
in the early days
The family collected the grapes, then using simplistic wine
making techniques to create naturally fermented wine,
which was shared with the village for celebration.
Wine was used in food preparation.
Through time, wine became part of festivities and
celebration in life, death and religious ceremonies among
Many cultures used wine for medicinal purposes.
Wine defined social class in societies.
Social and political meetings were based around
consumption of wine.
Differences that impacted consumption, effecting localisation and importation
Egyptian viticulture and wine production can be traced back
early as 5000 BC.
Kings and religious leaders and high social classes were
prieportiers of vineyards and offered wine to guests at
celebrations and feasts.
Evidence found in tombs, Egyptians were the first to record
Vintage details were also found on wine jars.
Egyptians used wine as offerings to the dead for use in their
Offerings to the gods linked to earth and elements ensured they
would be provided with necessities.
Egyptians used wine for medicinal purposes.
Egyptians produced their own wine but majority of wine, quality
would have been poor due to the hot climate.
Egyptians imported wine in earthenware jars to keep up with
the demand from other regions.
Wine was the preferred choice of drink with the Roman population.
Wine was used for ritual, religious and social ceremonies.
Wine was used for medicinal purposes
Dionysus was worshiped as the god of wine.
The cities such as Pompeii had drinking bars, called cauponas, which
were social meeting houses, vineyards were established around the cities to supply these outlets.
Initially, Rome and the rest of southern Italy grew their own wine locally from wild vine and
Italian farmers in the countryside had small crops to provide their families with wine.
Roman wine was not known for quality in the beginnings and was mixed with sea water, herbs and
spices to dilute and help with flavour.
Romans during their years of conflict were responsible for spreading the wine to different regions.
When Pompeii and surrounds was buried in 79 AD there was a panic has there was a shortage of wine.
Greeks also worshipped the god of wine Dionysus, who sailed a ship to Greece
bearing grape vines to introduce wine into Athens. Festivals and rituals were
held in the name of Dionysus
Wine was used in religious ceremonies, feasts, life and death and medicinal
High society indulged in the consumption of wine, you could say overindulged.
Greece was successful in growing and producing wine.
Greeks contributed to the growth in the wine industry and the improvement
of the wine making process in France.
Symposium was the social gathering of men who overindulged in and were
entertained by female performer's and handsome young boys.
Wine was encouraged in Greek society to free the mind, for relaxation and
In Greece, wine was linked to the creation of theatre and creativity.
“ It is this historical interaction between
people and the environment, creating a
specific cultural identity, that lies at the
heart of any understanding of the emergence
and spread of viticulture
and wine production.”
Unwin, T (1991) Wine and the vine pg. 1
Terroir is the word to describe all the aspects of
such as climate, soil landscape coming together.
It is the interaction between slope, aspect, soils, altitude,
humidity, shelter and drainage, and the way in which these
the critical elements of sunshine, temperature and wind, that
distinguishes between the nature of wines made from different
vineyards ( Unwin, T, 1991)
Quality and identity
Quality of wine was determined by physical differences between
regions and each individual vineyards .
As wine making knowledge and methods developed quality increased.
Demand for quality wine, for selected wines, from particular vineyards
created and increase of supply.
This produced the need of more exportation and importation.
Regions and individual vineyards started to become recognised and
were identified by their wine.
Wine produced from one vineyard would never be the same as the
Exportation and Importation
With Migration came the ability to transport the vine via waterways,
and introduce viticulture to new lands.
The vine spread in many different directions and became part of
many new cultures.
As population increased in particular regions due to the movement of
people, supply and demand became a contributing factor of the need
for exportation and importation.
Quality and identity influenced demand of selected wine from highly
reputable wine regions.
Wine was one of the first tradable commodities and helped form an
Bi products and industry was created because of wine production
Brief History of the growth of the wine
Commercial Italian estates, trading slaves for wine, expanded and exported to
major cities locally.
With the downfall of the Roman empire and the increased following of
Christianity wine developed quickly, profitability and increased production was
seen in France.
Christianity was seen to play a significant role in the survival of viticulture.
On going conflict and political change impacted on demand and production of
Attack by Vikings in France and the desire to explore brought interest from new
England was not suitable for viticulture due to climate and their was demand.
England was able to export to Europe their textiles and wool, trade agreement
With the revolution and continuing experimentation of storage of wine, it was
becoming more transportable.
wine from the
Influences of Localisation and
Importation pre history
Regions Identified around the world for being great wine producers
Supply and demand
Innovation of packaging and transport
Johnson, H & Robinson (1939) The Concise world atlas of wine (2009) London: Mitchell
Johnson, H, The story of wine (2004) London: Mitchell Beasley
Roberts, P (2013) Life and death in Pompeii and Herculaneum (2013) America: Oxford University Press
Seltman, C (1957) Wine in the ancient world (1957) London: Routledge & Kegan Paul
Varriano, J L (2010) Wine a cultural history (2010) London: Reaktion Books
Unwin, P. T. H (1991) Wine and the vine: an historical geography of viticulture and the wine trade, London: New York: