Teaching the Language System
ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
Teaching Specific Aspects of Language
Deductive Approach – when we give students
explanations or grammar rules and then based on
this, the students make phrases and sentences using
the new language.
Inductive Approach – in this approach instead of
going from the rules to the examples, we go to the
examples and the student tries to figure out the
One of the clearest way of explaining the meaning of
something is by showing it.
Showing the object
Describe the meaning of the word
Using check questions
Translate words or phrases
Explaining Language Construction
Stress – demonstrated by beating time with our arms.
Intonation pattern – demonstrated by “drawing” the
tune in the air.
Ex. If + had + past participle → would + have + past participle
The use of flash cards
Cuisenaire rods (small blocks of wood)
Practice and Controlled Practice
When something is practiced more than once it passes
from our short-term memory to our long-term memory.
Repetition – going over new words, phrases, and
grammar over and over again.
stage- choral repetition or semi-choral
2nd stage- nominating
3rd stage- murmuring
4th stage- freer practice (for higher levels)
Examples of Language System Teaching
Explain and practice, discovery approach
Using different intonation patterns or stress phrases, punctuation
exercises, songs and chants
Explain and practice and flashcards, vocabulary trees and diagrams
Teaching language functions
Back-chaining – building up phrases from the end
Mistakes, Slips, Errors and Attempts
Mistakes are divided in three categories:
Slips – mistakes that students can correct themselves after being
Errors – mistakes that they can not correct by themselves and that
Attempts – mistakes that students make when they try to say
something but they still do not know how to say it.
False friends – are words that sound the same but have
Developmental errors – this is something that occurs
naturally as they develop the knowledge of the language
learned. And as a consequence these students make incorrect
assumptions about the language and how it works.
Instant and intrusive correction is not recommended immediately
when a student is reading or participating in a speaking or reading
Correction must be treated carefully.