Senior Project Research Paper 2011-12


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Senior Project Research Paper 2011-12

  1. 1. Fleming 1Shelby FlemingTilleryBritish Literature12 October 2011 Blood is a component needed in the body to live. It is something that has been inlives for centuries. Blood is used in many different ways today, such as blood donations,transfusions, and research. The history of blood is very important in knowing where itcame from and how it has been used in the past. Blood drives are used around the countrytoday because of the constant need for blood. Blood is an important thing for basic living,so it is important to know everything about blood. The history of blood is important to understand when learning about blood. Bloodis a fluid that puts together families. It has been said that blood is “thicker thanwater”(Lawrence 328). Blood is one of the most important things in ancient medicalhistory. Many say that blood began to be confronted in the seventeenth century(Lawrence 328). Blood has been around for many years, it is one of the most importantthings in medical history. So what is blood? Blood is a fluid inside the body, which transports oxygen andnutrients to the cells and takes out carbon dioxide and other wastes. Blood pumps out ofthe heart and goes to all parts of the body and then goes back to the heart to do it all overagain (Encyclopedia Britannica 1). Blood is both a tissue and a fluid. It is a tissuebecause of groups of cells being put together and blood is a fluid because the cells are in
  2. 2. Fleming 2a liquid matrix (Encyclopedia Britannica 1). Blood is a need in the body, with out bloodflow a person would die within minutes. Blood is made up of so many different parts and is needed throughout the wholebody. Blood is made up of many parts including; hemoglobin, red blood cells, whiteblood cells, platelets, and plasma. Understanding the different parts of blood is veryimportant. Hemoglobin is a component of blood that is a unique iron containing protein.It brightens the color of the blood depending on if it is oxygenated or not (EncyclopediaBritannica 2). Red blood cells are forty-five percent of the volume of the blood. Whiteblood cells and platelets are the remaining cells and are less than one percent of the cells.The fluid portion is made by plasma. Plasma is clear, sticky fluid that helps the bloodtransport in the body (Encyclopedia Britannica 2). Blood typing is a process that happens when you donate blood. To bettercomprehend how people get blood types, it is essential to tell what antigen and antibodyare. An antigen is a protein that when it is put into a human that does not have the antigenwill cause an antibody to be made. Antibodies are immune system proteins that help killoff bacteria (Conneally 82). The antigens that are found on someone’s red blood cells tellyou what blood type they have. Many blood types are found by using the person’s bloodand a commercial serum. A technician in the lab figures out what blood type a person hasby the way their blood clumps or does not clump (Nordenson 531). Many different blood types are found through this process. The different bloodtypes are A, B, AB, and O. A person’s blood type is based on the presence or absence ofA and B antigens in the blood cells (Nordenson 532). The A blood type has only a A
  3. 3. Fleming 3antigen and the B blood type only has a B antigen. The blood type AB has both A and Bantigens and the O blood type has neither antigens (Nordenson 532). Blood supply is something that is needed in America daily. Blood supply refers toblood banks and hospitals that are needed everyday in the healthcare community. Bloodsupply consists of donated blood in units, which is measured in pints, that are usedeveryday to replace blood lost during surgery or traumatic injuries (Blaser 580). Bloodsupplies are needed in the United States. Blood supplies come from various blood banksaround the country (Blaser 580). Donating blood is a crucial thing for people to do every couple of months. TheAmerican Red Cross, Life South, and blood banks at local hospitals collect Blood units.Blood Donations are always needed because of the constant demand at hospitals andbecause of the short shelf life of blood (Blaser 580). Blood is taken when a needle is putinto a vein so that the blood can flow into a bag that is specially designed to prevent theblood from clotting. The average human has six quarts of blood in their body so the lossof one pint will not affect them very much. Healthy adults can donate blood every six toeight weeks (Blaser 580). The purpose of giving blood is to make sure that there is enough blood supply foraccident victims, peoples who have had surgery, or people with certain diseases needingblood. People can donate their own blood if they are getting an elective surgery that canbe put in their body when they are getting surgery. This process is called autologousblood donation (Gregutt 524). All of the blood that is donated has to be collected, tested,
  4. 4. Fleming 4prepared, stored, and delivered to the right places. More than seven million people donateblood each year in the United States (Gregutt 524). Blood transfusions happen every day in the United States. Each year more thanfour million Americans receive blood transfusions. These blood transfusions includemore than twenty- six million units of blood or thirty-two thousand units per a day(Gregutt 524). The purpose of a blood transfusion is to improve clotting time and restorelost blood. Some people who get a blood transfusion get whole blood, but many peopleonly need a transfusion of platelets or white blood cells. Whole blood is mainly usedwhen a person has lost a large amount of blood (Lohr 3366). Red blood cells are the mosttransfused component of blood; this is because red blood cells are the only cells in bloodthat transport oxygen (Lohr 3366). Blood transfusions can be deadly if not preformed right. Many precautions haveto be taken in blood transfusions. The most important precaution that has to be taken ismaking sure that the blood the recipient is getting matches their correct blood type. If theperson were to get the wrong blood type it could be fatal (Lohr 3366). They have to takeyour vital signs before you can even get a blood transfusion (Fallon 1551). The arm of thepatient is cleaned by a soap solution and then an iodine solution. The blood, from a bloodtransfusion, is then given right into the patient’s veins and they are watched very closelywhen it starts for signs of harmful reaction (Lohr 3369). If no reactions have happenedthe patient is then monitored on a period basis. After the transfusion process is over abandage is placed on the arm over the needle site to prevent bleeding (Lohr 3369).
  5. 5. Fleming 5 Many people who often need blood transfusions are people who have a blooddisorder. Most of the time these blood disorders are missing the component of blood thataids the blood in the clotting process. There are many blood disorders classified in thisgroup. The most known disease in this group is hemophilia (Norris 829). Treatment forhemophilia is the use of drugs or blood transfusions. This can be a very serious illnessand should be handled with a physician. Some these disorders can be prevented but someare hereditary (Norris 829). The act of giving blood is an essential to save lives. Right now, in the UnitedStates, there is a shortage of blood. Giving blood is such a simple process and morepeople should be interested in it. When someone gives blood it usually takes about anhour to get through the whole process. Then it takes about twenty-four hours for thedonor to fully recover after giving blood (Gregutt 525). Donors must be seventeen yearsold and in good health. A questionnaire is given to people before they are allowed to giveblood to make sure they do not have any diseases. Giving blood saves lives (Gregutt526). Blood is very important for basic life. It is used in many ways today; it can besomething that keeps someone alive. History was a huge part in the discovery of blood.People donate blood so that hospital workers can administer the blood to sick patientswho need it. It is used everyday to keep people alive from traumatic accidents anddiseases. Blood is an important component in life.
  6. 6. Fleming 6 Works Cited“Autologous Banking.” World of Microbiology and Immunology. Ed. Brenda Wilmoth Lerner and K. Lee Lerner. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2003. 38-39. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 24 Sept. 2011. <>. This source is a good source for my paper because it explains what they do with the blood after you donate it. It explains where they store it and what other things they can get blood cells from for blood transfusions. It is important to understand these processes.Blaser, Larry. “Blood Supply.” The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. 3rd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2004. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 24 Sept. 2011. <>. This source is a great source for my paper because the author talks about blood supply. He explains how the blood supply is very important and that donating blood is a important fact of life. He talks about what happens when they take the blood and the kind of people it goes too.Conneally, P. Michael. “Blood Type.” Genetics. Ed. Richard Robinson. Vol. 1. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2003. 82-86. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 24 Sept. 2011. <>. This is a good source to use in my paper because the author goes into depth about the different blood types. He also talks about the process that they have to go through to find the different blood types. It is a great source because I can explain how blood types affect
  7. 7. Fleming 7 people.Encyclopædia Britannica, prod. “blood.” Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc, n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2011. < article-9106084>. This source is a good source to use for my paper because it has specific details about blood. The source talks about what blood is made of and how it is transported through the body. It explains how blood is broken down into different parts in the body and how different organs in the body break down materials into the blood.Fallon, Fleming L. “Vital Signs.” The Gale Encyclopedia of Surgery. Ed. Anthony J. Senagore. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 1551-1554. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 Sept. 2011. < serGroupName=cant48040&tabID=T003&searchId=R12&resultListType=RESULT_LIS T&contentSegment=&searchType=BasicSearchForm&currentPosition=1&contentSet=G ALE%7CCX3406200484&&docId=GALE|CX3406200484&docType=GALE&role=>. This source is a good source to use for my paper because the Author is talking about vital signs. In a blood drive, they check your vital signs to make sure that you are able to give blood. It is important that they check your vitals to make sure that you are healthy enough to give blood.Gregutt, Peter. “Blood Donation and Registry.” The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Ed. Deirdre S. Blanchfield and Jacqueline L. Longe. 2nd ed. Gale, 2002. Web. 14 Sept. 2011. < serGroupName=cant48040&tabID=T003&searchId=R2&resultListType=RESULT_LIS
  8. 8. Fleming 8 T&contentSegment=&searchType=BasicSearchForm&currentPosition=1&contentSet=G ALE%7CCX3405600246&&docId=GALE|CX3405600246&docType=GALE&role=>. This source is a good source for my paper because the author explains the blood donation process. He also explains the purpose of donating blood. He explains the precautions for giving blood. He also explains the preperation,aftercare, and risks of giving blood. He explains the abnormal and normal results of a blood donation.Lawrence, Christopher. “Biomedicine and Health: Blood.” Scientific Thought: In Context. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2009. 328-334. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <>. This source is good for my paper because the author explains the history of what blood is and how people looked at it in the past. He also explains how the modern society views blood and how it is used today. He explains why AIDS people need blood transplants and how that affects the way they live.Lohr, John T. “Transfusion.” The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Ed. Jacqueline L. Longe and Deirdre S. Blanchfield. 2nd ed. Vol. 5. Detroit: Gale, 2002. 3366-3369. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 Sept. 2011. < serGroupName=cant48040&tabID=T003&searchId=R6&resultListType=RESULT_LIS T&contentSegment=&searchType=BasicSearchForm&currentPosition=4&contentSet=G ALE%7CCX3405601595&&docId=GALE|CX3405601595&docType=GALE&role=>. The author of this source explains, in depth, the process of blood transfusions. He explains the descriptions between whole blood and the different types of blood
  9. 9. Fleming 9 components. He goes on to advance about the precautions for the donor and the recipient. He gives specific details about how many people give blood a year. He talks about the a blood donors health and what diseases they have could affect if they can give blood. He talks about the different types of transfusions and blood processing. This source is perfect to explain the significance of a blood drive.Nordenson, Nancy J. “Blood Typing and Crossmatching.” The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Ed. Deirdre S. Blanchfield and Jacqueline L. Longe. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2002. 531-534. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 Sept. 2011. < ps/ serGroupName=cant48040&tabID=T003&searchId=R4&resultListType=RESULT_LIS T&contentSegment=&searchType=BasicSearchForm&currentPosition=12&contentSet= GALE%7CCX3405600249&&docId=GALE|CX3405600249&docType=GALE&role=>. The author explains the act of blood transfusions. The author also explains what blood types there are and how they have to match up for a person to give blood. They explain how blood is used to help people with certain diseases. They also explain what a blood bank is and how the blood banks cross match the blood to match a persons blood type. It explains the process and what to expect in a blood transfusion.Norris, Teresa. “Coagulation Disorders.” The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Ed. Deirdre S. Blanchfield and Jacqueline L. Longe. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Detroit: Gale, 2002. 826-830. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <>. This is a good source to use in my paper because the author talks about the different
  10. 10. Fleming 10diseases in which a person might need blood. The author is explaining how blood clotsand the missing components a person can be missing from blood. The author explainsthat these people might end up getting blood transfusions if they cannot clot blood.