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Chapter 7 presentation


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Chapter 7 presentation

  2. 2. Respiratory System: <ul><li>The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Structures of the Respiratory System are: <ul><li>Nose and nasal cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Trachea </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul>
  4. 4. Common Diseases: <ul><li>Asthma - involve severe constriction of the bronchi, which blocks the airflow to the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphysema - associated with long term smoking. The alveoli become dilated due to loss of elasticity </li></ul><ul><li>Lung cancer- leading cause of cancer deaths in America. Cigarette causes most, but not all. </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia - involves infection and inflammation of the lung. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Medications Commonly Used for Respiratory System: <ul><li>Flonase – This medication is a corticosteroid that works directly on the nasal passages to reduce swelling and inflammation. </li></ul>Fig. 1A. Flonase Structural Formula • Molecular formula of flonase is C25H31F3O5S • Chemical IUPAC Name is [6,9-difluoro-17-(fluoromethylsulfanylcarbonyl)-11-hydroxy-10,13,16- trimethyl-3-oxo-6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17- dodecahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl]propanoate • Molecular weight is 500.572 g/mol • Flonase available : 50mcg/act suspension 16gm bottle Generic name: Fluticasone propionate Brand name(s): Advair, Atemur, Cutivate, Flixonase, Flixotide, Flovent, Flunase Fig 1B. Flonase nasal spray.
  6. 6. Precautions and Side Effects: <ul><li>Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: tuberculosis, untreated or active infections, herpes infection of the eye, decreased adrenal gland function, eye disease (glaucoma). </li></ul><ul><li>Caution is advised when using this drug in children. Though it is unlikely to occur with nasal corticosteroids (fluticasone), this medication may temporarily slow down a child's rate of growth, but it will probably not affect final adult height. Monitor your child’s height periodically. </li></ul><ul><li>*Side Effects- Nasal dryness or irritation, nausea, vomiting, wheezing, or cough may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly. A serious allergic reaction to this drug is unlikely, but seek immediate medical attention if it occurs. Symptoms of a serious allergic reaction include: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), dizziness, trouble breathing. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>2) Mucomyst - This medication, when inhaled by mouth, works in the lung to thin mucous, making breathing easier. It is used to treat thick mucous secretions in chronic emphysema, bronchitis, pneumonia, cystic fibrosis and other related conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>-This medication is also swallowed by mouth as an antidote to acetaminophen overdose in order to prevent life-threatening liver damage. </li></ul>Fig. 2A. Acetylcycteine chemical structure Fig. 2B. Mucomyst
  8. 8. Precautions and Side Effects: <ul><li>Before using acetylcysteine, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details. </li></ul><ul><li>Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: asthma, stomach/intestinal ulcer. </li></ul><ul><li>During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor. </li></ul><ul><li>* Side effects: Nausea and vomiting may occur. Mouth sores and runny nose may also occur if you are inhaling this medication by mouth. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly. </li></ul><ul><li>- A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>3) Ventolin - is a sympathomimetic (beta agonist) bronchodilator that relaxes the smooth muscle in the airways which allows air to flow in and out of the lungs more easily. - used to treat or prevent bronchospasm in people with reversible obstructive airway disease. </li></ul><ul><li>- also used to prevent exercise-induced bronchospasm. </li></ul>Generic Name: albuterol inhalation (al BYOO ter all) Brand Names: Accuneb, ProAir HFA, Proventil, Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA Fig. 3A. Ventolin Chemical Structure. Fig. 3B. Ventolin inhaler.
  10. 10. Precautions: <ul><li>Paradoxical Bronchospasm - Inhaled albuterol sulfate can produce paradoxical bronchospasm, which may be life threatening. If paradoxical bronchospasm occurs, Ventolin HFA should be discontinued immediately and alternative therapy instituted. It should be recognized that paradoxical bronchospasm, when associated with inhaled formulations, frequently occurs with the first use of a new canister. </li></ul><ul><li>Deterioration of Asthma- Asthma may deteriorate acutely over a period of hours or chronically over several days or longer. If the patient needs more doses of Ventolin HFA than usual, this may be a marker of destabilization of asthma and requires reevaluation of the patient and treatment regimen, giving special consideration to the possible need for anti-inflammatory treatment, e.g., corticosteroids. </li></ul>Fig. 3B. How to use Ventolin inhaler
  11. 11. Side Effects: <ul><li>Stop using Ventolin and get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: </li></ul><ul><li>-hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. </li></ul><ul><li>Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as: </li></ul><ul><li>-bronchospasm (wheezing, chest tightness, trouble breathing), especially after starting a new canister of this medicine; </li></ul><ul><li>-chest pain and fast, pounding, or uneven heartbeats;tremor, nervousness; </li></ul><ul><li>-low potassium (confusion, uneven heart rate, extreme thirst, increased urination, leg discomfort, muscle weakness or limp feeling); or dangerously high blood pressure (severe headache, blurred vision, buzzing in your ears, anxiety, confusion, chest pain, shortness of breath, uneven heartbeats, seizure). </li></ul><ul><li>Less serious side effects may include: </li></ul><ul><li>-headache, dizziness, nervousness; </li></ul><ul><li>-sleep problems (insomnia); </li></ul><ul><li>-cough, hoarseness, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose;dry mouth and throat; muscle pain; or diarrhea. </li></ul>
  12. 12. References: <ul><li>Essentials of Medical Terminology 3 rd Edition (Juanita Davies) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>