Importation and localisation of wine


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Importation and localisation of wine

  1. 1. Importation and localisation of wine History of culture and society Created by Shelly Freestone
  2. 2. Wine production evidence can be traced back to 8000 BC, in the country of Georgia, in the foothills of the Caucasus mountains. Early evidence of grape harvest and wine making also found in Iran, Egypt and Persia. In The Beginning….
  3. 3. Societies and Wine in Time in the early days  The family collected the grapes, then using simplistic wine making techniques to create naturally fermented wine, which was shared with the village for celebration.  Wine was used in food preparation.  Through time, wine became part of festivities and celebration in life, death and religious ceremonies among societies.  Many cultures used wine for medicinal purposes.  Wine defined social class in societies.  Social and political meetings were based around consumption of wine.
  4. 4. Social differences Social differences religion culture medicinal class beliefs knowledge Differences that impacted consumption, effecting localisation and importation
  5. 5. Egypt  Egyptian viticulture and wine production can be traced back early as 5000 BC.  Kings and religious leaders and high social classes were prieportiers of vineyards and offered wine to guests at celebrations and feasts.  Evidence found in tombs, Egyptians were the first to record winemaking practices.  Vintage details were also found on wine jars.  Egyptians used wine as offerings to the dead for use in their afterlife.  Offerings to the gods linked to earth and elements ensured they would be provided with necessities.  Egyptians used wine for medicinal purposes.  Egyptians produced their own wine but majority of wine, quality would have been poor due to the hot climate.  Egyptians imported wine in earthenware jars to keep up with the demand from other regions.
  6. 6. Rome  Wine was the preferred choice of drink with the Roman population.  Wine was used for ritual, religious and social ceremonies.  Wine was used for medicinal purposes  Dionysus was worshiped as the god of wine.  The cities such as Pompeii had drinking bars, called cauponas, which were social meeting houses, vineyards were established around the cities to supply these outlets.  Initially, Rome and the rest of southern Italy grew their own wine locally from wild vine and indigenous vines.  Italian farmers in the countryside had small crops to provide their families with wine.  Roman wine was not known for quality in the beginnings and was mixed with sea water, herbs and spices to dilute and help with flavour.  Romans during their years of conflict were responsible for spreading the wine to different regions.  When Pompeii and surrounds was buried in 79 AD there was a panic has there was a shortage of wine.
  7. 7. Greece  Greeks also worshipped the god of wine Dionysus, who sailed a ship to Greece bearing grape vines to introduce wine into Athens. Festivals and rituals were held in the name of Dionysus  Wine was used in religious ceremonies, feasts, life and death and medicinal purposes.  High society indulged in the consumption of wine, you could say overindulged.  Greece was successful in growing and producing wine.  Greeks contributed to the growth in the wine industry and the improvement of the wine making process in France.  Symposium was the social gathering of men who overindulged in and were entertained by female performer's and handsome young boys.  Wine was encouraged in Greek society to free the mind, for relaxation and inhabitation.  In Greece, wine was linked to the creation of theatre and creativity.
  8. 8. “ It is this historical interaction between people and the environment, creating a specific cultural identity, that lies at the heart of any understanding of the emergence and spread of viticulture and wine production.” Unwin, T (1991) Wine and the vine pg. 1
  9. 9. Physical Differences Terroir is the word to describe all the aspects of variables such as climate, soil landscape coming together. It is the interaction between slope, aspect, soils, altitude, humidity, shelter and drainage, and the way in which these factors influence the critical elements of sunshine, temperature and wind, that distinguishes between the nature of wines made from different vineyards ( Unwin, T, 1991)
  10. 10. Physical variables Location Climate Variety Water availability Land contour Transportation Skill Technology Population Consumption
  11. 11. Quality and identity  Quality of wine was determined by physical differences between regions and each individual vineyards .  As wine making knowledge and methods developed quality increased.  Demand for quality wine, for selected wines, from particular vineyards created and increase of supply.  This produced the need of more exportation and importation.  Regions and individual vineyards started to become recognised and were identified by their wine.  Wine produced from one vineyard would never be the same as the neighbours.
  12. 12. Exportation and Importation  With Migration came the ability to transport the vine via waterways, and introduce viticulture to new lands.  The vine spread in many different directions and became part of many new cultures.  As population increased in particular regions due to the movement of people, supply and demand became a contributing factor of the need for exportation and importation.  Quality and identity influenced demand of selected wine from highly reputable wine regions.  Wine was one of the first tradable commodities and helped form an economy.  Bi products and industry was created because of wine production
  13. 13. Brief History of the growth of the wine industry  Commercial Italian estates, trading slaves for wine, expanded and exported to major cities locally.  With the downfall of the Roman empire and the increased following of Christianity wine developed quickly, profitability and increased production was seen in France.  Christianity was seen to play a significant role in the survival of viticulture.  On going conflict and political change impacted on demand and production of wine.  Attack by Vikings in France and the desire to explore brought interest from new worlds.  England was not suitable for viticulture due to climate and their was demand.  England was able to export to Europe their textiles and wool, trade agreement were formed.  With the revolution and continuing experimentation of storage of wine, it was becoming more transportable.
  14. 14. Ships arriving from England to collect wine from the Bordeaux in exchange for textiles, food and metals
  15. 15. Influences of Localisation and Importation pre history  Development  Innovation  Identity  Social Acceptance  Trade  Economic growth  Knowledge  Industrial change
  16. 16. Current industry  Global industry  Regions Identified around the world for being great wine producers  Supply and demand  Innovation of packaging and transport  Competitive markets  Sustainability  Employment  Tourism
  17. 17. Picture references  20130320_1_aglianico-ancient-grape-leonardo-locascio pg. 1  pg. 5  pg.15  pg. 6  pg. 5  pg7  pg9  soon-first-grape-harvest-2012/vino-novello/inside/novello-wine-italy-vineyards.jpg pg9  pg. 9  pg. 14  Huadong-Xi-Xia-King-Yunnan-Hong-Dragon-Seal-Bodega-Langes-Suntime-Champs-Dor-Yeli-Spumante- Taillan-Domaine-Franco-Chinois.jpg.jpg pg.16
  18. 18. References  Johnson, H & Robinson (1939) The Concise world atlas of wine (2009) London: Mitchell  Beasley  Johnson, H, The story of wine (2004) London: Mitchell Beasley   Roberts, P (2013) Life and death in Pompeii and Herculaneum (2013) America: Oxford University Press   Seltman, C (1957) Wine in the ancient world (1957) London: Routledge & Kegan Paul   Varriano, J L (2010) Wine a cultural history (2010) London: Reaktion Books   Unwin, P. T. H (1991) Wine and the vine: an historical geography of viticulture and the wine trade, London: New York: Routledge 