TEFL - The Audiolingual Method


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TEFL - The Audiolingual Method

  1. 1. The Audiolingual Method By: SHEILA WIJAYANTI @Sheila_Chei English Education Department Jember University
  2. 2. The Audiolingual Method • • • • • • Background Approach Design Procedure The Decline of Audiolingualism Conclusion
  3. 3. Background • The Coleman Report 1929 recommended a readingbased approach to foreign language teaching for use in American schools and collages preceded by list of vocabulary. • Linguists and applied linguists during this period were becoming increasingly involved in the teaching of English as a foreign language. These factors led to the emergence of the American approach to ESL, which by mid-1950 had become Audiolingualism.
  4. 4. • In many ways the methodology used by U.S linguist and language teaching experts during this period sounded similar to the British Oral Approach, although the two traditions develop independently. • The emergence of the Audiolingualism Method resulted from the increased attention given to foreign language teaching in the U.S. toward the end of 1950s • Audiolingualism claimed to have transformed language teaching from an art into science, which would enable learners to achieve mastery of a foreign language effectively and effeciently.
  5. 5. Approach • Theory of Language Underlying Audiolingualism was derived from a view proposed by American linguists in the 1950 — a view that came to be known as structural linguistics. • The term structural referred to these characteristics: a) Elements in a language were thought of as being linearly produced in a rule-governed (structured) way. b) language samples could be exhaustively described at any structural level of description. c) Linguistic levels were thought of as systems within system.
  6. 6. • Theory of learning to the behaviorist, the human being is an organism capable of a wide repertoire of behaviors. The occurance of these behaviors is dependent on three crucial elements in learning:a stimulus, which servesto elicit behavior; a response triggered by a stimulus; and reinforcement, which serves to mark the response as being appropriate(or inappropriate)and encourages the repetition(or suppression) of the response in the future
  7. 7. Theory of Learning : 1. Foreign language learning is basically aprocess of mechanical habit formation. 2. Language skills are learned more effectively if the items to be learned in the target language are presented in spoken form before they are seen in written form. 3. Analogy provides a better foundation for language learning than analysis. 4. The meanings that the words of a language have for thenative speaker can be learned only in a linguistic and cultural context and not in isolation.
  8. 8. Design • Objectives short-range objectives include training in listening comprehension, accurate pronunciation, recognition of speech symbols as graphic signs on the printed page, and ability to reproduce these symbols in writing. long-range objectives “must be language as the native speaker uses it. There must be some knowledge of second language as it is possessed by a true bilingualist.
  9. 9. The Syllabus • Audiolinguism is a linguistic, or structure- based, approach to language teaching. • Linguistics syllabus contains the key items of phonology, morphology, and syntax of the language arranged according to their order presentation. • The language skills are taught in the order of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Listening is viewed largerly as training, but at more advanced levels,more complex reading and writing tasks maybe introduced.
  10. 10. Types of Learning and Teaching Activities 1. Repetition : The students repeats an utterance aloud as soon as he has heard it. 2. Inflection : One word in an utterance appears in another form when repeated. 3. Replacement : One word in an utterance is replaced by another.
  11. 11. 4. Restatement : the students rephrases an utterance and addresses it to someone else, according the instructions. 5. Completion : the students hears an utterance that is complete except for one word, then repeats the utterance in completed form. 6. Transposition : a change in word order is necessary when a word is added.
  12. 12. 7. Expansion : when a word is added it takes a certain places in the sequences. 8. Contraction : a single word stands for a phrase or clause. 9. Transformation : a sentenceis transformed by being made negative or interrogative or through changes in tens, mood, voice, aspect, or modality.
  13. 13. 10. Intergration : two seperate utterances are integratedinto one. 11. Rejoinder : the student makes an appropriate rejoinder to a given utterance. 12. Restoration : the student is given a sequence of words that have been culled from a sentence but still bear its basic meaning.
  14. 14. • Learner roles learners play a reactive role by responding to stimuli, and thus have little control over the content,pace, or style of learning. • Teacher Roles The teacher’s role is central and active; its a teacher-dominated method. The teacher controls the direction an monitors and corrects the learner’s performance.
  15. 15. The Role of Instructional Materials • Instructional materials in the Audiolingual method assist the teacher to develop language mastery in the learner. • A students textbook is often not used. • Tape recorders and audiovisual equipment often have central roles in an audiolingual course. Provides accurate models for dialogues and drills.
  16. 16. Procedure 1. Modeling
  17. 17. 4. The students may refer to their textbook, and follow-up reading, writing, or vocabulary activities based on the dialogue may be introduce. 5. Follow-up activities may take place in the language laboratory, where further dialogue and the drill work is carried out.
  18. 18. The Decline of Audiolingualism • The theoritical attack on audiolingual beliefs resulted from changes in American linguistic theory in the 1960s. • Students unable to transfer skills acquaired through Audiolingualism to real communication outside the classroom, and audiolingual procedures to be boring and unsatisfying.
  19. 19. • Chomky’s theory of transformational grammar proposed that the fundamental properties of language derive from innate aspects of the mind and from how human’s process experience through language.
  20. 20. Conclusion • Audiolingualism holds that language learning is like other forms of learning. • Focus on accuracy through drill and practice in the basic structures and sentences patterns of the target language.
  21. 21. Question: 1. Can you give an example of the implements of reactive role in the class? (Nur Azizah) A : by responding to stimuli.
  22. 22. Answer 2. Why student’s textbook isn’t often used in the role of instructional materials? (Lailatus) A: because in audiolingualism we focus on listening and speaking, so we don’t need to use textbook.
  23. 23. 3. Give the examples and practice of the 3 crucial elements. (Annisa). A : - stimulus : a sentence, words, and/or using picture. - response : the students response what the teacher said or show the pictures. - Reinforcement: a. Positive Reinforcement : b. negative : give a
  24. 24. 4. Which one is the most useful types of learning in class and should we do all of them? (Heri) A : thats depends on the class situation and the goals.
  25. 25. 5. What is advantages and disadvantages of Audiolingualism? (Anies) Advantages : the strength is in the accuracy. Disadvantages : the weakness is in the fluency.