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Stoller article presentation


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Stoller article presentation

  1. 1. Content-Based Instruction: Perspectives on Curriculum Panning By Fredricka L. Stoller Presented by Sheila Cook
  2. 2. What is Content-Based Instruction? <ul><li>Content-Based Instruction (CBI) </li></ul><ul><li>incorporates teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>strategies that are interested in and </li></ul><ul><li>committed to both language-learning and </li></ul><ul><li>content-learning. </li></ul><ul><li>(Stoller, 2004, pp.261) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Content-Based Learning <ul><li>Crandall’s study found that the following were all effective strategies to be used in CBI classrooms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task-Based and Experimental Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole Language Strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Use of Graphic Organizers </li></ul></ul>(Stoller, 2004, pp.262)
  4. 4. How does CBI Impact Learners? <ul><li>Several studies have been done on content-based instruction. These various studies have found that CBI “provides a means for students to continue their academic development while also improving their language proficiency” (Stoller, 2004, pp. 262). </li></ul><ul><li>This is ultimately the goal of language learning. As teachers of ELLs, we strive for our students to become English proficient as well as understand the content taught in the regular education classrooms. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Global Interest in CBI <ul><li>CoBaLTT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content-Based Learning Teaching throught Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Launched at the University of Minnesota to aid K-16 foreign language teachers in using CBI in their classroom as well as using available technologies to support the use of CBI </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ACIE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Council on Immersion Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Releases newsletters that highlight the successes and struggles in implementing the use of CBI in immersion classrooms </li></ul></ul>(Stoller, 2004, pp.264)
  6. 6. Support from CBI Course Outcomes <ul><li>“ Students are reported to exit the courses with improved language abilities and content-area knowledge” (Stoller, 2004, pp. 264). </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Keys to CBI Success <ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CBI is extremely adaptable to the needs of individual classrooms. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teamwork </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teamwork is necessary among foreign language teachers, regular education teachers, administrators, parents, and community members. </li></ul></ul>(Stoller, 2004, pp.264)
  8. 8. The Keys to CBI Success <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There must be a vision which is then shared with the rest of the people who will take part in the program. Someone, or a select few, must communicate this vision and get others on board. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shared Commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone involved must be committed “to the program and providing foreign language education to young learners” (Stoller, 2004, pp. 265). </li></ul></ul>(Stoller, 2004, pp.265)
  9. 9. Issues Encountered with Middle School Mainstreaming Efforts <ul><li>In a study done in 2003, Langman found that “the ESL strategies used by the teacher, although somewhat effective in conveying content, were less than effective in developing students’ academic English” (Stoller, 2004, pp. 265). </li></ul><ul><li>The teachers were very focused on obtaining high test scores and did not give any true language instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers waited for “incidental language learning opportunities” and students did not learn as much English as expected. </li></ul>(Stoller, 2004, pp.265)
  10. 10. Challenges Teachers Face when Switching to CBI <ul><li>According to Bueno’s experience </li></ul><ul><li>The determination of course content in response to diverse student interests </li></ul><ul><li>The selection on content resources and the designation of targeted grammar points for students with varied proficiency levels </li></ul><ul><li>The sequencing of structured input and output activities </li></ul>(Stoller, 2004, pp.266)
  11. 11. Incorporating CBI in Language Classrooms <ul><li>Theme Based Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Sustained CBI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrating one subject area into language classes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Interdisciplinary Team-Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Modified Adjunct Models </li></ul>(Stoller, 2004, pp.266-67)
  12. 12. Content-to-Language Emphasis Continuum <ul><li>“ At one end of the continuum are ‘content-driven’ approaches with strong commitments to content-learning objectives; at the other end of the continuum are ‘language driven’ approaches with strong commitments to language learning objectives, using content mainly as a springboard for language practice” (Stoller, 2004, pp. 268). </li></ul><ul><li>The continuum can be viewed on the following slide. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Other Models on the Continuum <ul><li>CALLA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Academic Language Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a commitment to content, language, and strategy training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LCT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>L - target language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C - content area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T - tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Teachers are encouraged to structure their lessons so that language, content, and tasks are dealt with individually and in interaction with one another” (Stoller, 2004, pp. 269). </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Other Models on the Continuum <ul><li>CORI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ With an emphasis on student motivation to read and to learn, the approach involves discussions that center around content, reading goals, strategies, and learning while students are engaged with multiple informational texts” (Stoller, 2004, pp. 271). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CSR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative Strategic Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Students work collaboratively to comprehend contnent-area texts, the belief being that cognitive development is stimulated by social interaction” (Stoller, 2004, pp. 272). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FLAC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign Languages Across the Curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign languages are used to teach </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Struggles of CBT <ul><li>“ ESL teaching…are struggling with content for which they have not been trained, and the social studies [content area] teachers…do not believe that teaching language should be part of their responsibilities” (Stoller, 2004, pp. 274). </li></ul>
  16. 17. Empirical Studies Supporting CBI <ul><li>“ Immersion does not have a negative impact on students’ literacy and mathematical skills in English even though their results, confirming earlier studies, demonstrated a lag in early total immersion students’ literacy skills at grade 3” (Stoller, 2004, pp. 273). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Students can make measurable gains in oral language skills, in terms of both fluency and accuracy, as a result of the paired classes” (Stoller, 2004, pp. 273). </li></ul>
  17. 18. Questions for Discussion <ul><li>How can teachers cover all 3 LCT without watering down content? What sacrifices will have to be made? </li></ul><ul><li>How do teachers avoid only providing “incidental language learning opportunites” (Stoller, 2004, pp. 265) in their classrooms? </li></ul><ul><li>Would you use CBI in your own classroom? Why or why not? </li></ul>
  18. 19. Citations <ul><li>Stoller, F. (2004). Content-based instruction: Perspectives on curriculum planning. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 261-283. </li></ul><ul><li>Google Images (n.d.) Retrieved from = </li></ul><ul><li>en&tab=wi </li></ul>