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Abc's of vision impairments and communication styles


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Abc's of vision impairments and communication styles

  1. 1. ABC’s of Vision Impairments andCommunication Styles
  2. 2. Vision Impairments• Cataracts• Retinal Detachment• Retinitus Pigmentosa• Usher Syndrome• Macular Degeneration• Glaucoma
  3. 3. Normal View of Picture
  4. 4. Cataracts
  5. 5. CataractsClouding of the lens of the eyeCaused by buildup of protein in the lensTypes of cataracts include:Age-related - develop with ageCongenital - found in babies born with aninfection, injury or poor development beforebirth, or develop during childhoodSecondary - develop as a result of othermedical conditions such as diabetes or exposureto toxic substances, drugs, ultraviolet lights orradiationTraumatic - develop after injury to the eye
  6. 6. Cataracts (con’t)Symptoms:-vision that is cloudy, blurry, foggy, or filmy-progressive nearsightedness in older people-changes in view of color-glare problems when driving at night-glare problems during the day-double vision-sudden changes in glasses prescriptionCataracts are diagnosed through an eye examTreatment for cataracts-eyeglasses to correct vision-surgery if glasses correction is not enough
  7. 7. Normal View of Picture
  8. 8. Retinal Detachment
  9. 9. Retinal DetachmentVery serious eye condition that occurs when theretina separates from the tissue around itMust be repaired immediately or can causepermanent vision lossSymptoms:-flashes of light-seeing “floaters” (small flecks or threads)-darkening of your peripheral visionDiagnosed through an eye exam
  10. 10. Retinal Detachment (con’t)Treatments:-Laser or freezing - both will repair the tear if caughtearly enough-Pneumatic retinopexy - (used if tear is small and easy toclose) a small gas bubble is injected into the eye and willrise pressing against retina closing the tear. Laser orfreezing is then done to seal the tear.-Scleral buckle - involves surgically sewing a silicone band(buckle) around the sclera (white of the eye) to push thesclera toward the tear until the tear heals. This bandcan not be seen and is permanently attached. Laser orfreezing might be done to seal the tear.-Vitrectomy - used for large tears and is requiressurgery. The doctor removes the vitreous and replaces itwith a saline solution.
  11. 11. Normal View of Picture
  12. 12. RP/Ushers Syndrome
  13. 13. Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) group of genetic eye conditions leading to incurable blindness starts with night blindness and moves into tunnel vision (progression is different for everyone) can run in families and can be caused by a number of genetic defects
  14. 14. RP (con’t)Symptoms:-decreased vision at night or in low light-loss of peripheral vision-loss of central visionTests for diagnosis:-color vision-dilation of the pupils to look at the retina-fluorescein angiography (fluorescent dye injected intobloodstream which allows blood vessels in the back ofthe eye to be photographed)-pupil reflex response-visual field test-visual acuity
  15. 15. RP (con’t)Treatment:-no effective treatment for this conditionalthough wearing sunglasses to protect retinafrom ultraviolet light may help preserve vision-high doses of vitamin A may slow the diseasebut could cause damage to the liver-clinical trials are in place to test newtreatments such as DHA (omega-3 fatty acid)
  16. 16. Usher Syndrome• An inherited disease causing a hearing loss and degeneration of the retina• Earliest symptom is a loss of hearing usually at birth• Later a reduction of side vision leaving only center vision• Later developing into “tunnel vision”• Many people with Usher Syndrome also have severe balance problems.
  17. 17. Usher Syndrome(three different types)
  18. 18. RP/Ushers/Glaucoma
  19. 19. Glaucomadisease in which the optic nerveis damagedassociated with the increasedpressure of fluid in the eye2nd most common cause ofblindness in the United States
  20. 20. Glaucoma (con’t)Types of Glaucoma:Open-angle (chronic) - most common type with anincrease of eye pressure that occurs over time pushing onthe optic nerveAngle-closure (acute) - when the exit of the aqueoushumor fluid is suddenly blocked causing quick, severe, andpainful rise in the pressure of the eye (this is an eyeemergency)Congenital - present in babies at birth and is caused byabnormal eye developmentSecondary - caused by drugs such as corticosteroids, eyediseases such as uveitis, systemic diseases or trauma
  21. 21. Glaucoma (con’t)Symptoms:Open-angle - most people have no symptoms, once visionloss occurs the damage is already severe, there is a slowloss of peripheral vision, advanced glaucoma can lead toblindnessAngle-closure - may come and go at first, quick andsevere pain in one eye, decreased or cloudy vision, nauseaand vomiting, halos around lights, red eye, eye feelsswollenCongenital - noticed in babies a few months old,cloudiness of the front of the eye, eyes look enlarged,red eye, sensitivity to light, tearing
  22. 22. Glaucoma (con’t)Tests for diagnosis:-complete eye exam including dilation-tonometry (pressure test of the eye)-gonioscopy (special lens to look at eye)-optic nerve imaging-examination of the retina in the back of theeye-slit lamp examination-visual acuity-visual field measurement
  23. 23. Glaucoma (con’t)Treatment:-goal of treatment is to lower eye pressure somight be given eye drops or pills to lowerpressure-iridotomy (laser therapy)-eye surgery
  24. 24. Seeing the world with advanced tunnel vision.
  25. 25. Advanced Tunnel Vision
  26. 26. Normal View of Picture
  27. 27. Early Stage Macular Degeneration with Center Vision
  28. 28. Late Stage Macular Degeneration with Center Vision
  29. 29. Macular Degenerationwith Incomplete Scotoma
  30. 30. Macular Degeneration with Ring Scotoma
  31. 31. Macular Degenerationwith Absolute Scotoma
  32. 32. Floaters fromMacular or Diabetes
  33. 33. Macular Degenerationloss of vision in the center of the visual field (the macula) due todamage to the retinadifficult to read or recognize faces due to the loss of central visionperipheral vision remains allowing for other daily activities tocontinueleading cause of legal blindness in people over 55 in the UnitedStatesTwo forms: Dry (atrophic) which is a result of the gradualbreakdown of cells in the macula. Wet (exudative or neovascular)which is a result of newly created abnormal blood vessels growingunder the center of the retina.
  34. 34. Macular Degeneration (con’t)Symptoms:-blurred or decreased central vision-blind spots-straight lines look irregular or bent-objects appear different colors and shapes in each eyeTests for diagnosis:-Amsler grid - test to determine defects in center vision(if have macular degeneration lines on test might appearfaded, broken, or distorted)-exam of the back of the eye-angiogram - dye injected into blood stream so thatimages of blood vessels can be taken-tomography - imaging test to see areas of the retina
  35. 35. Macular Degeneration (con’t) Treatments: -no cure found for the dry form although studies have shown antioxidants may protect the retina from damage -laser treatment may help with the wet form of macular degeneration possibly stopping or lessening the vision loss in the early stages of the disease
  36. 36. Methods ofCommunicating & Interpreting • At close range • At far range • Tactile – one or both hands • Tracking • Tadoma • Braille • Print on palm or back
  37. 37. At Close Range
  38. 38. At Far Range
  39. 39. Tactile(one handed or two handed)
  40. 40. Tactile* *point of video is viewing tactile signing it is not about what she is saying but how see is communicating to the student
  41. 41. Tracking
  42. 42. Tadoma
  43. 43. Tadoma
  44. 44. Braille
  45. 45. Print on Palm
  46. 46. Print on Back
  47. 47. The Interpreting Assignment• Mobility – What are the requirements of the Deaf-Blind person and how will it affect the interpreter?• Length of the assignment – Will you need a partner interpreter?• Familiarizing the Deaf-Blind person with the room and surroundings• Special needs – food, medication, restrooms, seating, etc.
  48. 48. The Interpreting Assignment• Codes – restroom, coffee breaks, exercise breaks, meal breaks• Seating arrangements – Who faces the speaker?• Clothing – dark clothing with high necks may be most appropriate• Lighting – How much residual vision does the Deaf-Blind person have?
  49. 49. The Interpreting Assignment• Participation – How should comments or questions be added to presentation?• Social Situations – Are you “off duty” at lunch time?• Personal Hygiene – body odors or bad breathe, perfume, etc
  50. 50. ResourcesBraille
  51. 51. Resources (con’t)Images Degeneration Detachment
  52. 52. Resources (con’t)Retinitis Pigmentosa Syndrome