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EDM 703
INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP
Literature Review
INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT
Educational Leadership in International Context
N...
Chapter 1
Literature Review
(Title: Educational Leadership in International Context)
1.0 Introduction
This chapter present...
Secondly, studies of instructional leadership is however few in number including
exploratory studies of indirect effects o...
not able to handle their work properly. In highly effective schools, and schools which have
reversed a trend of poor perfo...
researcher deduced that teachers’ qualification has a paramount effect on students’ academic
achievements (Haris, 2008).
I...
Considerations around the principal’s job too focus on a to-do list which is helping
teachers improve their teaching. Then...
School leadership was the most important condition affecting teachers’ willingness to
continue teaching at their schoolhou...
As well as Debevoise (1984) ,Greenfield (1987), Hallinger and Murphy (1987) which
is identical in research on the role of ...
Louis. (2010). Teachers' professional community in restructuring school. American
Educational Research Journal.
McIver, M....
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  1. 1. EDM 703 INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP Literature Review INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT Educational Leadership in International Context NURSHEHA BINTI MOHD HADZRI 2013780645 PREPARED FOR: PROF.DR GURNMA KAUR My Part (From Case Study) Research question: 1) Is there a significant different between qualification education levels between graduate and postgraduate towards school leadership styles? 2) What is the effect of leadership styles to the school? Research objective: 1) To examine qualification education levels between graduate and postgraduate towards school leadership styles 2) To identify the effect of leadership style to the school
  2. 2. Chapter 1 Literature Review (Title: Educational Leadership in International Context) 1.0 Introduction This chapter presents literature review connected to the purpose of this study. It involves examining documents such as books, journals, scholarly articles and dissertations that have a using to this study. The main purpose of reviewing the literature is to determine what has been done already relating to the research problem that is being studied. The research objective of this study is to find the significant different qualification education level between graduate teacher and postgraduate teacher of school leadership styles. Literature is reviewed under the following subheadings; leadership concepts, leadership styles, qualification education level, effect of principal leadership styles and conclusion. 1.1 Leadership Existing literature about instructional leadership falls into four broad fields. Firstly, prescriptive models that describe instructional leadership as the integration of the tasks of direct assistance to teachers, group development, staff development, curriculum development, and action research. On top of that it also known as a democratic, developmental, and transformational activity based on equality and growth. Prescriptive model also describe leadership as an inquiry-oriented endeavor that encourages teacher voice and also as a discursive, critical study of classroom interaction to achieve social justice (Hallinger, 2003).
  3. 3. Secondly, studies of instructional leadership is however few in number including exploratory studies of indirect effects of principal-teacher instructional conferences and behaviors such as the effects of monitoring student progress (Hallinger, 2003). Thirdly, studies of direct effects of principal behavior on teachers and classroom instruction include (Hallinger, 2003) synthesis of research indicating the relationship between principal behaviors and teacher commitment which are involvement and innovation. The last but not least, studies of direct and indirect effects on student achievement include review of studies investigating the principal’s role such as use of constructs such as participative leadership and decentralized decision making in school efficiency (Quinn, 2003). 1.1.1 The Leadership Styles Effective leadership is the main important factor to ensure a good organizational performance (Hellriegel & J. W. Slocum, 2004). It has been suggested that there are two views of leadership which are traditional of transactional leadership and transformational leadership. Traditional of transactional leadership is relating an exchange process between leader and subordinate while view of transformational leadership is allows for the development and transformation of people. Transactional leaders are measured to enhance the subordinate’s willingness to perform at expected levels, by offering rewards for acceptable performance, thus resulting in the desired outcomes defined by the leader (Meyer & Botha, 2000). Some of the school heads are not effective in their leadership behavior because they treat teachers as tools trusting that teachers can be treated in anyways. In response to this, are
  4. 4. not able to handle their work properly. In highly effective schools, and schools which have reversed a trend of poor performance and declining achievement, the head teacher sets the pace leading and motivating pupils and staff to perform to their highest potential (Oduro, 2006). 1.2 Teacher qualification education level The researcher has observed that age, experience, education, and size of the organization as factor of leadership style (Cagle, 1988). A principal must be prepared with knowledge roughly with methods of teaching, organization, educational psychology and clean principles. The principals should have latest knowledge of the theories and principles of education presented by modern educationists. The researcher has suggested that a continuous professional development (CPD) system for principals be recognized and established in the education system. He also summarized that unless principals are well equipped with knowledge and skills in management and leadership, they would not be able to improve school performance significantly (Nsubuga, 2009). Teachers’ teaching qualification is some other character of the instructor. This demand of the qualifications was held by the teacher matters when it comes to effective instruction. The researcher concluded that certificate or licensing status is a measure of teacher’s qualifications that combines facets of knowledge about subject matter and about teaching and learning (Darling, 2008) . Teachers’ qualification is related to students’ achievement because the researcher claimed that students incline to achieve more preponderant results when edified by edifiers with more years of edifying experience and qualification (Jones, 1998). Correspondingly, the
  5. 5. researcher deduced that teachers’ qualification has a paramount effect on students’ academic achievements (Haris, 2008). In that location is no longer gainsaying that the teachers need to update their knowledge of the content of the topics they are teaching in schools. Teachers should know more than the scholar. At that time, teachers also must beyond every other thing, known in details, what are they expected to teach the student. Other than that, workshops and orientation programmed should be organized for teachers basically, on mastery of the contents of the various subject syllabuses. 1.3 Effect of Principal Leadership styles The critical function of all principals is that of being an instructional leader. Leadership in instructional materials should come forth freely from both the principal and teacher. Therefore, it is the principal who should responsible for developing a school climate that is conducive to providing the very best instructional practices. 1.3.1 Effect good principals attract and support to the students The Ministry of Education in Malaysia administers strong emphasis on instructional leadership in principals by defining the mission of the school, developing a visual sense for schools and headcount (Balasandran, 2006). This is because it has been shown empirically that schools that realize a difference in students’ learning are guided by principals who get a significant and measurable contribution to the effectiveness of teachers’ instructional teaching practices or teachers’ teaching behavior (Jaafar, 2004).
  6. 6. Considerations around the principal’s job too focus on a to-do list which is helping teachers improve their teaching. Then, utilizing data to review and refine the instructional plan, and assuring that the school is kept neat and secure. It will be more abstract, but very real elements of leadership, notwithstanding, have often what spelled the difference between decent and excellent heads. According to (Louis, 2010) offered a definition of “leadership” that is distilled from the essence of their findings which is “Leadership is all about organizational improvement and useful directions for the society in question, and doing of any kind it takes to dig and support people to move in those guidelines”. Additional researchers conducted a meta-analysis that focused on the relationship between school leaders and pupil accomplishment. They found that principal leadership is correlated with student achievement and that there were especially strong connections between specific principal behaviors and student scholarship. The behavior was the level to which the principal which is alert of the details and suggestions in the running of the school and uses this information to address present and possible problems (Waters, 2003). Actual school leaders recognize how to focus the work of the school on the essential. They deliver a clear mission or aim for the school and identify goals that line up with that charge. They connect the purpose and goals in an expressive way such that all stakeholders understand what they need to do (McIver, 2009). 1.3.2 Effect good principals attract and support a high-quality teaching staff Good instructional leadership by the school principal is essential for attaining academic excellence (Alimuddin Mohd Dom, 2006). Accordingly, it is the principal who should built a partnership with teachers with the primary goal of the enhancement of teaching and learning processes, (Hoy & Miskel, 2006).
  7. 7. School leadership was the most important condition affecting teachers’ willingness to continue teaching at their schoolhouse. Teachers who indicated that they contrive to continue teaching in their school were twice as likely to agree they work in trusting and supportive environments. (Hirsch, Sioberg, & Germuth, 2010) On the surface, these determinations appear to weaken the contention that the principal is the instructional leader of a school. Merely it is important to first look at the types of bodily functions such as ensuring that the school is safe, managing the budget and other resources, and dealing with concerns from teachers included in organizational management. Effectively addressing such concerns provides staff members and pupils with a well- organized, learning- centered environment in which to operate. Hence, these recent findings “do not necessarily contradict the body of research arguing for principals as instructional leaders, but this new evidence does help shading that argument by broadening the definition of instructional leaders to include organizational management skills” (Rice, 2010). 1.4 Conclusion The conclusion of this topic is to discuss and to highlight the point that related to the purpose of this study. Empirical studies have dedicated on the leader behavior approach in as much as leadership is seen as dynamic process, varying from situation to situation with changes in leaders, followers and situation. Leadership involves accomplishing goals with and through people or a leader is concerned about task and human relationships.
  8. 8. As well as Debevoise (1984) ,Greenfield (1987), Hallinger and Murphy (1987) which is identical in research on the role of principals as instructional leaders also defines, once build the framework of their own instructional leadership. They have conceptualized leadership teaching the behavior and actions of the principal design goals that include schools, monitor teaching, coordinating curriculum, monitoring student progress, control the teaching, promote the professional development of teachers, always look in the school, and provide rewards to provide incentives for teachers and students. An extension of the concepts presented, Hallinger and Murphy (1987) develop and produce questionnaires of Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale (PIMRS) to measure the level of instructional leadership of principals. This instrument has been widely adopted worldwide (Hallinger, 2011), including our country Malaysia. In this chapter, all the literature review was related with examining documents such as article books, journals, scholarly articles and dissertations that have a manner on the study being conducted. Bibliography Balasandran. (2006). Headmasters reinforcement behaviour and teachers performance. Unpublished PhDs’ Thesis. UM. Cagle, S. (1988). Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness and Appoinment of a Committee Chairperson. Dissertation Abstracts International. Darling, H. (2008). Teachers’ and teaching. Testing hypothesis: From a national community report. Educational Researchers. Hallinger, P. (2003). Leading Educational Change:reflections on the practice of instructional and transformational leadership. Cambridge Journal of Education, 331-349. Haris, S. a. (2008). Increasing leadership Effectiveness. Wiley NewYork. Hellriegel, D., & J. W. Slocum. (2004). Organizational Behavior. South-Western. Jaafar, M. N. (2004). Kepemimpinan Pengajaran Guru Besar, Komitment dan Kepuasan Kerja Guru. USM: Unpublished PhD’ Thesis.
  9. 9. Louis. (2010). Teachers' professional community in restructuring school. American Educational Research Journal. McIver, M. K. (2009). Leadership: A McREL report prepared for Stupski Foundation’s Learning System. . Retrieved from Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning website: www.mcrel.org/~/media/Files /McREL/Homepage/Products/01_99/prod59_Stupski_Leadership.ashx. Meyer, & Botha. (2000). Organisation Development and Transformation in South Africa. Durban: Butterworths. Nsubuga. (2009). Analysis of Leadership Styles and School Performance of Secondary Schools in Uganda. Department of Education, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University. Uganda: Doctoral thesis. Oduro, B. a. (2006). New principals in Africa: preparation, induction and practice. Africa: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Quinn. (2003). The impact of principal leadership behaviours on instructional practice and student engagement. Journal of Education Administration, 447. Waters, J. T. (2003). Balanced leadership : What 30 years of research tells us about the effect of leadership on student achievement. Research for Education and Learning.

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