Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Chapter4 Powerpoint

3,199 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
  • Be the first to comment

Chapter4 Powerpoint

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Electrons in Atoms
  2. 2. Thomsons’s Model <ul><li>Atom has postitive pieces and negative pieces. </li></ul><ul><li>Thought they were all mixed up together. </li></ul><ul><li>Called a “plum pudding” model. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Rutherford’s Model <ul><li>Discovered the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Small dense and positive </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons moved around in Electron cloud </li></ul>Rutherford’s Model <ul><li>Discovered the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Very small and positively charged </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the atom is empty space with electrons moving around </li></ul>
  4. 4. Bohr’s Model <ul><li>2, 8, 8, …thing </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons are in “rings” or energy levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy separates one level from another. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons can never be found in between two levels. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>More details about energy levels. </li></ul><ul><li>All orbits are not sphere-shaped. </li></ul><ul><li>It can only tell us the probability of finding an electron a certain distance from the nucleus. </li></ul>The Modern Model (the Quantum Mechanical Model)
  6. 6. <ul><li>There is one s orbital in every energy level </li></ul><ul><li>Sphere shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Each s orbital can hold 2 electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Called the 1s, 2s, 3s, etc.. orbitals. </li></ul>S orbitals
  7. 7. p orbitals <ul><li>Start at the second energy level </li></ul><ul><li>Peanut-shaped </li></ul><ul><li>3 different directions </li></ul><ul><li>Each peanut (orbital) can hold 2 electrons </li></ul>
  8. 8. d orbitals <ul><li>Daisy shaped (except the 5 th picture) </li></ul><ul><li>5 d orbitals can hold 10 electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Each d orbital can hold 2 electrons </li></ul>
  9. 9. f orbitals <ul><li>Start at the fourth energy level </li></ul><ul><li>“ Funny” shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Each funny shape holds up to 2 electrons (total= up to14 electrons) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Electron Configurations <ul><li>Tells the way electrons are arranged in atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Gives more details than Bohr </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons must fill in this order </li></ul><ul><li>1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 … </li></ul>
  11. 11. Electron Configurations <ul><li>Lowest energy fill first. </li></ul><ul><li>The energy levels overlap </li></ul><ul><li>(ex: …4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 …) </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons must fill the spaces in order and cannot leave any empty spaces </li></ul><ul><li>This is called the Aufbau Principle </li></ul>
  12. 12. Orbital Notation <ul><li>Start with electron configuration and add one box for every orbital. </li></ul><ul><li>Show electrons by putting arrows in the boxes. (Pointing opposite ways.) </li></ul><ul><li>1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 4 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Orbital Notation <ul><li>Notice in the last box the electrons spread out before doubling up. </li></ul><ul><li>This is Hund’s Rule (=bus rule) </li></ul><ul><li>1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 4 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Orbital Notation <ul><li>Notice that only the boxes of the last part (4d 4 ) can have empty spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>They have to be filled in order according to the Aufbau Principle </li></ul><ul><li>1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 4 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pauli Exclusion Principle <ul><li>The 2 arrows have to point opposite ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Two electrons in the same orbital (box) must be spinning in opposite directions according to the Pauli </li></ul><ul><li>1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 4 </li></ul>

×