NEPAL ADMINSTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE                             Jawalakhel, Lalitpur  Training programme on “Local Governanc...
AbbreviationADB     Asian Development BankBS      Bikram SambatCBO     Community Based OrganizationsCHRDU   Central for Hu...
NGO    Non Governmental OrganizationsOPEC   Organization of the Petroleum Exporting CountriesPIU    Project Implementation...
AcknowledgementWe are heartily grateful to Nepal Administrative Staff College (NASC), Department of WaterSupply and Sewera...
AbstractWater is one of the prime necessities of human life. Since last few decades, Kathmandu Valley isfacing chronic dri...
Table of ContentContents                                                                                                  ...
Chapter 5: Findings..........................................................................................................
Chapter 1: Introduction of the study1.1 BackgroundMelamchi project is located in Kathmandu and Shindhupalchok District in ...
iii) Institutional reforms; andiv) Project implementation support.                                     Photo 1: Layout of ...
Total estimated cost of the MWSP is US$317.3millon. Out of US$317.3 million Subproject I,Melamchi Water Supply Project (MW...
Photo:2 Interview with Community1.5 Organization of the studyThis report provides background information of the Melamchi w...
Chapter 2: Introduction of the organization/Department2.1 BackgroundMelamchi Water Supply Development Board (MWSDB) was es...
Melamchi Water Supply Development Board (MWSDB) consists of a highly dedicated,experienced and professional team of staffs...
among the government, donors and other stakeholders which are working in different sectors inthe project.ii. Project Imple...
2.5 Organization Chart                         Page 8
Chapter 3: Introduction of the Topic3.1 Social Impact in the Outlet of the Melamchi Water Transferring Tunnel inSundarijal...
This program is conducted in three phases i.e. pre-construction, during construction and postconstruction. This includes i...
Chapter 4: SWOT AnalysisSWOT is an acronym that stands for Strengths. Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT)it is al...
SWOT ANALYSISA) Strength and WeaknessStrength                                  Weakness   1. Satisfaction due to the effec...
B) Opportunity and ThreatOpportunity                                   Threat      1. Project can be implemented in Projec...
Chapter 5: FindingsSundarijal-7, the field of our re-search about the social impacts due to the water transferringtunnel o...
3. Interaction with the local people about project    Major number of the local people has positively responsed with the i...
Graph 3: Consequences due to crack5. Satisfaction by the compensation provided    More than 50% of the people were satisfi...
6. Methodology of demands    More than half of the population was aware of the methodology of the way of the    demands an...
the education sector by constructing school building nearby site. Some of the people    does not mention the benefits by t...
Graph 7: Disadvantages10. Pre Commitment to the Community    Almost of the people say that the commitment that were put to...
In sum up, the people was found to be positive towards the successful implementation projectand become the part of the con...
Chapter 6: ConclusionThis study briefly summarized the social impacts at Sundarijal VDC Ward No 7 due toconstruction of tu...
Chapter 7: Recommendations with Action planIn this study we have only incorporated the social impacts due to tunnel constr...
ReferencesCenter for Policy Analysis and Development (CPAD) Nepal, International Water ManagementInstitute (IWMI), Nepal P...
Annexes          Page 24
Annex-1: Sample of Social Questionnaire                                                           3/w/L ;e]{If0f          ...
==========================================================================================================================...
!$_ cfof]hgf k|lt tkfO{sf] wf/0ff s] 5 <s_ /fd|f]            v_ g/fd|f]                                           Page 27
Annex-2: Survey Data                       Page 28
Annex-3: Photographs                       Page 29
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Report on study of socail impact due to tunnel construction at sundarijal  outlet of melamchi water supply project
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Report on study of socail impact due to tunnel construction at sundarijal outlet of melamchi water supply project
By: Er. Shekhar Chandra K.C.
Er. Rajendra Sapkota
Er. Amit Ranjit
Er. Lokendra Prasad Yadav
Er. Yogendra Chitrakar

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Report on study of socail impact due to tunnel construction at sundarijal outlet of melamchi water supply project

  1. 1. NEPAL ADMINSTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE Jawalakhel, Lalitpur Training programme on “Local Governance and Development” for Class-III Technical Officers of the Department of Water Supply and Sewerage, Government of Nepal (2068/7/24 – 2068/8/28) A Study Report on Social Impact in Tunnel Outlet Zone (Sundarijal-7)Submitted by: Submitted To:Er. Amit Ranjit Nepal Administrative Staff CollegeEr. Lokendra Prasad Yadav Jawalakhel, LalitpurEr. Rajendra SapkotaEr. Shekhar Chandra K.C.Er. Yogendra Chitrakar
  2. 2. AbbreviationADB Asian Development BankBS Bikram SambatCBO Community Based OrganizationsCHRDU Central for Human Resource Development UnitDWMB Drinking Water Management BoardDWSS Department of Water Supply and SewerageEIA Environmental Impact AssessmentEMP Environment Management PlanGoN Government of NepalHHs HouseholdsJBIC Japan Bank for International CooperationJICA Japan International Co-operation Agencykm Kilo MeterKUKL Kathmandu Upatkyaka Khanepane Limitedm MeterMASL Meter above sea levelMLD Million Liters per DayMoGA Ministry of General AdministrationMoPPW Ministry of Physical Planning and WorksMWSDB Melamchi Water supply Development BoardMWSP Melamchi Water Supply ProjectNASC Nepal Administrative Staff CollegeNCCN Nepal Construction Company Nepal LimitedNDF Nordic Development Fund Page i
  3. 3. NGO Non Governmental OrganizationsOPEC Organization of the Petroleum Exporting CountriesPIU Project Implementation UnitPMU Project Management UnitRCC Reinforced Cement ConcreteSUP Social Upliftment ProgramUS$ US dollarVDC Village Development CommitteeWDT Water Diversion TunnelWTP Water Treatment Plant Page ii
  4. 4. AcknowledgementWe are heartily grateful to Nepal Administrative Staff College (NASC), Department of WaterSupply and Sewerage (DWSS) and Center for Human Resource Development Unit (CHRDU)for providing us such a valuable participation in the training program on “Local Governance andDevelopment”. Accordingly we express our heartfelt gratitude to our coordinator team viz Mr.Braham Deo Roy, Dr. Sundar Shyam Maskey, Mr. Gokarna Aryal, Ms. Tulsa Hamal, Ms. DeviBasnet for providing us their valuable comments and suggestion during entire training period.Likewise we also would like to thank Mr. Punya Prasad Neupanne (Executive Director ofNASC), Mr. Nawal Kishor Mishra (Ex. Chief of CHRDU) and other respected resource personof the training program.Our special thank goes to Melamchi Water Supply Development Committee, Minbhawan forproviding us logistic support as well as required information related to our study. We extremelyappreciate motivating direction from executive director of the board Mr. Krishna PrasadAcharya. Similarly we would like to thank Chief Project Engineer Mr. Shivendra Jha, Er.Madhav Nepal, environment expert Naragopal Rai and all other staffs in the site.Finally, we express our thanks to all professionals, who contributed directly or indirectly duringthe preparation of this report. Page iii
  5. 5. AbstractWater is one of the prime necessities of human life. Since last few decades, Kathmandu Valley isfacing chronic drinking water crisis due to booming of population and shrinking of surfacesource and depletion of ground water. According to the study carried out for the fulfillment ofwater demand of the valley, Melamchi Water Supply Project became the most suitable drinkingwater supply option for the valley. The project areas stretch from the intake at Melamchi river inShindhupalchok district to the outlet at Sundarijal in Kathmandu district through 26.21 km longtunnel in order to transfer 170 MLD water.This study area covers the outlet of the tunnel zone, Sundarijal-7, Kathmandu and our study islimited to the social impacts due to tunnel construction. We have taken data of one-third of totalhouseholds. This study addresses some of the questions and concerns related to Melamchi watertransfer project at Sundarijal-7. This is done by adopting an exploratory case study approach ofresearch methodology to carry out the field study of project sites. Analyzing the collected data,the findings are discovered in order to fulfill the scope our study.During tunnel construction by blasting, cracks are observed in houses of local people. As a resultof which they are terrified to live in their houses. Cracked houses are already mapped byimplementing agency. Compensation must be given as soon as possible in order to implementthe project smoothly in future. Page iv
  6. 6. Table of ContentContents Page NoAbbreviation ............................................................................................................................................ iAcknowledgement ................................................................................................................................. iiiAbstract ................................................................................................................................................. ivTable of Content...................................................................................................................................... vChapter 1: Introduction of the study........................................................................................................ 1 1.1 Background.................................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Objective of the Study.................................................................................................................... 3 1.3 Scope of Study ............................................................................................................................... 3 1.4 Methodology ................................................................................................................................. 3 1.5 Organization of the study............................................................................................................... 4Chapter 2: Introduction of the organization/Department ........................................................................ 5 2.1 Background.................................................................................................................................... 5 2.2 Objective ....................................................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Organization structure and staffing pattern ................................................................................... 5 2.4 Others ........................................................................................................................................... 6 2.5 Organization Chart......................................................................................................................... 8Chapter 3: Introduction of the Topic........................................................................................................ 9 3.1 Social Impact in the Outlet of the Melamchi Water Transferring Tunnel in Sundarijal..................... 9 3.2 Social Upliftment Program (SUP).................................................................................................... 9Chapter 4: SWOT Analysis..................................................................................................................... 11 Page v
  7. 7. Chapter 5: Findings............................................................................................................................... 14Chapter 6: Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... 21Chapter 7: Recommendations with Action plan ............................................................................... 22References ............................................................................................................................................ 23 Page vi
  8. 8. Chapter 1: Introduction of the study1.1 BackgroundMelamchi project is located in Kathmandu and Shindhupalchok District in the CentralDevelopment Region of Nepal. The intake site is located in the upper part of the Melamchi Riverbasin about one km North West of Dorin Village and about 0.5 km south east of Ghwakangvillage at an elevation of about 1425 MASL near Riberma. The project areas stretches from theintake at Melamchi river to the outlet at Sundarijal, about 14 km north-east of Kathmandu valley.The Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) is considered to be the most viable long-termalternative to ease the chronic water shortage situation within the Kathmandu Valley. The Projectis designed to divert about 170 MLD of fresh water to Kathmandu Valley from the MelamchiRiver in Shindhupalchok district. Augmenting this supply by adding about a further 170 MLDeach from the Yangri and Larke rivers, which lie in the upstream proximity of Melamchi are alsobeing investigated as future supply sources.Ministry of Physical Planning and Works (MPPW) is the executing agency for the Project and anautonomous Melamchi Water Supply Development Board, formulated for Projectimplementation, is the implementing agency.The Board, as an independent project implementing body has come a long way to collect thenecessary funds to implement the project since 1998. The major donor of the project, AsianDevelopment Bank (ADB) approved a Loan 1820-NEP (SF) on 21st December, 2000 and it waseffective from 28th November, 2001. After six years of project implementation, Government ofNepal and the projects funding partners, felt necessity to change the scopes of projectimplementation arrangement by splitting the MWSP into the following two distinct sub-projectsin 2007;(i) the Melamchi River Water Diversion Subproject (Sub-Project-1) covering all projectactivities in Melamchi Valley including constructions of Water Diversion Tunnel (WDT) andWater Treatment Plant (WTP) at Sundarijal and(ii) Kathmandu Valley Water Supply and Sanitation Subproject (Subproject -2) comprising waterdistribution activities in Kathmandu Valley. EMP implementation requirements as per EIA andEMP of MWSP, 2000 and 2001 have been covered both of these sub-projects.The MWSP originally comprised four parts:i) Infrastructure development;ii) Social and environmental support; Page 1
  9. 9. iii) Institutional reforms; andiv) Project implementation support. Photo 1: Layout of Project Source: Annual Progress Report, Melamchi Water Supply Board, 2065 Page 2
  10. 10. Total estimated cost of the MWSP is US$317.3millon. Out of US$317.3 million Subproject I,Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) will be utilizing US$ 249.4 million with followingcontribution of different donors ADB - US$ 103.8 m 41.62%, JBIC(JICA) – US$47.5 m 19%,NDF- US$- 10.5 m 4.2%, OPEC- US$ 13.7m 5.5% and GoN US$73.9 m (29.63%) andSubproject II, Kathmandu Valley Water Supply and Sanitation Subproject will be utilizingremaining US$ 67.9 million.The major work under this scheme is the construction of Diversion tunnel approximately 26.3km long excavated by drill and blast method in order to divert 170 MLD of raw water fromMelamchi River to Sundarijal.1.2 Objective of the StudyThe main purpose of the study is to review and summarized key social issues in Sundarijal VDCward no 7 and 8 due to construction of tunnel. The specific objectives of the study are as follows:a. To review and synthesize key social issues due to tunnel construction by blast methodb. To study the social impacts due to project activities.1.3 Scope of StudyThe scope of this study is limited to the social issues in Sundarijal V.D.C ward no. 7 due to theconstruction of tunnel. The study mainly focuses on adverse impact due to blasting and otheractivities of the projects.1.4 MethodologyThis study has adopted the review of past studies on the impact of tunnel construction atSundarijal. The social impacts assessment of the existing livelihood activities has been carriedout based on villager’s response. This study addresses some of the concerns related to tunnelconstruction. This is done by detailed field studies, key informant’s interviews, focused groupdiscussion and direct conversation in the field.The field visit has been carried out in the project area of Sundarijal-7 to conduct the abovemention activities from 4th Dec to 6th Dec, 2011. The detail of the field study has been presentedin Annex. Page 3
  11. 11. Photo:2 Interview with Community1.5 Organization of the studyThis report provides background information of the Melamchi water supply project and briefdiscussion of tunnel construction at Sundarijal, objectives of the study, methodologies of thestudy and the scope of the study in the introductory chapter one of this report. This was followedby the background information of organization, objective of the organization, organizationstructure and staffing pattern in the chapter second. The report then followed by introductionabout the social impact due to tunnel construction in the chapter third. SWOT analysis ispresented in chapter four. Similarly the people’s perception about negative and positive impactsof the project implementation and the findings are presented in chapter five. This was followedby the conclusion of the study on chapter six and finally, the recommendation with action plan ispresented on chapter seven. Page 4
  12. 12. Chapter 2: Introduction of the organization/Department2.1 BackgroundMelamchi Water Supply Development Board (MWSDB) was established by the Government ofNepal in November 9, 1998 (2055/7/23 BS) as an implementing agency of Melamchi watersupply project.Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) was designed to finance four major components (i)Infrastructure Development, (ii) Social and Environmental Support; (iii) institutional reforms;and (iv) Project implementation Support.2.2 ObjectiveThe primary objective of the Project is to alleviate the chronic shortage of potable water inKathmandu Valley on a sustainable long-term basis, and thereby to improve the health and well-being of its inhabitants, particularly the poor.The project is designed to serve good quality potable drinking water as per World HealthOrganization’s guideline to feed in improved distribution network as set out by the MelamchiWater Supply Project – Subproject II.In addition to this, project also aims a reliable, affordable, consumer oriented and sustainablepotable water supply and sanitation services in the Kathmandu Valley.2.3 Organization structure and staffing patternConstitutions of the MWSDB comprised the following designations:Chairman –The Secretary, Ministry of Physical Planning and WorksMember – Representative (Gazetted First Class), Ministry of FinanceMember – Representative (Gazetted First class), Ministry of Water Resources (This member isreplaced by the Chairman/representative from Hyolmo Sindhu Melamchi SUP ImplementationCommittee as amended by the government of Nepal on 27 April 2010 (14/01/2067)Member – Mayor, Kathmandu Metropolitan City Page 5
  13. 13. Melamchi Water Supply Development Board (MWSDB) consists of a highly dedicated,experienced and professional team of staffs serving in different positions. The Board has its ownstaff who has been working on a regular basis since its establishment in 1998.Many experts in the areas of water supply, sewerage, environment and sanitation managementare also working from different ministries and departments of the government of Nepal such asDepartment of Water Supply and Sewerage (DWSS), Ministry of Physical Planning and Works(MoPPW), Kathmandu Upatkyaka Khanepane Limited (KUKL), Ministry of GeneralAdministration (MoGA), Nepal Construction Company Nepal Limited (NCCN) etc. So, theBoard has a team of experts from diverse field of expertise.In addition, there are several staffs who are working on a contract basic in different phases of theproject implementation. Whenever the Board deemed necessity in any stage to the project work,it will hire required national and international experts as per the need.2.4 OthersThe Management Structure of MWSDB refers all management units established to supportdifferent activities of the Melamchi Water Supply project. The central office at Minbhawan,Kathmandu (Board’s Office) is headed by the Executive Director (Member Secretary of theBoard) with two major unit each headed by the Deputy Executive Director.i. Project Management Unit (PMU) andii. Project Implementation Unit (PIU)i. Project Management Unit (PMU)Under PMU, at the central office, there are again five major divisions i.e. Administration,Procurement, Finance and Accounts, Engineering and Legal.Most of the managerial services pertinent to administration, procurement, finance andengineering are performed from the central office (Kathmandu). Also, the legal division providescounseling on different legal issues relating to project implementation, compensation, re-settlement and tendering related activities.Further, PMU coordinates with line agencies like – ministry, national planning commission,ministry of finance and other government bodies which need different services and support whileimplementing the project. All activities pertinent to communicate with Donors, Experts andSpecialist etc. are also a major task of PMU. This includes reporting and maintaining a balance Page 6
  14. 14. among the government, donors and other stakeholders which are working in different sectors inthe project.ii. Project Implementation Unit (PIU)PIU on the other hand mainly refers to the management of Melamchi Camp site Office located atthe Melamchi Pool Bazaar of Shindhupalchok district and is responsible for the implementationof construction activities carried by MWSDB. This site office is focused to serve differentproject related services and support from the field level. Not only this, PIU works to its best tocreate a friendly working environment at the Project Site.This office provides all sorts of administrative and managerial services to Contractors whoperforms different construction work at the project site. PIU also facilitates all local bodies toexecute various project related services implemented under Social Upliftment Program (SUP). Incase of difficulties and emergencies PIU can coordinate/report to PMU for further support tofacilitate the project activities at the project site. Page 7
  15. 15. 2.5 Organization Chart Page 8
  16. 16. Chapter 3: Introduction of the Topic3.1 Social Impact in the Outlet of the Melamchi Water Transferring Tunnel inSundarijalIt is the evidence fact that during the implementation process of any development program, it iscompulsory to analyze program implementation area and the effects to the inhabitants of thatarea. The effective evaluation of the effects to the society, individuals and the environment helpsto implement the project and lead to success and consecutive sustainability.Likewise, In this Melamchi Water Supply Project, those VDCs, community and areas which aredirectly affected by the project are included in the detail study during the process of transferringdrinking water from Melamchi to Kathmandu. Sundarijal area is one of the important part of thisproject. That area is considered to be the outlet from where water from Melamchi valley istransferred to the Kathmandu valley. In Sundarijal-7, 170 MLD water is transferred fromMelamchi area to Kathmandu through 26.21 km long artificial tunnel. Water treatments Units arealso being constructed. Social, environmental and geographical conditions are considered duringthe study since important units are to be constructed in this Melamchi Water Supply Project.Majorities are found to be Tamang in those areas. Brahmans and Newars are living together inperfect harmony. In this area, approximate 200 ropanies land acquisition has been done for thepurpose of water treatment process. During the process of blasting, excavation and transferringnecessary equipments, it is felt that community has been adversely affected.During the process of construction of tunnel, it was noticed that both RCC, cement mortar andmud mortar houses were damaged. Some cracks were observed in temporary houses. Peopleliving in that area are terrified due to the vibration during blasting. Similarly, shelters ofdomestic animals were also found to have some cracks. Cows and goat had miscarriageproblems. Due to the blasting, some electrical instruments had gone to worst condition. Somelandslides were also noticed. In the process of acquisition, two households were displaced. Butthose displaced family had been re habilitated. Access road (Blacktop and Gravel road) had beenconstructed which helped the people living in that area to increase economic activities.3.2 Social Upliftment Program (SUP)In order to minimize the direct and indirect adverse effect on the social and economic activitiesand to uplift the life standard in long run, Social Upliftment Program (SUP) has beenimplemented. This program has been implemented to confirm the advantages of the project andto prevent the deviation of life standard of the citizens. It is purely social development program. Page 9
  17. 17. This program is conducted in three phases i.e. pre-construction, during construction and postconstruction. This includes important programs such as education, health, income generation,community development and central area development etc. in 14 affected VDC’s. This programhelps to solve the problem in local level only. Not only this, this program has also created theenvironment to make the expenses by the local people only. Furthermore, Social upliftmentprogram operating committee has been established. Page 10
  18. 18. Chapter 4: SWOT AnalysisSWOT is an acronym that stands for Strengths. Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT)it is also called SWOC, where C stands for Constraints.Strength: A skill or capacity that enables an organization to conceive of and implement itsstrategies. Weakness: A skill or capacity that makes an organization incapable to choose and implementstrategies that support its mission.Opportunities: An area in the environment that, if exploited, may generate high performance.Threats: An area in the environment that increases the difficulty of an organization achievinghigh performance.SWOT Analysis is a very effective way of examining a firms strengths and weaknesses and ofidentifying the opportunities and threats that the firm may face. When dealing with complexsituations in a limited amount of time, trying to address the issues involved often dose not payoff. Rather, strategic planners limit their effort to those issues that have the most impact on thesituation SWOT analysis provides a framework for identifying these critical issues. First thefocus is on the concerned entity, a region, a city, a neighborhood, a building and a person. Then,analyses are limited to the significant strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and weaknesses thatcharacterize the situation. Page 11
  19. 19. SWOT ANALYSISA) Strength and WeaknessStrength Weakness 1. Satisfaction due to the effective No clear guidelines to distribute distribution of compensation for compensation to affected people whose their land and houses. houses have been damaged due to blasting. 2. Improvement in the motorable road Long and formal process for solution of to run effectively for 12 months. any problems. 3. Improvement in the education Intensity of sound level is infrastructure due to the funding by comparatively high due to the the project. mechanism installed for the artificial ventilation into the tunnel and power generators. 4. Improvement in the health due to Pollution has increased especially due to the funding by the project the insanitation behaviors by the Chinese worker.. 5. Opportunity of employment for Conventional method of tunnel boring local people. activities has created adverse effects to the locality so the modern methods of boring has to be used instead of that. 6. Project construction without Dissatisfaction to local people as they deforestation i.e. Environmental felt that they are not being prioritized friendly project. for the employment due to political biasness. 7. People are being more empowered Some of the committed programs like and awareness has been increased. SUP have not been implemented till date. Page 12
  20. 20. B) Opportunity and ThreatOpportunity Threat 1. Project can be implemented in Project cost may excessively increase economical and sustainable due to delay. approach. 2. Spreading of market There may be the possibilities of disturbances in case the project failed to give them compensation with full satisfaction which may raise the question to the sustainability of the project. 3. Capacity development of People are increasing their demand Nepalese manpower in new day by day. sector. 4. Solution for insufficient drinking Untreated water (effluent) from tunnel water supply in Kathmandu. may deteriorate the fertility of the agricultural land.. 5. Space for tourism development. Possibility of mosquito breeding due to the construction of water treatment plant in future. Page 13
  21. 21. Chapter 5: FindingsSundarijal-7, the field of our re-search about the social impacts due to the water transferringtunnel outlet construction was made reconnaissance on the 6th December 2011 and we wereacknowledged by the field engineer and environment export. On the following day our topicsrelated questionnaire were prepared to ask to the villagers. Our focus were to stick around thesocial effects to the village and villagers in the construction period. We have randomly selected20 households from around 80 households for our survey and as far as possible the selectedhouseholds were made inclusive by gender, cast and age wise. Graph 1: Social survey status 1. About the familiarity with the Project 100% or 20 out of 20 randomly selected personnel has responded that they were aware of the activities going over their area. As the project is recognized as the national level project and the inauguration of the construction was done by the prime minister of that time made the villagers conscious about the project. 2. Purpose of the construction 100% of the villagers were familiar with the intention of the tunnel construction and the land acquisition in their area. Despite of the result some of the people has also informed us that along with the drinking water there is some other purposes of the project like fisheries, irrigation, access road, hydropower etc. Page 14
  22. 22. 3. Interaction with the local people about project Major number of the local people has positively responsed with the interactions held before and during the construction phase. Such interactions act as the medium to put the demands, difficulties and other issues to the project from the people whereas the project also gain an opportunity to put its strategy to the people.4. Effects due to Project Almost people has poured their grievances of damaging of the house due trembling effects created during blasting activities for tunnel excavation. The other most vulnerable effect was miscarriage of the cows and goats. Some of the people electrical appliances were damaged. Few people were unaware of the effects due to construction of the project. The local people was threatened by the small scale of the land slide in some places. Graph 2: Social Impact Survey Page 15
  23. 23. Graph 3: Consequences due to crack5. Satisfaction by the compensation provided More than 50% of the people were satisfied with the compensation given by the project for acquisition of the land and houses. Some of the household were entertained by the additional compensation for the cracking effect to their house due to vibration during blasting. Some people show their dissatisfaction though they were provided the compensation. Graph 4: Satisfaction Survey Page 16
  24. 24. 6. Methodology of demands More than half of the population was aware of the methodology of the way of the demands and pouring dissatisfaction to the projects. They were used to put their needs through the committee especially formed in order to act as bridge in between local people and the project. Some people were unknown of the existence to the committee.7. Aware of Social Upliftment Program (SUP) Social uplift program (SUP) is intended especially for the project effected peoples welfare program to help the people in their income generation activities, empowering social structure, uplifting current lifestyle and ultimately sustainable benefits to the project. Though the project is appraising for the program and preparing to launch the program almost of the people unknown of such kind of the program except negligible number of the people. Graph 5: SUP survey8. Benefits from the Project 75 % of the people informed us that the village and people were directly benefitted by the construction of the road from the Gokarna to the project site as the access road to the tunnel construction. The consequences of the road construction directly impact the increment of the land price, opportunity of employment. The project has supported to Page 17
  25. 25. the education sector by constructing school building nearby site. Some of the people does not mention the benefits by the project as they do not realize them. Graph 6: Benefits9. Disadvantages due Project As it is already mentioned that most of the houses are adversely affected by the vibration, and most of the people was not satisfied with such effects. Some people was against of the increment of market price, dust, dumping of muck and sound pollution. Some percentage of the people was not happy with insanitation behavior by the Chinese workers. Page 18
  26. 26. Graph 7: Disadvantages10. Pre Commitment to the Community Almost of the people say that the commitment that were put to them has to be fulfilled most. Though there was implementation of some commitments still there was a lot to do by the project. Most of the people were not satisfied by the commitment done in the matter of compensation, the extension of the motor able road.11. Comment about the behavior about the employee Cent percent of the people was found to be positive towards the behavior of the employee both Nepalese and Chinese employee. But they were sick of the insanitation activities spreading foul smell around.12. Overall view to the Project All the people of the project area was found to be positive view towards the success of the project though they were not directly bona fide by the completion of the project. This aspect of the community definitely leads to the swiftness of the construction, ultimately successful completion of the project and sustainability. Page 19
  27. 27. In sum up, the people was found to be positive towards the successful implementation projectand become the part of the contributors in the list of Melamchi water Supply Project inKathmandu Valley. Page 20
  28. 28. Chapter 6: ConclusionThis study briefly summarized the social impacts at Sundarijal VDC Ward No 7 due toconstruction of tunnel at Melamchi Water Supply Project outlet. In this kind of project, socialissues must be addressed for smooth implementation. There must be the perfect coordinationbetween the local level and the implementing agency. As the demand of local people isincreasing day by day and resources are constraint, this trend has created difficulty in theimplementation of the project. During our field visit to Sundarijal tunnel construction site, weobserved the above mentioned scenario. Through the questionnaire and interaction with localpeople of Sundarijal VDC Ward No 7, following conclusions are drawn on social impacts. 1) As most of the social issues are addressed in this project, it was noticed that the people are satisfied. 2) During tunnel construction through blasting, cracks are observed in houses of local people. As a result of which they are terrified to live in their houses. 3) Cracked houses are already mapped by implementing agency. So, local people are waiting for the compensation. Compensation must be given as soon as possible in order to implement the project smoothly in future. 4) This project has increased the awareness and empowered them. Page 21
  29. 29. Chapter 7: Recommendations with Action planIn this study we have only incorporated the social impacts due to tunnel construction only. Thisstudy doesn’t include socio- economical, technical and environmental aspects. On the basis ofstudy worked out by our group, following are the recommendations and suggestions after thefield study and analysis. 1. As no clear guidelines to distribute compensation to affected people whose houses have been damaged due to blasting, clear guidelines must be made. 2. It was noticed that SUP program was not implemented. SUP program must be implemented as soon as possible. 3. Inorder to empower the local people, intensive awareness program must be conducted. Page 22
  30. 30. ReferencesCenter for Policy Analysis and Development (CPAD) Nepal, International Water ManagementInstitute (IWMI), Nepal Program (2006), Governance and Economics of Urban Water Transfer:A case study of melamchi Intersectoral Water Transfer Project in Nepal, South Asian Networkfor Economic Institutes(SANEI), Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE)Dhurba Panta, Madhusudhan Bhattarai, Govinda Basnet, (2008), Implications of Bulk WaterTransfer on Local Water Management Institutions- A Case Study of the Melamchi Water SupplyProject in Nepal, CGIAR Systemwide Program on Collective Action and Property Rights(CAPRi)Melamchi Water Supply Development Board (2011), Annual Progress Report of FY 2066-67,Melamchi Water Supply Development Boardg]kfn ;/sf/ d]nDrL vfg]kfgL ljsf; ;ldlt, -@)^%_, d]nDrL vfg]kfgL cfof]hgfsf] sfo{of]hgftyf aflif{s k|ult k|ltj]bg, d]nDrL vfg]kfgL ljsf; ;ldltOfficial website of Melamchi Water Supply Project (2011), www.melamchiwater.orgGoogle Earth, Google Map http://maps.google.com/ Page 23
  31. 31. Annexes Page 24
  32. 32. Annex-1: Sample of Social Questionnaire 3/w/L ;e]{If0f ;Gb/Lhn & sf7df8f}ldlt @)^*.*.!( ;e]{If0f ug{] M;fdfGo hfgsf/L  cGt/jftf{ lbg] JolQmsf] gfd M  7]ufgf M  pd]/ :  ln+u :  kl/jf/ ;b:o ;+Vof :  hft :!_ tkfO{sf] xfnsf] a;f]af; s:tf] xf] < s_ :yfoL v_ c:yfoL@_ of] cfof]hgfsf] s] sf] nflu agfO /fv]sf] xf]nf tkfOnfO hfgsf/L 5 <s_ yfxf 5 v_ yfxf 5}g u_ eGg rfxGg .#_ tkfOsf] hfgsf/Ldf eP cg;f/ oxf+ s] sfo{qmd sfo{Gjog ug{ nfu]sf] xf]nf<====================================================================================================================================$_ o; sfo{qmdsf ;DalGwt AolQmx?n] sltsf] 5nkmn ug{ oxf+x? ;dIf cfp5g<s_ cfp5g v_ cfpb}gg u_ hfgsf/L 5}g .%_ cfof]hgfsf] lqmofsnfkx?n] oxf+sf] ufp7fp+nfO s] s:tf] k|efj kf/]sf] 5 <======================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================^_ tkfOx?nfO s:tf s:tf vfnsf Ifltklt{x? lbOPsf] 5 / ;f] k|lt ;Gtit xgxG5 < Page 25
  33. 33. =================================================================================================================================&_ o; cfof]hgfsf] ;?ª lgdf{0f sfo{n] ubf{ tkfOx?sf] 3/ rs{bf tkfOnfO s] s:tf] c;/x?k/]sf 5g<===============================================================================================================*_ tkfOx?n] cfof]hgf ;dIf dfu /fVbf s;/L /fVg] ug{ ePsf] 5|<s_ PSn} v_ ;d"xut u_ dfu /fVg] ;ldlt 5 . 3_ cGo.(_ tkfOx?nfO ;fdflhs pTyfg sfo{qmd -SUP) af/] hfgsf/L 5<s_ 5 v_ 5}g u_ 5 eg] s]s]===================================================!)_ o; cfof]hgfaf6 tkfOx?nfO s:tf s:tf vfnsf kmfObfx? ePsf 5g<s_ ahf/ ;Ddsf] kxr v_ /fhuf/Lsf] j[lb u_ cfocfh{gdf j[lb 3_ hUufsf] d"No j[lbª_ ljBlts/0f r_ ;fdflhs pTyfg 5_ df]6/ af6f]df lgdf{0f h_ lzIff / :j:Yo :t/df j[l4em_ cGo!!_ o; cfof]hgfaf6 tkfOx?nfO s:tf s:tf vfnsf a]kmfObfx? ePsf 5g<s_ ahf/ efp a9g v_ ;fdflhs ljs[lt km}lng u_ c:jefljs hUufsf] d"No j[lb 3_ agljgf; ª_ l;rfO jf vfg]kfgLdf sd xg r_ cGo!@_ o; cfof]hgfn] cfof]hgf z? xg eGbf cufl8 tkfO{x? ;dIf u/]sf k|lta4tfx? xfn;Dd s]slt k/f ePsf 5g<s_ 5g v_ 5}gg u_ w]/} ug{ afsL 5g!#_ o; cfof]hgfsf sd{rf/Lx?sf] Jojxf/ k|lt tkfO{x?sf] sg} ugf;f] 5 <s_ 5}g v_ 55 eg] s] s] 5g<…====================================================================================================== Page 26
  34. 34. !$_ cfof]hgf k|lt tkfO{sf] wf/0ff s] 5 <s_ /fd|f] v_ g/fd|f] Page 27
  35. 35. Annex-2: Survey Data Page 28
  36. 36. Annex-3: Photographs Page 29
  37. 37. Page 30
  38. 38. Page 31
  39. 39. Page 32
  40. 40. Page 33

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