This ppt is targeted to 5th grade study of colonization in Africa. It covers the Treaty of Berlin, the search for gold and diamonds, the various ways of governing the colonies and the effects of colonization.
Guiding Questions• Why did mother countries lose most of their colonies?• Why do the mother countries want to colonize Africa?• Who organized the colonization process?• What were the rules?• How did they govern the colonies?
Mother Countries Lose Colonies• In the early 1800’s, Europe’s mother countries had lost most of their colonies. – England had lost the American colonies in the American Revolution – Spain had lost most of their holdings in North, Central, and South America due to uprisings and revolts.
– The Portuguese had lost most of their colonies to the Dutch– The Dutch managed to hold on to their colonies, but with great difficulty
Reasons for the Scramble• Late 1800’s, Europe decides to colonize Africa• Europe wants to colonize Africa to ensure trade• England wants to control the Suez Canal to ensure a shorter route to India• Gold and diamonds found all over Africa!!
• Palm oil and lots of timber for export• Greediness! They want to get land just so the others won’t get it first!• Nationalism is on the rise in Europe. Citizens feel a sense of pride about their countries worldwide assets.
Treaty of Berlin• European and American leaders met in Berlin to discuss the colonization of Africa• King Leopold of Belgium wanted to exploit the Congo River Valley.• However, the other participants wanted to regulate the new colonies to be made and make sure they had access to important trade routes.
Treaty Rules• Colonized areas must be occupied, not just claimed• Mother countries must defend their claims and set up a colonial government• They agreed not to import any more firearms into Africa (giving them a military advantage)• Agreed to ban Inter-African slave trade
Effects of Treaty of Berlin• Over 90% of Africa was now under European Control• The new borders ignored the traditional boundaries. It separated peoples who had gotten along, as well as joining groups together who were traditional enemies.• Even language groups were separated from each other
Types of Colonial Rule1. Company Charter: The mother country gives permission for the company to go in and exploit the natural resources of the area.2. Direct Rule: The mother country divides up the local areas and rules over them individually (so they can’t join together for revolt)
3. Indirect Rule: the mother country allowed local chiefs to rule, but really they were just “puppets” of the mother country4. Settler’s Rule: Mother country sends colonists over and they take charge of governing the colony (Example: South Africa)
Follow up questions• Why did mother countries lose most of their colonies?• Why do the mother countries want to colonize Africa?• Who organized the colonization process?• What were the rules?• How did they govern the colonies?