Essential linguistics Chap 3 part 1 Graphic Organizer


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Essential linguistics Chap 3 part 1 Graphic Organizer

  1. 1. Essential Linguistics by Davide E. Freemand & Yvonne S. Freeman Chapter 3 - “English Phonology” Graphic Organizer - Part I Sheila Cook
  2. 2. Human Communication <ul><li>In order to communicate, humans send verbal messages back and forth between each other where both the speaker and listener must encode and decode. </li></ul><ul><li>However, we must do more than that. We must also fill in the gaps between missing information by making inferences. </li></ul><ul><li>Furthermore, we must infer if what is being said is literal or nonliteral, direct or indirect. </li></ul><ul><li>Because our L1 is English, we typically carry out these tasks without much thought. </li></ul>(Freeman & Freeman, 49-51)
  3. 3. Why Use Sound to Communicate? <ul><li>It is the most practical way for us as humans to communicate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It keeps our hands free. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We can speak to others even when we are in separate rooms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You don’t need to see the person you are talking to in order to be heard (ex: the dark). </li></ul></ul>(Freeman & Freeman, 51)
  4. 4. <ul><li>It has been proven that when we speak, our rhythm of respiration is “radically different from the rhythm of respiration during normal breathing” (Freeman & Freeman, 51). </li></ul><ul><li>It is actually “one of the greatest distortions” of our breathing rate. </li></ul><ul><li>However, we constantly are speaking and our bodies simply adjust themselves accordingly, without the speaker even being consciously aware of this. </li></ul>(Freeman & Freeman, 51)
  5. 5. The Complexity of Sound Production <ul><li>“ During normal communication, humans produce an average of eight phonemes per second” (Freeman & Freeman, 52). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A phoneme is a distinctive, meaningful sound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Several creatures make sound, but humans can understand and create a meaning based on these sounds. </li></ul>(Freeman & Freeman, 52)
  6. 6. Using Linguistic Concepts to Evaluate Methods of Teaching People to Communicate <ul><li>Linguistics is the scientific study of language. There are different kinds of Linguists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical Linguists - how language has changed over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociolinguists - how people use language to communicate in social settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurolinguists - language and the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and the study of phonology, morphology or syntax </li></ul></ul>(Freeman & Freeman, 53)
  7. 7. English Phonology <ul><li>Here are some important definitions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonetics - the study of sounds across language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonology - the study of the sound used by speakers of a particular language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phoneme - a sound that makes a difference in meaning in a language </li></ul></ul>(Freeman & Freeman, 53-54)
  8. 8. What sounds function as phonemes? <ul><li>Scientists figure this out by selecting two words in a language that are off by only one sound. For example, the /p/ and /b/ sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the words “Pet” and “Bet” are only off by one sounds, the /p/ and /b/ respectively, we can deduce that both sounds are phonemes. </li></ul><ul><li>“ No language has a one-to-one correspondence between sounds and letters” (Freeman & Freeman, 54). Letters can represent different sounds, and different letters can represent the same sound. </li></ul>(Freeman & Freeman, 54)
  9. 9. <ul><li>Regardless of how many letters it takes in a language to create a sounds, when it is described using phonemic transcription each sound is represented by only one letter. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: The “sh” sound in shopping is described in IPA using the symbol: ʃ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note: IPA is the International Phonetic Alphabet. It is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation not phonemic transcription. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Phonemes are described by the place and manner of articulation and how the phonemes are used. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Phonemes are perceptions, not physical units” (Freeman & Freeman, 55). </li></ul>(Freeman & Freeman, 54-55)
  10. 10. The Physiology of Speech <ul><li>The spoken word of all languages is formed by changes in the vocal tract - the area between the vocal cords and lips. </li></ul><ul><li>Regardless of language, speech travels in this pattern: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs  Glottal Region (contains vocal cords)  Through Pharynz  Into the Oral Cavity  and comes out as sound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When the vocal cords, contained in the glottal region, are brought close together the air passing through causes them to vibrate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When this happens, the sound is said to be voiced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When the vocal cords do not vibrate, the sound is said to be voiceless. </li></ul></ul>(Freeman & Freeman, 55)
  11. 11. Syllabics vs. Nonsyllabics <ul><li>If the flow of air from the pharynx and into </li></ul><ul><li>the oral cavity is not constricted or stopped, </li></ul><ul><li>a vowel sound is produced. </li></ul><ul><li>Vowel sounds are also referred to as syllabics because each syllable must contain a vowel. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversely, consonant sounds are called nonsyllabics . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These sounds are produced when the air flow is in some way restricted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the English language, we can only have up to 3 nonsyllabics in a row. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: str eam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>*Note: “consonants” and “vowels” refer to sounds not letters </li></ul></ul></ul>(Freeman & Freeman, 55)
  12. 12. (Freeman & Freeman, 54)
  13. 13. English Vowels <ul><li>English vowels can be short, long, or reduced. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short Vowels are also called Lax Vowels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See Freeman & Freeman p. 57 for chart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long Vowels are also called Tense Vowels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diphthongs , a type of long vowel, are made by starting with a vowel and adding a glide. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See Freeman & Freeman p. 58 for chart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Vowels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These are produced with weaker air flow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See Freeman & Freeman p. 59 for chart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>When we change the shape of our vocal tract, we form the different vowels. </li></ul>(Freeman & Freeman, 57-59)
  14. 14. A Note <ul><li>This presentation is continued in Andrea Derr’s blog. This can be found at: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  15. 15. Citations <ul><li>Freeman, D. E. & Freeman, Y. S. (2004). Essential linguistics: what you need to know to teach . (pp. 49-60). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. </li></ul><ul><li>Google Images (n.d.) Retrieved from = </li></ul><ul><li>en&tab=wi </li></ul>