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Windowing of attention


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Towards a cognitive semantics
Part 3
Leonard Talmy
Presenter: Saeedeh Shekarpour

Published in: Science
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Windowing of attention

  1. 1. The Windowing of Attention in Language Leonard Talmy Presenter: Dr. Saeedeh Shekarpour
  2. 2. Definition • Placing a portion of a coherent referent situation into the foreground of attention by the explicit mention of that portion, while placing the remainder of that situation into the background of attention by omitting mention of it. Windowing of attention: event frame gapping
  3. 3. Example • I spent 50$ on this book at that store last Friday • I spent 50$ on this book at that store last Friday • I spent 50$ on this book at that store last Friday windowed gapped windowed gapped windowed
  4. 4. Distribution of attention • Parts of cognitive structural category • Level of attention • Center of attention • Scope of attention • Network of attention
  5. 5. Event Frame Obligatory as Complement Optional as Complement Blocked as Complement Optional as adjunct
  6. 6. Example: spend verb • I spent 50$ on this book at that store last Friday • Spend verb invokes seller, buyer, good and money Obligatory Complement Optional Complement Optional Adjunct
  7. 7. Types of Event Frames • A path • Causal chain • Cycle • Participant interaction • Interrelationship
  8. 8. Path Windowing • A path that is described by an object physically in motion in the course of a period of time, thus it has beginning and end
  9. 9. Path Windowing: example • The crate that was in the aircraft ‘s cargo bay fell out of the plane through the air into the ocean.
  10. 10. Types of Paths • Open Path • Closed Path • Fictive Path: directs one ‘s attentional focus along a spatial path, e.g. X be across Y from Z
  11. 11. Causal Chain Event Frame • A sequence of sub-events • I broke the window by throwing a rock toward it. Initiatory agent Body of Intention
  12. 12. Phase Windowing Home Departure Away Return It iterates in a cycle event frame.
  13. 13. Phase Windowing • The pen kept falling off the table and I kept putting it back. Departure Phase Return Phase
  14. 14. Participant-Interaction Windowing • A situation that consists of two parts: (1) a primary circumstance (2) some participant(s) interacting with that circumstance. John met a woman at the party last week. Her name was Linda. Participant 1 Participant 2Circumstance
  15. 15. Interrelationship Windowing • It is comprised of parts not autonomous in themselves but intrinsically relative with respect to each other. • Figure-Ground Interrelationship: The paint is peeling from the wall. • Factual-Counterfactual Interrelationship • I did not go to John’s party last night/ I went to the movies last night because they were playing my favorite film. • Affective States Associated with Factuality States • ~A more
  16. 16. Multiple and Nested windowing • Multiple instances of windowing can occur at the same time, each with respect to several concurrent event frame a) The ball rolled off the lawn back onto the court (path event) b) The ball rolled back onto the court (path event) c) The ball rolled back ( + interrelationship event/figure, ground) d) I rolled the ball back (+ initiator agent – causal event) e) I kept rolling the ball back (iteration/ cycle event) f) If I had not kept rolling the ball back, there would have been no game. (Comparison frame/Factuality event)