Educational Leadership in International Context
NURSHEHA BINTI MOHD HADZRI
PREPARED FOR: PROF.DR GURNMA KAUR
My Part (From Case Study)
1) Is there a significant different between qualification education levels between
graduate and postgraduate towards school leadership styles?
2) What is the effect of leadership styles to the school?
1) To examine qualification education levels between graduate and postgraduate
towards school leadership styles
2) To identify the effect of leadership style to the school
(Title: Educational Leadership in International Context)
This chapter presents literature review connected to the purpose of this study. It
involves examining documents such as books, journals, scholarly articles and dissertations
that have a using to this study. The main purpose of reviewing the literature is to determine
what has been done already relating to the research problem that is being studied. The
research objective of this study is to find the significant different qualification education level
between graduate teacher and postgraduate teacher of school leadership styles. Literature is
reviewed under the following subheadings; leadership concepts, leadership styles,
qualification education level, effect of principal leadership styles and conclusion.
Existing literature about instructional leadership falls into four broad fields. Firstly,
prescriptive models that describe instructional leadership as the integration of the tasks of
direct assistance to teachers, group development, staff development, curriculum development,
and action research. On top of that it also known as a democratic, developmental, and
transformational activity based on equality and growth. Prescriptive model also describe
leadership as an inquiry-oriented endeavor that encourages teacher voice and also as a
discursive, critical study of classroom interaction to achieve social justice (Hallinger, 2003).
Secondly, studies of instructional leadership is however few in number including
exploratory studies of indirect effects of principal-teacher instructional conferences and
behaviors such as the effects of monitoring student progress (Hallinger, 2003). Thirdly,
studies of direct effects of principal behavior on teachers and classroom instruction include
(Hallinger, 2003) synthesis of research indicating the relationship between principal
behaviors and teacher commitment which are involvement and innovation.
The last but not least, studies of direct and indirect effects on student achievement
include review of studies investigating the principal’s role such as use of constructs such as
participative leadership and decentralized decision making in school efficiency (Quinn,
1.1.1 The Leadership Styles
Effective leadership is the main important factor to ensure a good organizational
performance (Hellriegel & J. W. Slocum, 2004). It has been suggested that there are two
views of leadership which are traditional of transactional leadership and transformational
Traditional of transactional leadership is relating an exchange process between leader
and subordinate while view of transformational leadership is allows for the development and
transformation of people. Transactional leaders are measured to enhance the subordinate’s
willingness to perform at expected levels, by offering rewards for acceptable performance,
thus resulting in the desired outcomes defined by the leader (Meyer & Botha, 2000).
Some of the school heads are not effective in their leadership behavior because they
treat teachers as tools trusting that teachers can be treated in anyways. In response to this, are
not able to handle their work properly. In highly effective schools, and schools which have
reversed a trend of poor performance and declining achievement, the head teacher sets the
pace leading and motivating pupils and staff to perform to their highest potential (Oduro,
1.2 Teacher qualification education level
The researcher has observed that age, experience, education, and size of the
organization as factor of leadership style (Cagle, 1988). A principal must be prepared with
knowledge roughly with methods of teaching, organization, educational psychology and
clean principles. The principals should have latest knowledge of the theories and principles of
education presented by modern educationists.
The researcher has suggested that a continuous professional development (CPD)
system for principals be recognized and established in the education system. He also
summarized that unless principals are well equipped with knowledge and skills in
management and leadership, they would not be able to improve school performance
significantly (Nsubuga, 2009).
Teachers’ teaching qualification is some other character of the instructor. This
demand of the qualifications was held by the teacher matters when it comes to effective
instruction. The researcher concluded that certificate or licensing status is a measure of
teacher’s qualifications that combines facets of knowledge about subject matter and about
teaching and learning (Darling, 2008) .
Teachers’ qualification is related to students’ achievement because the researcher
claimed that students incline to achieve more preponderant results when edified by edifiers
with more years of edifying experience and qualification (Jones, 1998). Correspondingly, the
researcher deduced that teachers’ qualification has a paramount effect on students’ academic
achievements (Haris, 2008).
In that location is no longer gainsaying that the teachers need to update their
knowledge of the content of the topics they are teaching in schools. Teachers should know
more than the scholar. At that time, teachers also must beyond every other thing, known in
details, what are they expected to teach the student. Other than that, workshops and
orientation programmed should be organized for teachers basically, on mastery of the
contents of the various subject syllabuses.
1.3 Effect of Principal Leadership styles
The critical function of all principals is that of being an instructional leader.
Leadership in instructional materials should come forth freely from both the principal and
teacher. Therefore, it is the principal who should responsible for developing a school climate
that is conducive to providing the very best instructional practices.
1.3.1 Effect good principals attract and support to the students
The Ministry of Education in Malaysia administers strong emphasis on instructional
leadership in principals by defining the mission of the school, developing a visual sense for
schools and headcount (Balasandran, 2006). This is because it has been shown empirically
that schools that realize a difference in students’ learning are guided by principals who get a
significant and measurable contribution to the effectiveness of teachers’ instructional
teaching practices or teachers’ teaching behavior (Jaafar, 2004).
Considerations around the principal’s job too focus on a to-do list which is helping
teachers improve their teaching. Then, utilizing data to review and refine the instructional
plan, and assuring that the school is kept neat and secure. It will be more abstract, but very
real elements of leadership, notwithstanding, have often what spelled the difference between
decent and excellent heads. According to (Louis, 2010) offered a definition of “leadership”
that is distilled from the essence of their findings which is “Leadership is all about
organizational improvement and useful directions for the society in question, and doing of
any kind it takes to dig and support people to move in those guidelines”.
Additional researchers conducted a meta-analysis that focused on the relationship
between school leaders and pupil accomplishment. They found that principal leadership is
correlated with student achievement and that there were especially strong connections
between specific principal behaviors and student scholarship. The behavior was the level to
which the principal which is alert of the details and suggestions in the running of the school
and uses this information to address present and possible problems (Waters, 2003).
Actual school leaders recognize how to focus the work of the school on the essential.
They deliver a clear mission or aim for the school and identify goals that line up with that
charge. They connect the purpose and goals in an expressive way such that all stakeholders
understand what they need to do (McIver, 2009).
1.3.2 Effect good principals attract and support a high-quality teaching staff
Good instructional leadership by the school principal is essential for attaining
academic excellence (Alimuddin Mohd Dom, 2006). Accordingly, it is the principal who
should built a partnership with teachers with the primary goal of the enhancement of teaching
and learning processes, (Hoy & Miskel, 2006).
School leadership was the most important condition affecting teachers’ willingness to
continue teaching at their schoolhouse. Teachers who indicated that they contrive to continue
teaching in their school were twice as likely to agree they work in trusting and supportive
environments. (Hirsch, Sioberg, & Germuth, 2010)
On the surface, these determinations appear to weaken the contention that the
principal is the instructional leader of a school. Merely it is important to first look at the types
of bodily functions such as ensuring that the school is safe, managing the budget and other
resources, and dealing with concerns from teachers included in organizational management.
Effectively addressing such concerns provides staff members and pupils with a well-
organized, learning- centered environment in which to operate.
Hence, these recent findings “do not necessarily contradict the body of research
arguing for principals as instructional leaders, but this new evidence does help shading that
argument by broadening the definition of instructional leaders to include organizational
management skills” (Rice, 2010).
The conclusion of this topic is to discuss and to highlight the point that related to the
purpose of this study. Empirical studies have dedicated on the leader behavior approach in as
much as leadership is seen as dynamic process, varying from situation to situation with
changes in leaders, followers and situation. Leadership involves accomplishing goals with
and through people or a leader is concerned about task and human relationships.
As well as Debevoise (1984) ,Greenfield (1987), Hallinger and Murphy (1987) which
is identical in research on the role of principals as instructional leaders also defines, once
build the framework of their own instructional leadership. They have conceptualized
leadership teaching the behavior and actions of the principal design goals that include
schools, monitor teaching, coordinating curriculum, monitoring student progress, control the
teaching, promote the professional development of teachers, always look in the school, and
provide rewards to provide incentives for teachers and students.
An extension of the concepts presented, Hallinger and Murphy (1987) develop and
produce questionnaires of Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale (PIMRS) to
measure the level of instructional leadership of principals. This instrument has been widely
adopted worldwide (Hallinger, 2011), including our country Malaysia.
In this chapter, all the literature review was related with examining documents such as
article books, journals, scholarly articles and dissertations that have a manner on the study
Balasandran. (2006). Headmasters reinforcement behaviour and teachers performance.
Unpublished PhDs’ Thesis. UM.
Cagle, S. (1988). Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness and Appoinment
of a Committee Chairperson. Dissertation Abstracts International.
Darling, H. (2008). Teachers’ and teaching. Testing hypothesis: From a national community
report. Educational Researchers.
Hallinger, P. (2003). Leading Educational Change:reﬂections on the practice of instructional
and transformational leadership. Cambridge Journal of Education, 331-349.
Haris, S. a. (2008). Increasing leadership Effectiveness. Wiley NewYork.
Hellriegel, D., & J. W. Slocum. (2004). Organizational Behavior. South-Western.
Jaafar, M. N. (2004). Kepemimpinan Pengajaran Guru Besar, Komitment dan Kepuasan
Kerja Guru. USM: Unpublished PhD’ Thesis.
Louis. (2010). Teachers' professional community in restructuring school. American
Educational Research Journal.
McIver, M. K. (2009). Leadership: A McREL report prepared for Stupski Foundation’s
Learning System. . Retrieved from Mid-continent Research for Education and
Learning website: www.mcrel.org/~/media/Files
Meyer, & Botha. (2000). Organisation Development and Transformation in South Africa.
Nsubuga. (2009). Analysis of Leadership Styles and School Performance of Secondary
Schools in Uganda. Department of Education, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan
University. Uganda: Doctoral thesis.
Oduro, B. a. (2006). New principals in Africa: preparation, induction and practice. Africa:
Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Quinn. (2003). The impact of principal leadership behaviours on instructional practice and
student engagement. Journal of Education Administration, 447.
Waters, J. T. (2003). Balanced leadership : What 30 years of research tells us about the effect
of leadership on student achievement. Research for Education and Learning.