The Audiolingual Method
English Education Department
The Audiolingual Method
The Decline of Audiolingualism
• The Coleman Report 1929 recommended a readingbased approach to foreign language teaching for
use in American schools and collages preceded by
list of vocabulary.
• Linguists and applied linguists during this period
were becoming increasingly involved in the
teaching of English as a foreign language. These
factors led to the emergence of the American
approach to ESL, which by mid-1950 had become
• In many ways the methodology used by U.S linguist
and language teaching experts during this period
sounded similar to the British Oral Approach,
although the two traditions develop independently.
• The emergence of the Audiolingualism Method
resulted from the increased attention given to
foreign language teaching in the U.S. toward the end
• Audiolingualism claimed to have transformed
language teaching from an art into science, which
would enable learners to achieve mastery of a
foreign language effectively and effeciently.
• Theory of Language
Underlying Audiolingualism was derived from a view
proposed by American linguists in the 1950 — a view that
came to be known as structural linguistics.
• The term structural referred to these characteristics:
a) Elements in a language were thought of as
being linearly produced in a rule-governed
b) language samples could be exhaustively described at
any structural level of description.
c) Linguistic levels were thought of as systems within
• Theory of learning
to the behaviorist, the human being is an
organism capable of a wide repertoire of
behaviors. The occurance of these behaviors
is dependent on three crucial elements in
learning:a stimulus, which servesto elicit
behavior; a response triggered by a stimulus;
and reinforcement, which serves to mark the
response as being appropriate(or
inappropriate)and encourages the
repetition(or suppression) of the response in
Theory of Learning :
1. Foreign language learning is basically aprocess of
mechanical habit formation.
2. Language skills are learned more effectively if the
items to be learned in the target language are
presented in spoken form before they are seen in
3. Analogy provides a better foundation for language
learning than analysis.
4. The meanings that the words of a language have for
thenative speaker can be learned only in a linguistic
and cultural context and not in isolation.
short-range objectives include training in
listening comprehension, accurate pronunciation,
recognition of speech symbols as graphic signs on
the printed page, and ability to reproduce these
symbols in writing.
long-range objectives “must be language as the
native speaker uses it. There must be some
knowledge of second language as it is possessed
by a true bilingualist.
• Audiolinguism is a linguistic, or structure- based,
approach to language teaching.
• Linguistics syllabus contains the key items of
phonology, morphology, and syntax of the
language arranged according to their order
• The language skills are taught in the order of
listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
Listening is viewed largerly as training, but at
more advanced levels,more complex reading
and writing tasks maybe introduced.
Types of Learning and Teaching
1. Repetition : The students repeats an
utterance aloud as soon as he has heard it.
2. Inflection : One word in an utterance
appears in another form when repeated.
3. Replacement : One word in an utterance is
replaced by another.
4. Restatement : the students rephrases an
utterance and addresses it to someone else,
according the instructions.
5. Completion : the students hears an utterance
that is complete except for one word, then
repeats the utterance in completed form.
6. Transposition : a change in word order is
necessary when a word is added.
7. Expansion : when a word is added it takes a
certain places in the sequences.
8. Contraction : a single word stands for a
phrase or clause.
9. Transformation : a sentenceis transformed by
being made negative or interrogative or
through changes in tens, mood, voice,
aspect, or modality.
10. Intergration : two seperate utterances are
11. Rejoinder : the student makes an
appropriate rejoinder to a given utterance.
12. Restoration : the student is given a
sequence of words that have been culled
from a sentence but still bear its basic
• Learner roles
learners play a reactive role by responding to
stimuli, and thus have little control over the
content,pace, or style of learning.
• Teacher Roles
The teacher’s role is central and active; its a
teacher-dominated method. The teacher
controls the direction an monitors and corrects
the learner’s performance.
The Role of Instructional Materials
• Instructional materials in the Audiolingual
method assist the teacher to develop
language mastery in the learner.
• A students textbook is often not used.
• Tape recorders and audiovisual equipment
often have central roles in an audiolingual
course. Provides accurate models for
dialogues and drills.
4. The students may refer to their textbook, and
follow-up reading, writing, or vocabulary
activities based on the dialogue may be
5. Follow-up activities may take place in the
language laboratory, where further dialogue
and the drill work is carried out.
The Decline of Audiolingualism
• The theoritical attack on audiolingual beliefs
resulted from changes in American linguistic
theory in the 1960s.
• Students unable to transfer skills acquaired
through Audiolingualism to real
communication outside the classroom, and
audiolingual procedures to be boring and
• Chomky’s theory of transformational
grammar proposed that the fundamental
properties of language derive from innate
aspects of the mind and from how human’s
process experience through language.
• Audiolingualism holds that language learning
is like other forms of learning.
• Focus on accuracy through drill and practice
in the basic structures and sentences
patterns of the target language.
1. Can you give an example of the implements
of reactive role in the class? (Nur Azizah)
A : by responding to stimuli.
2. Why student’s textbook isn’t often used in the
role of instructional materials? (Lailatus)
A: because in audiolingualism we focus on
listening and speaking, so we don’t need to
3. Give the examples and practice of
the 3 crucial elements. (Annisa).
A : - stimulus : a sentence, words, and/or using
- response : the students response what the
teacher said or show the pictures.
a. Positive Reinforcement :
b. negative : give a
4. Which one is the most useful types of learning in
class and should we do all of them? (Heri)
A : thats depends on the class situation and the
5. What is advantages and disadvantages
of Audiolingualism? (Anies)
Advantages : the strength is in the accuracy.
Disadvantages : the weakness is in the fluency.