South American Colonization

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This ppt is designed for 5th grade and covers the division of land by Spain and Portugal as a result of the Treaty of Tordesillas, the search for gold, and the effects of smallpox on the native peoples.

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South American Colonization

  1. 1. Guiding questions How did Spain and Portugal agree to share the new territory? How did Spain and Portugal treat the natives? How were the natives affected by the Europeans? What were the natural resources they found? Who were the Jesuits and how did they effect colonization? How did Spain govern their colonial territory?
  2. 2. Christopher Columbus Convinced the king and queen of Spain to fund his exploration of new trade routes to India Columbus is given rights, by the church, to control all the new American territory Spain and Portugal compete for new territory
  3. 3. Treaty of Tordesillas Pope tries to keep the peace between the two by dividing up the new territory using longitude Spain focuses all it’s efforts in the New World, west of the treaty line Meanwhile, Portugal sends most of it’s fleet to Asia
  4. 4. Laws of Burgos Natives had been treated badly in the West Indies, therefore… Spain made laws about the treatment of the natives in the Amercias, in 1512 Natives were not to be treated “badly” Rather, Natives should be converted to Catholicism, and are not allowed to practice some of their own beliefs (such as poligamy) Also, Natives and colonists should live together in harmony
  5. 5. Unfortunately… The Laws of Burgos were poorly enforced and mostly ignored In 1530 silver was found in Mexico, and in 1545 silver was found in Bolivia With these discoveries, all the intended good treatment of the natives was forgotten in their greed!
  6. 6. The White Man’s Disease Some of the African slaves brought by Columbus to be used on the sugar plantation of the West Indies carried the smallpox virus. In 1495, fifty-seven to eighty percent of the native population of Santa Domingo, and in 1515, two-thirds of the Indians of Puerto Rico were wiped out by smallpox. Ten years after When Cortez arrived in Mexico, the native population dropped from 25 million to 6 million; a reduction of 64%.
  7. 7. Spain in South America Driven by GOLD, GOD, AND GLORY!! Balboa set up the first colony in South America (Columbia) in 1502 along the west coast Colonists were looking for gold and other natural resources to exploit Priests (Franciscan, Dominican, and Jesuit) were sent to convert the natives, by order of the church
  8. 8. How it worked… Spain sets up two viceroys to govern the colonies. These viceroys were wealthy friends of the king who were given permission to govern any way they chose. The viceroy’s mission was to: govern large areas and do the will of the crown. These viceroys were often corrupt and did not govern justly. (This corruption later leads to revolt!) Viceroy Alba
  9. 9. The Jesuits The Jesuit priests controlled “reduction centers” where the natives could be easily converted, taxed, and governed Jesuits are forced to leave because they blocked the greedy efforts of the Spanish!
  10. 10. Spain begins to weaken… Spain’s military begins to weaken because they lost the war with England, Holland, and France Spain is also distracted by the Spanish Inquisition Lost the monopoly of natural resources Therefore, Colonies grow more independent from Spain This sets the stage for future revolts against Spain
  11. 11. Portugal Cabral discovers the east coast of present-day Brazil while trying to find a water route to India However, Portugal ignored it for 25 years, while it established more control over the East Indies.
  12. 12.  However, they did desire the natural resources of wood and sugar This led to establishing colonies, enslaving the natives as well as importing slaves from Africa. Portuguese colonists and Jesuits from Brazil settle west of the treaty line to search for converts and new land aquisitions
  13. 13. Do You Remember? How did Spain and Portugal agree to share the new territory? How did Spain and Portugal treat the natives? How were the natives affected by the Europeans? What were the natural resources they found? Who were the Jesuits and how did they effect colonization? How did Spain govern their colonial territory?

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