Orlando 2009

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Orlando 2009

  1. 1. EVENTS and the COMMUNITY DONALD GETZ, PHD Professor, -School of Tourism, The University of Queensland, Australia -Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, Canada And -Visiting Professor, Centre for Tourism, The University of Gothenburg, Sweden
  2. 2. PURPOSE <ul><li>This presentation addresses the nature of relationships between planned events and communities, emphasizing major themes, discourses, research trends and future directions. </li></ul>
  3. 3. AGENDA Part 1: Overview of Event Studies. Part 2: Globalization (Global versus Local) Part 3: Assessment of the research literature on events and the community. Part 4: A Future Scenario and Prospects for the Field.
  4. 4. EVENT STUDIES <ul><li>Event Studies is the academic field devoted to creating knowledge and theory about planned events. </li></ul><ul><li>The core phenomenon is the experience of planned events, and meanings attached to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Event Studies draws mainly from the social sciences, management, the arts, humanities, and a number of closely related professional fields. </li></ul>
  5. 5. STUDYING EVENT MANAGEMENT <ul><li>THE NATURE OF </li></ul><ul><li>PLANNED EVENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Limited duration and special purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Unique blend of setting, program, </li></ul><ul><li>management, and participants/customers </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences and generic appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural and economic significance </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses, agencies and organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Forces and trends </li></ul><ul><li>Professionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Programming and scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Venues/settings </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>FUNDAMENTALS </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and research </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing and co-ordinating </li></ul><ul><li>Human resources </li></ul><ul><li>Financial and physical resources </li></ul><ul><li>Budgeting, controls, risk </li></ul><ul><li>management </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing and communications </li></ul><ul><li>Impact and performance evaluation </li></ul>Level 1: FOUNDATION Level 2: SPECIALIZATION <ul><li>Type of event and unique program </li></ul><ul><li>Special venue requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Event organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Target markets and unique communications </li></ul><ul><li>Special services and supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Unique impacts and performance criteria </li></ul>
  6. 6. A FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING AND CREATING KNOWLEDGE ABOUT PLANNED EVENTS <ul><li>THE NATURE AND MEANINGS OF PLANNED </li></ul><ul><li>EVENTS </li></ul><ul><li>types, style, purpose </li></ul><ul><li>The experience (to visitors, </li></ul><ul><li>participants, organizers) </li></ul><ul><li>Meanings attached to </li></ul><ul><li>events </li></ul><ul><li>PLANNING AND </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCING EVENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Goals and strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Resources used </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Management systems </li></ul><ul><li>Professionalism </li></ul><ul><li>OUTCOMES AND </li></ul><ul><li>THE IMPACTED </li></ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Societal, cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONAL </li></ul><ul><li>ANTECEDENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Needs, motives, preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Leisure and work contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers and Constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural and community </li></ul><ul><li>influences </li></ul><ul><li>PATTERNS AND PROCESSES </li></ul><ul><li>Historic evolution of events </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial and temporal patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Policy affecting events </li></ul><ul><li>Research and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>creation </li></ul>SPATIAL PATTERNS Source: D. Getz, Event Studies , 2007 TEMPORAL PROCESSES POLICY CREATING KNOWLEDGE
  7. 7. MAJOR SUB-FIELDSS IN EVENT STUDIES <ul><li>Event Tourism : the dominant discourse in tourism journals and prominent in all event journals. </li></ul><ul><li>Event Management : a focus on how events are planned, managed and marketed. Event design is an emerging component of creative societies in the experience economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Events and Culture, Society and Politics : traditional approach by sociologists and anthropologists, plus postmodern and critical “turns”. Events can exist as a topic within all the traditional academic disciplines (e.g., event geography, the political science of events) </li></ul><ul><li>Event Marketing or “Live Communications”: a focus on events as instruments of corporate marketing. </li></ul><ul><li>Events and …. sport, the arts, leisure (in realty, these are closely-related professional fields interested in events) </li></ul>
  8. 8. TYPOLOGY OF PLANNED EVENTS CULTURAL CELEBRATIONS PRIVATE EVENTS BUSINESS & TRADE EDUCATIONAL & SCIENTIFIC ARTS & ENTERTAINMENT POLITICAL & STATE SPORT COMPETITION RECREATIONAL
  9. 9. Typology of Festivals Based on Form and Fundamental Roles <ul><li>Events can readily be classified in terms of how they are different in form: their program, the venues they use, and our expectations of the experiences they provide. </li></ul><ul><li>These are social constructs and might vary between cultures and over time, but professional associations have institutionalized them to a degree (e.g., meetings, conventions, fairs, festivals, exhibitions, sports, all have their own professional associations) </li></ul><ul><li>But each of these forms of planned event are found in virtually all societies and can therefore be though of as meeting fundamental community needs. </li></ul>
  10. 10. TRADITIONAL ROLES AND MEANINGS OF PLANNED EVENTS <ul><ul><li>Sacred : religious feasts and rituals; pilgrimages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rites de passage (personal and social events of significance) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Celebrations (of accomplishments; heritage) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profane : play, competition, hedonism, carnival, role reversals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Durkheim (1976; 1992) and Lukes (1982) are associated with one school of thought that festivity reflects collective consciousness; whereas… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turner (1982), Bahktin (1984) and others are associated with the view that festivity is “multivocal” and that political discourse or conflict over meanings is the norm. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. LIMINAL AND LIMINOID <ul><li>The ethnographer and folklorist </li></ul><ul><li>Arnold van Gennep authored </li></ul><ul><li>The Rites of Passage in 1909 </li></ul><ul><li>and suggested that rituals consisted </li></ul><ul><li>of stages: a pre-liminal phase </li></ul><ul><li>( separation from normality ), </li></ul><ul><li>a liminal phase ( the transition ), </li></ul><ul><li>and a post-liminal phase </li></ul><ul><li>reincorporation into one’s everyday life). </li></ul><ul><li>van Gennep, Arnold. The Rites of Passage (1909) </li></ul><ul><li>Translated by Monika B. Vizedom and Gabrielle L. Caffee, 1960 </li></ul>
  12. 12. LIMINALITY Anthropologist Victor Turner (1973) described the detached state as liminality . In this state one was in limbo, an ambiguous state characterized by humility, seclusion, tests, sexual ambiguity and communitas (everyone becoming the same). Liminoid described the same state but in profane rather than sacred terms, so that it might apply to carnivals and festivals, emphasizing the notion of separation, loss of identity and social status, and role reversals. In this state people are more relaxed, uninhibited, and open to new ideas. Turner, V. (1982). Celebration: Studies in Festivity and Ritual. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. Turner, V. (1974). Dramas, fields, and metaphors: Symbolic action in human society. Cornell university, Ithaca. Turner, V. (1974). Liminal to liminoid, in play, flow and ritual: An essay in comparative symbology. Rice University Studies. pp53-92.
  13. 13. THE LIMINAL / LIMINOID ZONE <ul><li>Jafar Jarai’s model of “tourist culture” is based on socio-anthropological theory concerning liminality (Turner) and Falassi’s notion of festivity as a time that is out of ordinary time. </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially, people willingly travel to, or enter into an event-specific place for defined periods of time, to engage in activities that are </li></ul><ul><li>out of the ordinary and to have experiences that transcend the ordinary – experiences only available to the traveler or the event-goer. </li></ul><ul><li>Jafar, J. (1987). Tourism models: The Sociocultural aspects. Tourism Management. 151-159. </li></ul><ul><li>Falassi, A. (Ed.) (1987). Time Out of Time: Essays on the Festival. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. </li></ul>
  14. 14. RITUAL <ul><li>Ceremonies </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolism </li></ul><ul><li>Costumes </li></ul><ul><li>Traditions </li></ul>Issues: -authenticity -exploitation versus preservation -the need for interpretation
  15. 15. AUTHENTICITY <ul><li>Historical and cultural accuracy or truth. </li></ul><ul><li>All cultural celebrations should be ‘authentic’, but </li></ul><ul><li>who determines if something is authentic? </li></ul>
  16. 16. CELEBRATION <ul><li>The very essence of festivity is celebration. </li></ul><ul><li>Celebration requires a theme or subject. </li></ul><ul><li>May be fostered by ritual, symbolism, emotional stimulation, authenticity. </li></ul><ul><li>Issue: one-person’s cause </li></ul><ul><li>for celebration </li></ul><ul><li>is potentially another’s </li></ul><ul><li>cause for resentment. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Liminal / Liminoid Zone Antecedents: -needs, motives, and expectations; mood -preparation Conative, cognitive and affective dimensions of experience, modified by level of involvement /engagement A MODEL OF THE PLANNED EVENT EXPERIENCE -changing needs, motives, expectations -event careers (involvement,specialization, serious leisure) Separation Valorization Rituals Entry Statements Reversion – feelings of loss, renewal, transformation Time Out of Time A Special Place
  18. 18. PERSONAL CONSTRUCTS (LEISURE THEORY) <ul><li>SERIOUS LEISURE : life interests or hobbies become similar to careers; applies to volunteers, amateur athletes, wine lovers. Events are part of the career; some take on must-do status (e.g., Boston Marathon) </li></ul><ul><li>RECREATION SPECIALIZATION: Increased specialization leads to more refined experiential preferences. Events offer specific recreational benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>EGO-INVOLVEMENT: The event or the activity/theme are central to one’s self identity and lifestyle. Events are expressions of who we are. </li></ul><ul><li>COMMITMENT: especially for volunteers and other key stakeholders, are they “committed” to the future of the event? what benefits do they obtain? </li></ul><ul><li>Stebbins, R. (1992). Amateurs, Professionals, and Serious Leisure. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s U. Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Bryan, H. (2000). Recreation Specialization Revisited. Journal of Leisure Research 32(1):18-21. </li></ul>
  19. 19. PART 2: GLOBALIZATION <ul><li>A minor theme in the events literature to date, but often mentioned as a cause of commodification and homogenization in the events sector, or destruction of cultural authenticity. </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions between the global forces (including tourism and place marketing) and the local (community festivals and events) are apparent everywhere. </li></ul>
  20. 20. GLOBALIZATION <ul><li>Globalization of planned events occurs through a number of mechanisms: </li></ul><ul><li>Competition for mega events (Olympics, world’s fairs, sports) </li></ul><ul><li>Commercialization: taking global brands to the markets through sponsorship of events </li></ul><ul><li>Media influences: global audiences for major sport and entertainment events; culture is presented as spectacle and entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation (leading to “global parties”) </li></ul><ul><li>Demand factors (global travel leads to similar tastes) </li></ul>
  21. 21. ORGANIC OR COMMUNITY EVENTS <ul><li>Springing from, and an integral part of the community </li></ul><ul><li>Place attached (their meaning is tied to specific geographic communities; they cannot be moved without loss of cultural authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Identity-shaping </li></ul><ul><li>(people relate to these </li></ul><ul><li>events because they </li></ul><ul><li>are part of and help </li></ul><ul><li>give meaning to their community) </li></ul>
  22. 22. STRATEGIC EVENTS <ul><li>In the contemporary world most events are bid on, created or supported in a strategic frame, to achieve a specific goal or help implement policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Festivals and other community or cultural celebrations have been co-opted through funding and other policy instruments, thus introducing multiple and sometimes conflicting goals. </li></ul>
  23. 23. STRATEGIC EVENTS <ul><li>The dominant discourse is economic , specifically viewing planned events of all types as attractions, image makers, calalysts and place marketers. </li></ul><ul><li>Equally important is the commercialization of planned events as sales vehicles and brand communicators (i.e., “event marketing” or “Iive communications”). </li></ul>
  24. 24. EVENT TOURISM Five Key Roles of Events
  25. 25. Event Typology Based on Function (Within the tourism discourse) <ul><li>The terms “mega-event”, “hallmark event”, “media event”, and “local/regional event” </li></ul><ul><li>are all related to their tourism-related functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Within a cultural or political discourse the terms would be quite different, e.g., “community festival”, “arts development exhibition”, or perhaps “nation-building event”. </li></ul>
  26. 26. EVENT TOURISM PORTFOLIO LOCAL EVENTS (Periodic and one-time) Low Tourist Demand Low Tourist Demand and Low Value REGIONAL EVENTS (Periodic and one-time) Medium Tourist Demand Medium Tourist Demand or Medium Value or Medium Value PERIODIC HALLMARK EVENTS High Tourist Demand and High Value OCCASIONAL MEGA-EVENTS High Tourist Demand and High Value <ul><li>POSSIBLE MEASURES OF “VALUE” </li></ul><ul><li>growth potential </li></ul><ul><li>market share </li></ul><ul><li>quality </li></ul><ul><li>image enhancement </li></ul><ul><li>community support </li></ul><ul><li>environmental value </li></ul><ul><li>economic benefits </li></ul><ul><li>sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>appropriateness </li></ul>
  27. 27. GLOBAL PARTIES <ul><li>Ravenscroft and Matteucci (2003) described these as being produced for international audiences for their tourism and place marketing value, increasingly detached from the host community. </li></ul><ul><li>MacLeod (2006) discussed Edinburgh’s Hogmanay in these terms: “decontexualised spectacles”. </li></ul><ul><li>Hughes (1999) sees Hogmanay as </li></ul><ul><li>a “hegemonic device for </li></ul><ul><li>promoting a particularised image </li></ul><ul><li>of a city or elements of its culture”. </li></ul>
  28. 28. FOOT-LOOSE EVENTS (LITTLE OR NO PLACE ATTACHMENT <ul><li>Iconic events: mostly mega- events with high symbolic value that people want to attend no matter where they are held; globally mobile (e.g., Olympics, world sport championships, World’s Fairs) </li></ul><ul><li>Special Interest Events: Events with unique, targeted appeal to special interest groups who specifically travel for the event, wherever it is held (sports, lifestyle, business) </li></ul>
  29. 29. -buyers transact with event owners which have power to set terms. -power shifts towards the host as the event date approaches. -the main issue is high costs and the necessity for underwriting the potential losses, which usually means official and legally binding government commitment - the community is typically not consulted - global sponsors , such as the Olympics’ Top Sponsors, are important actors; event hosts have to find their own -the media are key actors in achieving destination image goals FOOT-LOOSE EVENTS
  30. 30. FOOT-LOOSE EVENTS AND THE DESTINATION BIDDING AGENCY, DMO EVENT OWNER Sponsor Network Sport Network Media Network Temporary Contractual Relationship Government ? Community Tourism Industry Participants
  31. 31. Special Interest Events <ul><li>-most destinations will be minor players in established international networks for each special interest; destinations are substitutable </li></ul><ul><li>-but some special-interest events have place attachment because destinations create them as permanent attractions </li></ul><ul><li>sophisticated marketing research and relationship building with numerous special interest segments and the organizations that support them </li></ul><ul><li>-many positioning strategies are required, as each target segment had different locational and event specifications or preferences </li></ul>
  32. 32. SERIOUS LEISURE and SOCIAL WORLDS At the core of the serious leisure “ethos” is the “…special social world that begins to take shape when enthusiasts in a particular field pursue substantial shared interests over many years” (Stebbins, 2005: 12). Stebbins also stressed “..the lifestyle of the participants in a given serious leisure activity expresses their central life interest there and forms the basis for their personal and communal identity …” (Stebbins, 2001:53).
  33. 33. SOCIAL WORLDS <ul><li>David Unruh (1980: 271) used the term &quot;social world&quot; to describe &quot;the notion that actors, events, practices, and formal organizations can coalesce into a meaningful and interactionally important unit of social organization for participants&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement in social worlds is voluntary, even though &quot;guidelines, expectations, and rules certainly exist&quot; (p. 277). </li></ul><ul><li>It can be partial, so that order within a social world is negotiated and its bounds are those of the &quot;universe of discourse&quot;. Total involvement in one social world is highly unlikely, given that many choices can lead to multiple affiliations. </li></ul>
  34. 34. A FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING SOCIAL WORLDS <ul><li>The basic elements in examining a social world, like amateur distance runners, are: </li></ul><ul><li>Actors (runners) </li></ul><ul><li>Events (events in their lives and </li></ul><ul><li>the events they compete in) </li></ul><ul><li>Practices (distinctive things runners do ) </li></ul><ul><li>Formal organizations </li></ul><ul><li>(connected to the social world) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Auto-ethnographic Accounts by Runners <ul><li>Shipway and Jones (2007) examined distance runners in the context of serious leisure theory, identifying what they called “serious sport tourism”. </li></ul><ul><li>One author was a self-proclaimed “experienced insider” and the other a “non-participant observer”. </li></ul><ul><li>They reported on social-world aspects including their language, sub-cultural capital, benefits obtained, costs and problems experienced, and the runners’ event-related travel. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Auto-ethnographic Accounts by Runners McCarville (2007) reported on his involvement with running and his participation in an Ironman triathlon competition, using a serious leisure approach. He describe his actual experience of the event and the social world of tri-athletes, including a ”social map” to identify key actors, events, and how to function as a commuity member.
  37. 37. Festival of Voices is a 4 day mid winter celebration of the voice that will warm you from inside to out. Centred in and around Hobart's historic Salamanca Place and waterfront area the Festival is for passionate individuals, singing groups and choir.  Based on participation the festival offer opportunities for learning, performance and celebration. Art forms are crossed to create unique experiences for participants and audiences alike. The winter intensive workshop program, delivered by inspiring Australian teachers of the highest calibre, culminate in a series of performances. On the weekend the Festival opens its arms and celebrates the voice with the wider community in song, performance, cabaret and hearty gatherings. 
  38. 38. EVENTS THAT ARE ATTACHED TO SPECIFIC PLACES <ul><li>Hallmark events: totally place dependent by virtue of their institutional status. They are valued, permanent institutions dependent on committed stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><li>Their image and the destination’s are inseparable or co-branded. </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the location would mean loss of authenticity, and the event would have to be replaced. </li></ul><ul><li>A lthough the Hallmark event is at the centre of a dense and permanent network of suppliers, supporters and customers, it must still be effective in marketing and relationship management. </li></ul><ul><li>They are vital to tourism, but can be a threat to DMOs because of their status and sometimes intransigence. </li></ul>
  39. 39. HALLMARK EVENTS AND THE DESTINATION THE HALLMARK EVENT AS A PERMANENT INSTITUTION Tourism Industry DMO Local Government And other regulators Community (Customers, Impacted, Volunteers, Owners) Sponsors and Other Facilitators Suppliers Allies, Co-Producers, Collaborators Permanent Relationships Among Committed Stakeholders
  40. 40. <ul><li>Calgary’s “hallmark event” with over 100 years of tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>Festival, fair, rodeo and exhibition all in one. </li></ul><ul><li>A time of community celebration. </li></ul><ul><li>The organisation controls large facilities and produces many events. </li></ul>
  41. 41. STAMPEDE SUCCESS FACTORS <ul><li>Stampede is both a community tradition and </li></ul><ul><li>a famous tourist attraction. </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term sponsorship agreements. </li></ul><ul><li>Retains traditional elements but innovates </li></ul><ul><li>each year with new program elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Research to understand the customer. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Community-Regional Events <ul><li>Place dependent by definition; they exist by and for local and regional communities, whether social, cultural, sport, entertainment, business or leisure in orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>Each event has its own network of stakeholders to manage. </li></ul><ul><li>Event types tend to develop their own support networks and have mandated government agencies to work with (i.e., arts, culture, sport, leisure, tourism). </li></ul><ul><li>To effectively incorporate the whole ‘event network’ into a tourism strategy requires DMO and local government collaboration, investment in building a common vision and managing the network for mutual benefits. </li></ul>
  43. 43. LOCAL/REGIONAL EVENTS AND THE DESTINATION Complex Local Networks Of Events Sports Festivals Entertainment Business DMO LOCAL GOVERNMENT COMMUNITY TOURISM INDUSTRY
  44. 44. PART 3: DETAILED REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE <ul><li>Prior to 1993, in which the research journal Festival Management and Event Tourism was established there were only sporadic publications dealing with event tourism and festival/event management research. </li></ul><ul><li>As confirmed by Formica (1998) there were few articles related to event management or event tourism published in the 1970s—he found a total of four in Annals of Tourism Research and Journal of Travel Research.. </li></ul><ul><li>More recent reviews of event management and related topics include those by Getz (2000), Harris, Jago, Allen, Huyskens (2001), Hede, Jago, and Deery (2002, 2003), Sherwood (2007) and Getz (2008). </li></ul>
  45. 45. A review of the journal Event Management has been conducted to update the Getz (2000) study through 2008. Each research article has been placed in one category, reflecting the typology created in 2000. While classification of the articles is difficult owing to multiple topics in many of them, this summary does broadly reflect what is happening in the event research field. Event Management features numerous festival-related articles, and many others that are generic to events; sport events are also well covered.   HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF THE FIELD (1993-2008 review of Event Management)
  46. 46. Topics (all but the last topic were determined in the 2000 review) FM/ET and Event Management articles from Vol. 1 (1993) through Vol. 6(2). n=103 Vol. 6(3), 2000, through 12 (2), 2008. n = 117 Economic development and impacts of events; tourism; place marketing; destination brand and image # 26 % 25 # 17 % 14.5 Marketing, including visitor profiles, and segmentation studies 11 11 21 18 Sponsorship and event marketing from a corporate perspective (i.e., the sponsorship of events) 14 14 3 3 Other management topics 9 9 24 20.5 Visitor or participant motives (for attending events) 7 7 11 9 Education, training, research and professionalism 7 7 8 7 Community impacts, resident attitudes and perceptions of event impacts 6 6 10 8.5 Descriptive analysis of the festival sector 5 5 1 1 Attendance estimates and forecasts 5 5 1 1 Volunteers (including their motivation) 4 4 5 4 Politics, policy and planning 4 4 9 8 Urban renewal 2 2 1 1 Law 1 1 0 - Benefits to consumers 1 1 0 - The arts and culture 1 1 4 3 Convention sector 0 0 2 2
  47. 47. HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF THE FIELD <ul><li>Increases occurred in papers dealing with marketing, other management topics, and politics-policy-planning. There appears to be an increase in cultural topics as well. The big increase in other management topics includes a surge in interest in stakeholders and the event management environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases occurred in papers covering economic development and tourism impacts, attendance estimates and forecast, as well as sponsorship. </li></ul><ul><li>Methodologically , we can see an increase in theoretical scale development (i.e., social-cultural impacts), as well as consumer-oriented model building, with a major decrease in descriptive approaches. Marketing remains dominated by consumer-behavior theory and methods, treating events as commodities to be purchased within a competitive environment rather than as experiences meeting fundamental human and community needs. </li></ul>
  48. 48. TIMELINE of EVENT STUDIES IN THE RESEARCH LITERATURE <ul><li>CLASSICS (mostly books in anthropology and sociology) </li></ul><ul><li>- 1909: Van Gennep on rites and rituals </li></ul><ul><li>1961: Boorstin on pseudo events </li></ul><ul><li>1969, 1974, 1982: Turner on ritual, liminality, pilgrimage, carnival </li></ul><ul><li>1973, 1976: MacCannell on staged authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>1976: Durkheim on community celebrations </li></ul><ul><li>1982, 1987: Abrahams on defining and categorizing festivals </li></ul><ul><li>1983: Manning on community festivals as texts (their meanings) </li></ul><ul><li>1984: MacAloon’s theory of spectacle </li></ul><ul><li>1987: Falassi on festivals and fairs; time out of time, special place </li></ul>
  49. 49. TIMELINE of EVENT STUDIES IN THE RESEARCH LITERATURE <ul><li>SETTING THE STAGE: </li></ul><ul><li>1970s: a few tourism-related articles pertaining to events </li></ul><ul><li>1972: Greenwood on the commodification of a Basque festival </li></ul><ul><li>1974: Ritchie and Beliveau on hallmark events and event tourism </li></ul><ul><li>1980s: event tourism exploded as a research topic (e.g., 1982, Gunn and Wicks on visitors to Gavelston’s Dickens on the Strand) (Ritchie’s 1984 treatise on event impacts)(Burns, Hatch and Mules (1986) landmark study of the impacts of Adelaide Grand Prix </li></ul><ul><li>TAKE-OFF! </li></ul><ul><li>1990: Goldblatt’s first book on event management </li></ul><ul><li>1991: Getz’ first book on event management and event tourism </li></ul><ul><li>1991: special themed issue of Journal of Applied Recreation Research on festivals and special events </li></ul><ul><li>1992: Hall’s book on hallmark events </li></ul><ul><li>1993: founding of Festival Management and Event Studies </li></ul>
  50. 50. ANTECEDENTS <ul><li>THEMES: </li></ul><ul><li>Community social and cultural influences (values, religion, race and ethnicity) </li></ul><ul><li>Community capacity (e.g., resources, volunteers) </li></ul><ul><li>Local competition and the population of events </li></ul><ul><li> (population ecology) </li></ul><ul><li>Community needs assessment (of places and communities of </li></ul><ul><li>interest) </li></ul><ul><li>Most event motivation studies absolutely ignore all these factors </li></ul><ul><li>in favor of a consumer behavior approach (with events as </li></ul><ul><li>commodities) </li></ul>
  51. 51. Motivational Research <ul><li>Why people attend festivals and events, and related segmentation and marketing issues, have a long tradition in event studies (e.g., Uysal, M., and Martin (1993); Mohr, Backman, K., Gahan, and Backman, S. (1993); Backman et al 1995). Li and Petrick (2006). </li></ul><ul><li>These are closely linked to satisfaction and perception of quality studies and fall mostly into consumer behavior theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Most recently the emphasis has been on model building, examining variations in the relationships between antecedents, motivators, quality, satisfaction and future intention of consumers. Events are commodities in this approach. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Community Motivations vs. Tourists <ul><li>Faulkner, Fredline, Larson and Tomljenovic (1999) studied a community festival in Sweden that attracted two main groups. Their motivations did overlap somewhat: </li></ul><ul><li>Young, single visitors looking for a party, and… </li></ul><ul><li>Locals (mostly families and older couples) attracted by novelty and excitement. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Generic and Targeted Benefits <ul><li>Other researchers have identified generic motivators that reflect the underlying social-cultural values of festivals and events and specialized reasons for attending (what I call targeted benefits). </li></ul><ul><li>For example, Nicholson and Pearce (2000) compared visitors to four New Zealand events and concluded that, despite commonalities, different events appealed to different segments. </li></ul>
  54. 54. OUTCOMES <ul><li>THEMES: </li></ul><ul><li>The dominant theme has been estimation of the economic benefits of tourism on local economies, and development of related methods. Also: employment effects; image and place marketing effects; events as a catalyst for development or urban renewal </li></ul><ul><li>Many social and cultural benefits are also attributed to events: </li></ul><ul><li>-Community pride, health </li></ul><ul><li>-Social cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>-Group and place identity building </li></ul><ul><li>-Social and cultural capital </li></ul><ul><li>-Cultural diversity </li></ul><ul><li>-Capacity building for the community as a whole </li></ul><ul><li>-Innovation and social change </li></ul><ul><li>-Arts or sports development </li></ul><ul><li>-Preservation and transmission of heritage, traditions </li></ul>
  55. 55. GOTHENBURG’S PLANNED EVENTS DISTRICT
  56. 56. OUTCOMES <ul><li>Many researchers have discussed the political discourse or contestation of event impacts, such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusion of certain groups </li></ul><ul><li>Commodification and loss of authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Crime, loss of amenities, accidents </li></ul><ul><li>There has been development of several Social Impact Assessment Scales, although these generally focus on resident perceptions and attitudes rather than measured changes (e.g., Delamere 2001; Delamere et al 2001; Fredline et al 2003). </li></ul>
  57. 57. The Social Impacts Body of Knowledge Wood, Robinson and Thomas (2006) <ul><li>Aimed at facilitating more comprehensive evaluation by local authorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires continuous data collection, monitoring, networking and collaboration. </li></ul><ul><li>Key elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>impact levels personal, community, regional, societal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consideration of costs and benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>longitudinal evaluation </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. OUTCOMES <ul><li>Recently attention has been given to adopting a Triple Bottom Line Approach to event impact assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Sherwood’s (2007) dissertation assessed the event evaluation literature and found that environmental-ecological impacts had been largely ignored. </li></ul>
  59. 59. THE TRIPLE-BOTTOM-LINE APPROACH TO EVENT EVALUATION and IMPACT ASSESSMENT <ul><li>Companies, governments, and events must comprehensively evaluate their impacts. </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability has to extend beyond internal shareholders to encompass all stakeholders interested in and affected by planned events. </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized measures and methods will be required; currently only the financial/economic measures are well developed. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Stakeholder Interests in TBL (A. Hede, 2007: “Managing Special Events Using TBL”, Event Management, 11(1/2): 13-22) -GOVERNMENTS -RESIDENTS -COMMUNITY GROUPS -Sponsors -Media -Businesses -Employees -Volunteers -Tourists/guests -Shareholders <ul><li>Their interests cover: </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul>
  61. 61. Social Impacts of Community Festivals as Identified by Residents K. Small (2007): “Social Dimensions of Community Festivals”. Event Management, 11(1/2): 45-55 IMPACTS FELT AT THE PERSONAL LEVEL: -Inconvenience -Personal frustration -Entertainment and socialization opportunities IMPACTS FELT AT THE COMMUNITY LEVEL: -Community cohesion and identity -Community growth and development -Behavioral consequences
  62. 62. ASSESSING AN EVENT’S “FOOTPRINT” From E. Fredline et al 2005. SOCIAL IMPACT SCALE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT SCALE ECONOMIC IMPACT SCALE In this example the event is assessed as having low economic, medium social, and high environmental impact . Issues: -what does each scale measure? (indicators) -will each scale be given the same “weight”? low high medium 0 8 5 3
  63. 63. MODEL FOR SOCIAL LEVERAGING OF EVENTS O’Brien and Chalip, 2008 The event as Celebration (or using the event experience to generate fun and celebration) Event-related media coverage Communitas (belonging and sharing) Focus on targeted social issues Set / change community agenda for targeted social issues <ul><li>Align event with targeted social issues </li></ul><ul><li>Align values between social issues and event visitors </li></ul><ul><li>Lengthen visitor stays </li></ul><ul><li>Entice visitor engagement with social issues </li></ul><ul><li>Showcase social issues with event advertising and reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Use the event in issue-related publicity </li></ul>THE EVENT AS A SOCIAL RESOURCE OPPORTUNITIES STRATEGIC GOALS MEANS TO ACHIEVE GOALS
  64. 64. SHERWOOD’S (2007) “KEY IMPACTS AND PROPOSED INDICATORS” ECONOMIC IMPACTS PROPOSED INDICATORS Business leveraging and investment opportunities -Number and types of businesses hosted at event Destination promotion -Value of media coverage -Number of visiting journalists Economic impact on the host community -Direct ‘inscope’ expenditure of the event Employment opportunities and skills development -Number of jobs created -Number of people trained Legacy of infrastructure and facilities -Value of new infrastructure and facilities
  65. 65. SHERWOOD’S (2007) “KEY IMPACTS AND PROPOSED INDICATORS” SOCIAL IMPACTS PROPOSED INDICATORS Celebration of community values -sense of community Community pride -explicit expressions of community pride Impact on community quality of life -quality of community life Impact on quality of personal lives -quality of personal lives
  66. 66. SHERWOOD’S (2007) “KEY IMPACTS AND PROPOSED INDICATORS” ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS PROPOSED INDICATORS Education and promotion -amount spent implementing a plan Energy consumption <ul><li>energy used per attendee </li></ul><ul><li>-% coming from renewable sources </li></ul><ul><li>-energy consumed by event tourists </li></ul>Water consumption -volume used per attendee -net water consumed by event (assuming recycling) Waste generation -mass of waste generated for disposal -ratio of recycles waste to non-recycled -mass of solid waste per visitor
  67. 67. EVENT EXPERIENCES AND MEANINGS <ul><li>THEMES: </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred versus profane experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Rites, rituals, myths and symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Sociability and communitas </li></ul><ul><li>Liminality, play, the carnivalesque </li></ul><ul><li>Spectacle </li></ul><ul><li>Contested meanings; commodification and authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Invented traditions and emergent authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Experience as a reflection of place or group identity </li></ul><ul><li>Media or social representation through and of events </li></ul>
  68. 68. Authenticity <ul><li>Quantitatively, the two dominant themes are authenticity (including commodification of festivals and identity issues related to their meaning in cultures), and political and social/cultural meanings (including various discourses on these meanings and the notion of social change reflected in festivals). </li></ul><ul><li>Both of these are popular subjects within event and tourism literature, especially as tourism is often seen as a threat, or at least an agent of change. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Commodification and Authenticity <ul><li>Greenwood’s (1972) study of a Basque festival from an anthropological perspective lamented the negative influence of tourism on authentic cultural celebrations. </li></ul><ul><li>The authenticity of events, their social–cultural impacts, and effects of tourism on events remain enduring themes. </li></ul>
  70. 70. PLANNING AND MANAGING EVENTS <ul><li>THEMES: </li></ul><ul><li>Community-based events and their management </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing the event to the community </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental forces (failures and success attributable to </li></ul><ul><li>community resources, volunteers, political support) </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders in the community (their roles and management; </li></ul><ul><li>community relations) </li></ul><ul><li>The political market square (legitimacy, exclusion, values, </li></ul><ul><li>negotiation, decision-making) </li></ul><ul><li>Institutionalization of events within their community </li></ul>
  71. 71. MAJOR STAKEHOLDER TYPES AND ROLES IN FESTIVAL NETWORKS <ul><li>FESTIVAL </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>Owners/investors </li></ul><ul><li>Directors </li></ul><ul><li>Employees </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>Members </li></ul><ul><li>Advisors </li></ul><ul><li>FACILITATORS </li></ul><ul><li>Their resources and support </li></ul><ul><li>make the festival possible </li></ul><ul><li>REGULATORS </li></ul><ul><li>Their approval and </li></ul><ul><li>cooperation are required </li></ul><ul><li>ALLIES AND </li></ul><ul><li>COLLABORATORS </li></ul><ul><li>They provide intangible help </li></ul><ul><li>Partners in marketing, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>SUPPLIERS and </li></ul><ul><li>VENUES </li></ul><ul><li>Often become sponsors/ </li></ul><ul><li>partners </li></ul><ul><li>CO-PRODUCERS </li></ul><ul><li>independent orgs. that </li></ul><ul><li>voluntarily participate </li></ul><ul><li>THE IMPACTED </li></ul><ul><li>The Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Others affected by the </li></ul><ul><li>festival or the organization </li></ul>Source: D. Getz, T. Andersson, M. Larsson, 2005
  72. 72. THE POLITICAL MARKET SQUARE (Larson, 2002) <ul><ul><li>A key aspect: the degree to which parties act in conflict or consensus with other parties in event planning and execution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A high level of conflict is typical when relationships are new or short-term, when there is a lack of goal alignment between parties, and when there is a lack of perceived legitimacy for one or both parties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus is more typical when there has been a long-term relationship based on trust and defined roles, a high degree of goal congruence, and high levels of perceived legitimacy for both parties </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. THE POLITICAL MARKET SQUARE (Larson 2002) <ul><li>Political processes within the festival market square consisted of: </li></ul><ul><li>“ gatekeeping” (controlling entries) </li></ul><ul><li>“ negotiation” (in which the relative power of actors is important) </li></ul><ul><li>“ coalition building” (or interpersonal alliances) </li></ul><ul><li>“ building trust” (based on reputation and past performance) </li></ul><ul><li>“ identity building” (ideology and culture of the organization). </li></ul>
  74. 74. Stokes ( 2005) “Frameworks for events tourism strategy making” FRAMEWORK CORPORATE, MARKET-LED SYNERGYSTIC COMMUNITY, DESTINATION-LED FOCUS Bidding on events, and related marketing Integrated strategies for major new and existing events Some priority given to new and existing local events ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE One or two agencies; mostly corporate and governmental input State agencies assume leadership, with a balance of stakeholders Strategies initiated by state or local groups to gain widespread engagement PROCESSES AND PEOPLE An inner circle is relied upon Business and community input is facilitated A collaborative process by many stakeholders DECISION CRITERIA Market criteria prevail; economic goals Market and community driven; non-economic goals are also valued Economic criteria may be diluted by broader social, cultural and environmental concerns
  75. 75. INSTITUTIONAL THEORY <ul><li>Cultural institutions have high symbolic value and meet essential social, economic and cultural needs. </li></ul><ul><li>If an institution is threatened it has to be protected; if it fails, it must be replaced. </li></ul><ul><li>A powerful set of stakeholders (or network actors) must support the institution. </li></ul><ul><li>The institution must conform to the values or requirements of its key supporters and allies. </li></ul>
  76. 76. HALLMARK EVENTS AS “INSTITUTIONS” <ul><li>An event as “institution” is a permanent organization that meets important community needs and goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Key stakeholders are committed to its survival. </li></ul><ul><li>It will have to sacrifice a degree of independence to </li></ul><ul><li>ensure permanent support </li></ul><ul><li>A Hallmark Event can be an institution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is vital to tourism and social life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If threatened, it will be rescued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If it fails, it will have to be replaced </li></ul></ul>
  77. 77.
  78. 78. EXPERIENCE DESIGN <ul><li>Event professionals in effect seek to create positive, even transforming experiences, yet little attention has been given to this process in the research literature. </li></ul><ul><li>This specialization will have to draw upon environmental pyschology, design professions, leisure, learning theory, and traditional anthropological approaches to event meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>Morgan’s (2008) approach recognizes the vital role of community input and an interdisciplinary approach. </li></ul>
  79. 79. Pull factors Push factors Physical organization: -operations -administrative efficiency Relationships: Social interaction Personal Benefits: -enjoyment -socializing -self development Design personality: Program and overall image Culture: -traditions and meanings of the event Symbolic Meanings: -identification with the meanings and values of the event The Prism of Experience Morgan, 2008, adapted from Kapferer’s 1998 brand identity prism
  80. 80. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL PATTERNS AND PROCESSES <ul><li>THEMES: </li></ul><ul><li>How events are spatially linked to resources and communities; populations of events (see the seminal classic works of R. Janiskee (e.g., 1994,1996) </li></ul><ul><li>How events evolve over time (e.g., Walle 1994 on festival life cycles) </li></ul><ul><li>Historical interpretations of the meanings and politics of events </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g., Sofield and Li, 1998) </li></ul>
  81. 81. KNOWLEDGE CREATION <ul><li>Not at all developed in the literature; </li></ul><ul><li>Possible themes: </li></ul><ul><li>Community knowledge and learning processes, linked to events </li></ul><ul><li>Community creativity and innovation in the events sector </li></ul><ul><li>Community monitoring systems (as part of impact assessment and policy formulation) </li></ul>
  82. 82. POLICY <ul><li>THEMES </li></ul><ul><li>Government roles and policies </li></ul><ul><li>Community input or exclusion; co-creation of events with communities </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to develop events; bid on events </li></ul><ul><li>Needs assessments </li></ul>
  83. 83. Imagine a world in which energy is too scarce or expensive to allow most people to travel very far, or very often. And carbon taxes have made air travel in particular relatively unaffordable. PART 4: A FUTURE SCENARIO
  84. 84. A Future Scenario Image a hotter, more polluted world in which we cannot tolerate more greenhouse gas emissions. Everyone stays closer to home and travels by clean, mass transit.
  85. 85. The world would have to be inter- connected through “virtual events”. Not just for business, but also for entertainment and sport. A FUTURE SCENARIO
  86. 86. A Future Scenario: Who will travel? <ul><li>Entertainers and elite athletes </li></ul><ul><li>might still travel to shows and </li></ul><ul><li>competitions, but most </li></ul><ul><li>spectating will be done at home </li></ul><ul><li>“ Highly involved” people, those engaged in “serious leisure” might continue to travel to participate in events because they highly value the experience. </li></ul>
  87. 87. A FUTURE SCENARIO <ul><li>Although there would no loner be “mass event tourism“ at the international level, the overall value of </li></ul><ul><li>planned events would actually </li></ul><ul><li>increase. </li></ul>
  88. 88. A FUTURE SCENARIO <ul><li>Local and regional events would become much more valued for their multiple social and cultural roles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to define community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to celebrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to educate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to have fun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People would still want to have fun, be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>entertained, meet and do business, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compete and exhibit, in short to fulfill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all the universal and timeless roles of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>planned events in all civilizations. </li></ul></ul>
  89. 89. A NEW PARADIGM <ul><li>The real value, or &quot;worth&quot; of planned events has been obscured by an over-emphasis on event tourism and other economic benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>The social and cultural values of events have been given inadequate attention so that we even have trouble identifying, letting alone measuring them. </li></ul><ul><li>The environmental impacts of event tourism have until very recently been ignored, so that the wastes, pollution and energy costs of event tourism have not been included in economic impact assessments. </li></ul>
  90. 90. A NEW PARADIGM <ul><li>There is a new paradigm, we can call it &quot;sustainable and responsible events“. </li></ul><ul><li>It requires that we take a comprehensive, or &quot;triple-bottom-line&quot; approach to assessing the worth and impacts of events. </li></ul>
  91. 91. RESPONSIBLE EVENTS <ul><li>To be sustainable, events should adhere to principles of (corporate) social responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Conley and Williams (2005): “the legitimate concerns of a corporation should include such broader objectives as sustainable growth, equitable employment practices, and long term social and environmental well-being).” </li></ul><ul><li>Schalteggar and Wagner (2006): CSR “covers corporate responsibilities that address a firm’s voluntary or discretionary relationships with its societal and community stakeholders”. </li></ul>
  92. 92. WHAT ARE PLANNED EVENTS WORTH? <ul><li>Governments can justify their involvement with planned events in several ways. </li></ul><ul><li>These justifications (either formulated as policies based on ideology, or ad hoc responses to pressures from interest groups) are part of the process of establishing the “worth” of events. </li></ul>
  93. 93. Events as “Public Goods” <ul><li>Many events help implement existing policies on health, culture, sport, community development, the economy. </li></ul><ul><li>The Social Equity Principle : for “public goods” it is justifiable for governments to subsidize or produce events in order to ensure that everyone has the opportunity to enjoy them or otherwise gain benefits from them. </li></ul><ul><li>To be considered as “public goods” the following criteria should be met… </li></ul><ul><li>Public benefits are substantial, inclusive (everyone can gain), </li></ul><ul><li>and can be demonstrated through evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>There are rules for investing in events, and there is an accountability process. </li></ul>
  94. 94. Economic Justifications <ul><li>“ Market Failure”: the private sector cannot profit, so governments must get involved if events are to be held or event facilities built. </li></ul><ul><li>“ ROI”: Government can make money, and its Return on Investment is usually in the form of taxes generated by events and event tourism, or perhaps in terms of employment created. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Economic Efficiency”: stimulating event tourism is a good way to more efficiently utilize (and justify) public parks and facilities. </li></ul>
  95. 95. Social and Psychological Justifications <ul><li>Events can create “psychic benefits” that are intangible, but citizens value them: </li></ul><ul><li>feeling good; relief from stress </li></ul><ul><li>civic pride </li></ul><ul><li>“ Existence Value”: (people might support events even if they do not believe they tangibly benefit from them) </li></ul>
  96. 96. Social and Psychological Justifications <ul><li>sub-group identification and legitimacy </li></ul><ul><li>social integration (inter-group mixing </li></ul><ul><li>and understanding) </li></ul><ul><li>host-guest contacts (tourists and residents) </li></ul><ul><li>encouraging civil society (volunteering, </li></ul><ul><li>donating) </li></ul><ul><li>providing positive role models (athletes, artists, entrepreneurs) </li></ul>
  97. 97. Cultural Justifications <ul><li>All cultures need to celebrate their core values and what makes them different (these events are powerful attractions for cultural tourists). </li></ul><ul><li>Too often we try to put a monetary value on this, leading to competition for festival tourists and what some critics are calling the &quot;festivalization&quot; of cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Those in the arts communities, however, resist this trend and ask that governments and people value the arts without recourse to tourism or economic arguments. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture-led urban regeneration, renewal, and development benefits from festivals and events to animate places. </li></ul>
  98. 98. Environmental Justifications <ul><li>In the future, local and regional </li></ul><ul><li>events will likely be valued in </li></ul><ul><li>part because they are a </li></ul><ul><li>substitute for event tourism. </li></ul><ul><li>Events are platforms for demonstration of green practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Events can be used for interpretation of environmental themes. </li></ul><ul><li>Many events directly support conservation efforts. </li></ul>
  99. 99. THE NEED FOR INTEGRATED EVENTS-RELATED POLICY <ul><li>Policy is needed to establish the overall worth of events (not just economic and tourism-related). </li></ul><ul><li>Policy is also needed to establish the triple-bottom-line approach to event impact evaluation. </li></ul>
  100. 100. POSSIBLE ECONOMIC GOALS RELATED POLICY INITIATIVES PERFORMANCE MEASURES -foster event tourism -establish event tourism as a policy domain -measure event tourism yield relative to other tourists -leverage events for general economic development -develop an event portfolio strategy for the community or destination -tourism growth -use events to maximize venue efficiency -integrate event policy with venue investment and operations -demonstrable ‘legacy’ benefits -use events in place marketing (e.g., image enhancement) -integrate event policy with place marketing and other economic development -evaluation of image enhancement
  101. 101. POSSIBLE CULTURAL GOALS RELATED POLICY INITIATIVES PERFORMANCE MEASURES -foster arts and cultural development through investment in events -integrate events in cultural policy and arts development strategies -assess the overall effectiveness of arts and cultural development in the community -leverage events for general and indigenous cultural development -integrate events in policies for indigenous peoples -measure effects on indigenous community well being -use events to maximize venue efficiency -develop specific event funding programs -determine the contribution of events to cultural facility viability -foster sustainable cultural event tourism -develop cultural themes and programming for all events -measure economic and other benefits of cultural event tourism
  102. 102. POSSIBLE SOCIAL GOALS RELATED POLICY INITIATIVES PERFORMANCE MEASURES -foster social integration and community development through a program of public events - integrate events with urban renewal, social and community development policy -assess the overall effectiveness of social policy and the roles of events -combat social problems at and surrounding events (hooliganism, crime, etc.) -provide resources for combating social problems associated with events -assess all events on their behavioural impacts -leverage events for urban renewal -formulate policy regarding the use of public spaces for events, both formal and informal -determine the value of events in animating urban spaces -use events to enhance health and wellness -integrate events with policy for sport, parks and recreation -integrate events with health and wellness policy -connect events to health and wellness benefits
  103. 103. POSSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS RELATED POLICY INITIATIVES PERFORMANCE MEASURES -require green and sustainable events and event venues -integrate event policy with planning, land use, and all environmental management systems. -supply chain controls -full life-cycle accounting -develop comprehensive environmental standards and evaluation measures for events and event venues -leverage events for environmental education and development -provide environmental material to events -evaluate the social marketing effectiveness of environmental messages at events -foster events with environmental themes -create new environmentally themed events -measure changes in attitude and behaviour
  104. 104. INSTITUTIONALIZING THE NEW PARADIGM <ul><li>All new paradigms take time to be accepted and become “institutionalized” in political, governmental, and corporate practice. It’s a three-step process, according to Pumar (2005): </li></ul><ul><li>1) Conceptualization: </li></ul><ul><li>-agreeing on problems, definitions, concepts, opportunities; doing the necessary research </li></ul><ul><li>-academic leadership; cultivating the next generation (students) </li></ul>
  105. 105. INSTITUTIONALIZING THE NEW PARADIGM <ul><li>2) Promotion </li></ul><ul><li>taking the message to the people </li></ul><ul><li>public and governmental champions lead the way </li></ul><ul><li>affecting politics and ideology </li></ul>
  106. 106. INSTITUTIONALIZING THE NEW PARADIGM <ul><li>3) Institutionalization </li></ul><ul><li>old and new institutions adopt the paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>determining what event associations should do </li></ul><ul><li>determining what the tourism industry should do </li></ul><ul><li>determining what governments should do </li></ul>
  107. 107. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>RESEARCH PRIORITIES RELATING TO EVENTS AND THE COMMUNITY </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedents: community influences on supply and demand for events; more interdisciplinary, less consumer behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and Management: cross-cultural studies of event organization, planning, markets; whole population studies </li></ul><ul><li>Policy: the worth of events to communities </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes: triple bottom line and CSR implementation at community level </li></ul>END

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