Richards Presentation ESL 501


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Richards Presentation ESL 501

  1. 1. Chapter 1 The Origins of Language Curriculum Development Presentation by Sheila Cook Curriculum Development in Language Teaching By J.C. Richards
  2. 2. Questions the Book Looks to Address <ul><li>What educational principles are these activities based on? </li></ul><ul><li>What values do these principles reflect? </li></ul><ul><li>Whose interests do they serve? </li></ul><ul><li>Can our practices be improved through reviewing the principles we operate from and critically examining the practices that result from them? </li></ul>(Richards, 2002, pp. 1)
  3. 3. What is Curriculum Development? <ul><li>Curriculum Development Includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining the needs of the learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing aims and objectives for the program to address the determined needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing a syllabus, course structure, teaching method and choosing materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating the language program that results from this process </li></ul></ul>(Richards, 2002, pp. 2)
  4. 4. Historical Background <ul><li>It was not until 1960 that curriculum development in language teaching began but syllabus design came much earlier. </li></ul><ul><li>Method Teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The notion of a systematic set of teaching practices based on a particular theory of language and language learning” (Richards, 2002, pp.2) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. In Search of “Best Practice,” Teaching Methods Rose and Fell In Popularity <ul><li>Grammar Translation Method (1800-1900) </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Method (1900-1930) </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Method (1930-1960) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was at this point that Curriculum Development began in Language Teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reading Method(1920-1950) </li></ul><ul><li>Audiolingual Method (1950-1970) </li></ul><ul><li>Situational Method (1950-1970) </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative Approach (1970-present) </li></ul>(Richards, 2002, pp. 3)
  6. 6. Vocabulary Selection Method <ul><li>Depends Upon: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of time available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective of the course </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Along with Grammar Section, Vocabulary Selection received primary attention in the first few decades of language teaching. </li></ul>(Richards, 2002, pp. 15-16)
  7. 7. Word Frequency Lists <ul><li>These were created in an attempt to avoid teaching vocabulary that was not absolutely necessary to beginning level students. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers studied various texts to find which words appeared most frequently and set out to teach this vocabulary first. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with word frequency lists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What kinds of texts do you study? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency does not always equal usefulness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevancy of that vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachability </li></ul></ul>(Richards, 2002, pp. 6-7)
  8. 8. Other Criteria for Determining Word Lists (Besides Frequency) <ul><li>Teachability </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Defining Power </li></ul>(Richards, 2002, pp. 8)
  9. 9. Grammar Selection Method <ul><li>Unlike with the Vocabulary Selection Method, grammar selection is extremely subjective. The teacher or the textbook publishers make the decision as to what grammar is “most important” at teach that at a higher importance. </li></ul>(Richards, 2002, pp. 11)
  10. 10. Suggested Principles for Developing Grammatical Syllabuses <ul><li>Simplicity and Centrality </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Learnability </li></ul>(Richards, 2002, pp. 11-12)
  11. 11. Gradation <ul><li>“ Gradation is concerned with the grouping and sequencing of teaching items in a syllabus” (Richards, 2002, 10). </li></ul><ul><li>Approaches to Sequencing Items in Course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linear/Cyclical Gradation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introducing items one at a time and practicing intensely before moving on </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spiral Gradation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reintroducing items throughout </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible Approached to Gradation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic Distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic Difficulty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicative need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul></ul>(Richards, 2002, pp. 13)
  12. 12. Assumptions Underlying Early Approaches to Syllabus Design <ul><li>Basic Units of Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grammar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learners everywhere have the same needs </li></ul><ul><li>Learners’ needs are identified exclusively in terms of language needs </li></ul><ul><li>The process of learning a language is largely determined by the textbook </li></ul><ul><li>The context of teaching English is as a foreign language </li></ul>(Richards, 2002, pp. 15-16)
  13. 13. Discussion Questions <ul><li>List 5 words that you believe to be absolutely necessary for an ELL to learn. Why have you chosen these five words? </li></ul><ul><li>If you could chose 5 more words what would they be? Why did you leave these words off your first list? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Citations <ul><li>Richards, J. C. (2002). The Origins of Language Curriculum Development. In Richards, J.D. (2002) Curriculum development in language teaching . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (pp. 1-22). </li></ul><ul><li>Google Images (n.d.) Retrieved from = </li></ul><ul><li>en&tab=wi </li></ul>