1. R.B. Cattell’s Theory
2. Big Five Model
By- Vivek Shekhar Gaur, U.P. India.
PSYCHOMETRIC THEORY PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY
1. Charles Spearman Theory 1. Sigmund Freud’s Theory
2. Thurstone Theory 2. Alfred Adler’s Theory
3. Joy P. Guilford theory 3. Erik Erikson Theory
4. Eysenck’s Gigantic Three Theory 4. Carl Jung and MBTI
5. R.B. Cattell’s Theory 5. Transactional Analysis
6. Big Five Factor Model
R.B. CATTELL THEORY
• Cattell theory was proposed by Raymond Bernard Cattell in
• It was published in 1949.
• The theory called as 16PF where PF stand for ‘personality factor’.
• (The theory is based on lexical hypothesis.
• First lexical study –Gordon Allport and H.S. Odbert.1936
• They found 17953 worlds of psychological aspect.)
• They again reduce it to 4500
• Cattell obtained 180 then 42-46 and at last 16 word to describe
Table : Factors in Cattel 16PF
No. FACTOR TRAITS VERSUS
• 1 factor A warmth (reserved )
• 2 factor B reasoning (concrete vs abstract)
• 3 factor C emotional (reactive)
• 4 factor E dominance (deferential)
• 5 factor F liveliness (serious)
• 6 factor G rule-consciousness (expedient)
• 7 factor H social boldness ( shy)
• 8 factor I SENSITIVITY (UTILITARIAN)
• 9 factor L vigilance ( trusting)
• 10 factor M abstractedness (practical; grounded)
• 11. factor N privateness (forthright)
• 12 factor O apprehension ( self assured)
• 13 factor Q1 openness to change (traditional)
• 14. factor Q2 self-reliance (group oriented)
• 15 factor Q3 perfectionism (tolerates)
• 16 factor Q4 tension ( relaxed)
BIG FIVE MODEL
• This model is proposed by Mr. Paul Sinclair.1992
• Psychologist and psychometrics.
• Also based and developed from lexical hypothesis
• After Cattell’s initial work NORMAN take out
1431 descriptors mold down to 75 adjectives.
• It was believed that big five model is univerasal
FIVE FACTOR TAXONOMY
According to big five model there are five
major personality traits.
3. Openness to Experience.
HIGH AVERAGE LOW
Extrovert, outgoing, active
, high spirit
Moderate in activity and
Introvert ,reserved , serious.
natured, avoid conflict.
Trusting , warmth, some
Hard headed, proud, anger
Conscientiousness, and well
organised , high standard,
Dependable, moderate Easy going, careless, don’t
Sensitive, emotional, prone to
Imaginative, broad interest
Calm and able to deal with
stress , but feel anger ,guilt etc
Practical, balance b/w new
Secure , hard, relaxed under
Down to earth, practical, set
in their own ways
Criticism of Big Five Model
• Limited scope
• Religious, honesty, self awareness, critical judgment.
• Methodological issues
• Theoretical research
Jack black in jan-2010 criticised it as:
1. Cloudy measurement
2. Inappropriate for studying early childhood
3. Existence of various unrecognized but successful effort
to specify aspect of character not subsumed by 5factor.