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Chapter4 Powerpoint


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Chapter4 Powerpoint

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Electrons in Atoms
  2. 2. Thomsons’s Model <ul><li>Atom has postitive pieces and negative pieces. </li></ul><ul><li>Thought they were all mixed up together. </li></ul><ul><li>Called a “plum pudding” model. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Rutherford’s Model <ul><li>Discovered the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Small dense and positive </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons moved around in Electron cloud </li></ul>Rutherford’s Model <ul><li>Discovered the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Very small and positively charged </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the atom is empty space with electrons moving around </li></ul>
  4. 4. Bohr’s Model <ul><li>2, 8, 8, …thing </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons are in “rings” or energy levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy separates one level from another. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons can never be found in between two levels. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>More details about energy levels. </li></ul><ul><li>All orbits are not sphere-shaped. </li></ul><ul><li>It can only tell us the probability of finding an electron a certain distance from the nucleus. </li></ul>The Modern Model (the Quantum Mechanical Model)
  6. 6. <ul><li>There is one s orbital in every energy level </li></ul><ul><li>Sphere shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Each s orbital can hold 2 electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Called the 1s, 2s, 3s, etc.. orbitals. </li></ul>S orbitals
  7. 7. p orbitals <ul><li>Start at the second energy level </li></ul><ul><li>Peanut-shaped </li></ul><ul><li>3 different directions </li></ul><ul><li>Each peanut (orbital) can hold 2 electrons </li></ul>
  8. 8. d orbitals <ul><li>Daisy shaped (except the 5 th picture) </li></ul><ul><li>5 d orbitals can hold 10 electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Each d orbital can hold 2 electrons </li></ul>
  9. 9. f orbitals <ul><li>Start at the fourth energy level </li></ul><ul><li>“ Funny” shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Each funny shape holds up to 2 electrons (total= up to14 electrons) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Electron Configurations <ul><li>Tells the way electrons are arranged in atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Gives more details than Bohr </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons must fill in this order </li></ul><ul><li>1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 … </li></ul>
  11. 11. Electron Configurations <ul><li>Lowest energy fill first. </li></ul><ul><li>The energy levels overlap </li></ul><ul><li>(ex: …4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 …) </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons must fill the spaces in order and cannot leave any empty spaces </li></ul><ul><li>This is called the Aufbau Principle </li></ul>
  12. 12. Orbital Notation <ul><li>Start with electron configuration and add one box for every orbital. </li></ul><ul><li>Show electrons by putting arrows in the boxes. (Pointing opposite ways.) </li></ul><ul><li>1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 4 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Orbital Notation <ul><li>Notice in the last box the electrons spread out before doubling up. </li></ul><ul><li>This is Hund’s Rule (=bus rule) </li></ul><ul><li>1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 4 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Orbital Notation <ul><li>Notice that only the boxes of the last part (4d 4 ) can have empty spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>They have to be filled in order according to the Aufbau Principle </li></ul><ul><li>1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 4 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pauli Exclusion Principle <ul><li>The 2 arrows have to point opposite ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Two electrons in the same orbital (box) must be spinning in opposite directions according to the Pauli </li></ul><ul><li>1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 4 </li></ul>